Philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the nature of reality, knowledge, and value. These are questions that everyone asks: 

  • What am I? 
  • Do I have free will? 
  • How can we distinguish good from bad or right from wrong? 
  • Can we be sure that any of our beliefs are true? 

Philosophers examine answers to these questions systematically and critically.  Philosophers enter into dialogue with traditions of wisdom on these questions, challenging and deepening understanding of beliefs we often take for granted.

Philosophy is also very effective in developing the student's ability to reason clearly, to distinguish good from bad arguments, to navigate through a complicated maze of questions, and to use intelligence and logic in situations often ruled by emotions. Students who have taken a large number of philosophy courses excel in entrance exams to graduate and professional schools. The thinking skills you will develop in your philosophy classes will give you the kind of analytic ability sought by employers in many professions.

Image of philosophy students

Listening to stories from our current philosophy students and alumni reveals the diverse ways in which philosophy bears fruit in our personal, professional, and public lives.

Read on to learn more about opportunities for students pursuing philosophy at CMU...

Ten Things You Might Not Know About Philosophy at CMU

1. CMU’s Philosophy Program offers small classes for a superior educational experience.

2. CMU’s Philosophy faculty are outstanding teachers and scholars; many have won awards for their teaching or research.

3. CMU’s Philosophy Program supports study abroad experiences; in addition to CMU’s rich offering of study abroad opportunities, the Philosophy Program offers an innovative summer program on Image of students studying abroad in The Netherlands.peace and international law in the Netherlands and an exchange program in China.

4. CMU’s Philosophy Program’s Center for International Ethics offers CMU students opportunities to interact with internationally known figures when they visit campus.

5. Philosophy builds practical critical thinking skills that employers seek, such as: logical decision-making; clear, persuasive writing; the habit of questioning assumptions; Image of puzzle pieces fitting together.and the ability to understand complicated texts. Unlike vocational majors that pigeon-hole you into one career path, training in philosophy builds skills applicable to any career.

6. A second major or minor in Philosophy can add value to any other field of study. The PHL major only requires 33 credit hours (11 courses), and the minor only requires 20 credit hours (7 courses). (The majority of CMU PHL majors are double majors.)

7. Nationwide, philosophy majors do well in the work-force. According to a recent report by Payscale.com, the average mid-career worker with a bachelor’s degree in philosophy earns more than workers with bachelor’s degrees in psychology, marketing, general business, and accounting, Image of an arrow moving upwardand almost as much as those mid-career workers with bachelors degrees in computer technology and international business.

8. CMU alumni with philosophy majors and minors are working in such fields as business, law, government, journalism and media, education, public service, and the non-profit sector.

9. As a group, philosophy majors are among the top performers on the GRE, LSAT, and even the GMAT.

Image of members of the registered student organization The Student Philosophers10. CMU’s Philosophy Program sponsors a registered student organization called “The Student Philosophers.” This RSO is completely run by and for CMU students interested in philosophy.

Benefits of Studying Philosophy

Contrary to the stereotype of philosophy as an impractical discipline, the skills and techniques that philosophy teaches are extremely useful. The same skills and techniques used to address philosophical questions and solve philosophical problems can also be used to answer practical questions and solve real-world problems.

Studying philosophy improves the student’s ability to think clearly, carefully, and logically about a wide variety of topics. It helps to develop the student’s ability to assimilate and assess new and unfamiliar ideas and information. It teaches sound reasoning methods and problem solving strategies that work in all sorts of contexts, including new and unfamiliar ones.

Philosophy teaches critical thinking, creative problem solving, and clear communication.
"Knowing how to critically think and assess them from a global perspective, I think, is going to be more valuable than what we see as exciting careers today which might be programming or CPA or those types of things."  -  Read the interview with Mark Cuban at CNBC.


Philosophy also teaches students to think creatively and to question conventional wisdom. It encourages students both to seek new and better answers to old problems, and to consider how existing techniques might be adapted to solve new problems. Philosophy is the ultimate training for “thinking outside the box.” The following charts illustrate these claims by showing how students majoring in Philosophy compare to those majoring in other fields on the Quantitative Reasoning and Verbal Reasoning sections of the Graduate Record Exam (GRE).

What Can I Do With a Philosophy Degree?

Like other liberal arts degrees, a philosophy degree does not involve training for a specific job; instead, it involves the acquisition of sophisticated critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills that will be useful for whatever career one chooses. These skills are in high demand in today’s society, where success very often depends on one’s ability to think carefully about changing conditions, to solve new problems, and to communicate effectively and persuasively.

 What Can I Do With a Degree in Philosophy?What Can I Do With a Degree in Philosophy?

Open-access e-book download


A new book edited by David Boersema explores the many successful paths of people who study philosophy.

Graduate/Professional/Law School

Graduate Study in Philosophy: Obviously, a degree in philosophy can enable you to go to graduate school in philosophy. Our philosophy advising guide provides detailed guidance on preparing for and choosing philosophy graduate programs.

Graduate School: Many philosophy majors think of philosophy as their second major and choose to go to graduate school in the discipline of their other major. Such students will find that the “second” major in philosophy has helped them develop critical thinking, analytic, and communication skills that will serve them extremely well in graduate programs in almost any discipline.

Law School: A degree in philosophy is one of the very best majors for preparing for law school. In fact, philosophy majors, as a group, do very well on the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT), as this table illustrates.
Philosophy majors outperform psychology, political science, and criminal justice for LSAT scores LSAT scores
In addition, studying philosophy will provide you with the skills that are necessary for success in law school, and in the legal profession itself.

Business School/MBA: When supplemented with other course-work, the study of philosophy can also enhance your ability to get into an MBA program. According to the Graduate Management Admission Council, Philosophy majors had the third highest average score on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). Of course, if you are considering business school, you will need to do significant course work in business, as well.

Medical School: The study of philosophy can also enhance your ability to get in medical school. The Association of American Medical Colleges, who administer the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) do not keep data for individual majors. But they do keep data for broad categories of majors, and humanities majors (which includes philosophy majors) do quite well. And again, if you are considering medical school, you will also need to do significant course work in the life sciences.

Many Career Options

Philosophy majors who do not wish to attend graduate, professional, or law school still have a wide variety of career options. In general, serious training in philosophy should improve your long term success at whatever career you choose. This is because the skills and habits of mind that your philosophy education develops are essential to long term success in almost any endeavor or career.

Our philosophy advising guide provides some guidance for imagining these future careers and preparing yourself during your time as an undergraduate.