Mohamad S. Qatu
Mohamad S. QatuDirector and Professor
School of Engineering and Technology 
ET Building 102 
989-774-3033 



​​Education
  • Ph.D., Engineering Mechanics, The Ohio State University, 1989
  • M.S., Engineering Mechanics, Ohio State University, 1986
  • B. Eng., Engineering (Honor), Yarmouk University, Jordan, 1985
  • MBA, Master of Business Administration (Certificate in Quality), 2002
Affiliations
  • Fellow, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, since 2006, member since 1991
  • Fellow, Society of Automotive Engineers, since 2007, member since 1997
  • Member, American Society of Composites, since 2008
  • Member, American Society of Engineering Education, since 2008
Experience
  • 2011-Present, Director and Professor, School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan
  • 2008-2011, Professor, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi
  • 2000-2008, Leader/Supervisor, Ford Motor Co, Dearborn, Michigan
  • 1997-2000, NVH/CAE Senior Research Engineer, Dana Corporation, Auburn Hills, Michigan
  • 1995-1997, Associate Professor, Mechanical Eng., Lake Superior State Univ., Sault Ste Marie, Michigan
  • 1992-1995, Program Chairperson, Mechanical Engineering Tech., Franklin University, Columbus, Ohio
  • 1989-1991, Test and Analysis Engineer, DRESSER Industries, Columbus, Ohio
  • 1994, 1996 Summers, Consultant: SDRC, Honda of America
In addition, Dr. Qatu held appointments or received honorary recognition as adjunct/visiting and guest professor from Oakland University (USA), King Abdul Aziz University (Saudi Arabia), AnNajah University (Palestine) and Wuhan University of Technology (PR China).
Professional Interests
​Composite Structures, Vibrations, Engineering Design, Automotive Engineering
Specialty Areas
​Performed research on theory and vibration of composite shells and plates, stress and buckling analysis, composite shafts, engine mount design, driveline vibrations, exhaust vibrations, design for six sigma, belt vibrations, powertrain bending, fluid-born noise (power steering) as well as other areas.
Research Summary
Professor Mohamad Qatu is passionate about the use of mechanics to solve engineering design problems, particularly in the area of vibrations. He worked on composite plates and shells and developed a theory for the analysis of deep laminated shells. His theory is proven to be more accurate than higher order theories for various types of shells. Dr. Qatu’s book on vibration of laminated shells and plates is the first in the field. In addition, Dr. Qatu applied mechanics principles to study fluid born noise phenomenon in power steering lines. His apparatus and methods are widely used in the auto industry today. Dr. Qatu’s work on various noise and vibration and harshness (NVH) phenomenon in automotive engineering is also recognized and frequently referenced in the engineering community. In particular, he is recognized for his work on driveline systems, engine mounts, exhaust systems, as well as others. Dr. Qatu used computer aided engineering tools like finite element method and others in his research.

Dr. Qatu has published more than 100 articles, most of which are in refereed journals. He is the editor in chief of the International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration and on the editorial board on Composite Structures. He also has two patents registered to his credit on noise suppression. He is a Fellow in both SAE and ASME. He is a registered professional engineer in various states.
Journal Editing
Publications
Books
  • Vibration of Laminated Shells and Plates, pp 406, Elsevier (2004)
  • Road Vehicle Dynamics (with multiple authors), pp 852, SAE (2008)
  • Road Vehicle Dynamics: Problems and Solutions (with multiple authors), SAE (2010)
  • Vibration of Continuous Systems, with A. W Leissa, , McGraw Hills (2011)
Patents and Prior Art
  • Multi-Chamber and Tuned Pipe Systems for Fluid Borne Noise Attenuation. Patent No. 6155378, Approved December 5, 2000.
  • Air Bladder System for Attenuating Fluid Borne Noise, Prior Art No. 2002-0059959, 2002. Approved, May 2002.
Refereed Journal Publications
  • Qatu, MS, "Free Vibration and Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Shallow Shells," Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University, 212 pp., June 1989.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. W. Leissa, "Natural Frequencies for Cantilevered Doubly-Curved Laminated Composite Shallow Shells," Composite Structures, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 227-256, March 1991.
  • Leissa, AW and M. S. Qatu, "Equations of Elastic Deformation for Laminated Composite Shallow Shells," ASME, J. of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 181-188, March 1991.
  • Leissa, AW and M. S. Qatu, "Stress and Deflection Analysis of Composite Cantilevered Shallow Shells," ASCE, J. of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 117, No. 4, pp. 893-906, April 1991.
  • Qatu, MS, "Curvature Effects on the Deflection and Vibration of Cross- Ply Shallow Shells," Mechanics, Computing in 90's and Beyond, Eds. H. Adeli and R. Sierakowski, Vol. 2, pp. 746-750, May 1991.
  • Qatu, MS, "Free Vibration of Laminated Composite Rectangular Plates" Int. J. of Solids and Structures, Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. 941-954, August 1991.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. W. Leissa, "Free Vibration of Completely Free Doubly- Curved Laminated Composite Shallow Shells," J. of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 151, No. 1, pp. 9-29, Oct. 1991.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. W. Leissa, "Vibration Studies for Laminated Composite Twisted Cantilever Plates," Int. J. of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 11, pp. 927-940, November 1991.
  • Qatu, MS, "Mode Shape Analysis of Laminated Composite Shallow Shells," J. of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 1509-1520, September 1992.
  • Qatu, MS, "Review of Shallow Shell Vibration Research," Shock and Vibration Digest, Vol. 24, No. 9, pp. 3-15, September 1992.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. Bataineh, "Structural Analysis of Shallow Shells Using CRAY Y-MP Supercomputers," Int. J. Computers and Structures, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 453-459, Nov 1992.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. W. Leissa, "Effects of Edge Constraints upon Shallow Shell Frequencies," Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 14, pp. 347-379, Dec. 1992.
  • Qatu, MS, "Inplane Vibration of Slightly Curved Laminated Composite Beams," J. of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 159, No. 2, pp. 327-338, Dec. 1992.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. Leissa, "Buckling or Transverse Deflection of Unsymmetrically Laminated Plates Subjected to Inplane Loads,” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics J., Vol. 103, No. 1, pp. 189-194, January 1993.
  • Qatu, MS, "Vibrations of Doubly-Cantilevered Laminated Composite Thin Shallow Shells," Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 235-248, January 1993.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. Elsharkawy, "Vibrations of Laminated Composite Arches with Deep Curvature and Arbitrary Boundaries," Computers and Structures, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 305-311, June 1993.
  • Qatu, MS, "Theories and Analyses of Thin and Moderately Thick Laminated Composite Curved Beams," Int. J. of Solids and Structures, Vol. 30, No. 20, pp. 2743-2756, August 1993.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. W. Leissa, "Vibrations of Shallow Shells With Two Adjacent Edges Clamped and the Others Free," J. Mechanics of Structures and Machines, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 285-301, August 1993.
  • Qatu, MS, N. Jaber and A. W. Leissa, "Natural Frequencies for Completely Free Trapezoidal Plates," J. Sound and Vibration, Vol. 167, No. 1, pp. 183-191, October 1993.
  • Qatu, MS, "On the Validity of Nonlinear Shear Deformation Theories for Laminated Composite Plates and Shells," Composite Structures, Vol. 27, pp. 395-401, January 1994.
  • Qatu, MS,, "Natural Frequencies for Cantilevered Laminated Composite Right Triangular and Trapezoidal Plates," Composite Science and Technology Vol. 51, pp. 441-449, June 1994.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. Algothani, "Bending Analysis of Laminated Plates and Shells by Different Methods," Computers and Structures, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 529-539, August 1994.
  • Qatu, MS, "Vibrations of Laminated Composite Completely Free Triangular and Trapezoidal Plates," Int. J. Mechanical Sciences Vol. 36, No. 9, pp. 797-809, September 1994.
  • Abu-Farsakh, G. and M. S. Qatu, "A Triangular Conforming Element for Laminated Shells," Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 31-42, Jan 1995.
  • Qatu, MS, "Vibration of Cantilevered Composite Triangular and Trapezoidal Doubly-Curved Shallow Shells,” Acta Mechanica. Vol. 108, pp. 63-75, 1995.
  • Qatu, MS, "Natural Vibration of Free Laminated Composite Triangular and Trapezoidal Shallow Shells,” Composite Structures. Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 9-19, January 1995.
  • Qatu, MS, "Vibration Studies on Completely Free Shallow Shells Having Triangular and Trapezoidal Planforms," Applied Acoustics. Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 215-231, March 1995.
  • Qatu, MS “Accurate Stress Resultant Equations for Laminated Composite Deep, Thick Shells,” Composites for the Pressure Vessel Industry, ASME-PVP, Vol. 302, pp 39-46, 7, 1995.
  • Qatu, MS, "Vibration Analysis of Cantilevered Shallow Shells with Right Triangular and Trapezoidal Planforms," J. Sound and Vibration, Vol. 191, No. 2, pp. 219-231, February 1996.
  • Qatu, MS, “Accurate Theory for Laminated Composite Deep Thick Shells,” Int. J. Solids and Structures, Vol. 36, No. 19, pp. 2917-2941, January 1999.
  • Qatu, MS, “Theory and Vibration Analysis of Laminated Barrel Thin Shells,” J. Vibration and Control, Vol. 5, pp. 851-889, 1999.
  • Qatu, MS, D. Llewellyn and W. Spadafora "Measurement of Steering Gear Impedance," Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 151-156, 2001.
  • Qatu, MS, " Recent Research Advances in the Dynamic Behavior of Shells. Part 1 : Laminated Composite Shells," Applied Mechanics Reviews. Vol 55, no 4, pp 325-350, 2002.
  • Qatu, MS, " Recent Research Advances in the Dynamic Behavior of Shells. Part 2: Homogeneous Shells," Applied Mechanics Reviews. Vol 55, no 5, pp 415-434, 2002.
  • Qatu, MS, and M. H. Sirafi, "Robustness of Powertrain Mount System for Noise, Vibration and Harshness at Idle," Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol 216, pp 805-810, 2002.
  • Qatu, MS, and A. Ghamat-Rezaei, "Industrial Based Senior Projects in Engineering Curriculum," Int. J. of Innovation and Learning, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2004.
  • Qatu, MS, “Theory and Vibration Analysis of Laminated Barrel Thick Shells,” Journal of Vibration and Control, Vol. 10, pp. 319-341, 2004.
  • Sheng, G., K. Liu, J. Otremba, J. Pang, M. Qatu, R. Dukkipati, "Model and Experimental Investigation of Belt Noise in Automotive Accessory Belt Drive System,” Int. J. of vehicle noise and Vibration, Vol. 1, No 1-2, pp. 68 – 82, 2004.
  • Pang, J., M.S. Qatu, R. Dukkipati, and W. N. Patten, "Model Identification for Nonlinear Automotive Seat Cushion Structure," Int. J. of vehicle noise and Vibration, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, pp. 142-157, 2004.
  • Pang, J., R. Dukkipati, M. Qatu, W.N. Patten, "A Nonlinear Seat Cushion And Human Body Model," Int. J. of vehicle noise and Vibration, Vol. 1, No. 3-4, pp. 194-206, 2005.
  • Iqbal, J., A. Rohilla, Q. Ahmad and M.S. Qatu, "Improving Powerplant and Powertrain Bending in East-West Engine Configurations," Int. J. of vehicle noise and Vibration, Vol. 1, No. 3-4, pp. 358-367, 2005.
  • Sheng, G., K. Liu, L. Brown, J. Otremba, J. Pang, M. Qatu, "Wet Belt Friction and Friction-induced Noise in Automotive Accessory Belt Drive System," Int. J. of Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol 2, No. 3, pp. 266-281, 2006.
  • Sheng, G., K. Liu, L. Brown, J. Otremba, J. Pang, M. Qatu, "A New Mechanism of Belt Slip Dynamic Instability and Noise in Automotive Accessory Belt Drive Systems," Int. J. of Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol 2, No. 4, pp. 305-316, 2006.
  • Sirafi, M.H and M.S. Qatu, "Robustness of Mount Systems for Idle Nvh, Part I: Centre Of Gravity (Cg) Mounts," Int. J. of vehicle noise and Vibration, Vol 2, No. 4, pp. 317-333, 2006.
  • Sirafi, M.H. and M.S. Qatu, "Robustness of Mount Systems for Idle NVH, Part II: Pendulum Mounts," Int. J. of Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol 2, No. 4, pp. 334-340, 2006.
  • Sheng, G., K. Liu, Les Brown, J. Otremba, J. Pang, M. Qatu, " Chirp, squeal and dynamic instability of misaligned V-ribbed Belts in Automotive Accessory Belt Drive Systems," Int. J. of Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol 3, No 1, pp. 88 – 105, 2007.
  • Trapp, MA, Y. Karpenko, M. Qatu, K. K. Hodgdon, A. A. Atchley, "An Evaluation of Friction and Impact Induced Acoustic Behavior of Selected Automotive Materials, Part I: Friction Induced Acoustics" Int. J. Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 355-369, 2007.
  • Trapp, MA, M. Qatu, K. K. Hodgdon, A. A. Atchley, "An Evaluation of Friction and Impact Induced Acoustic Behavior of Selected Automotive Materials, Part II: Impact Induced Accoustics" Int. J. Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 17-34, 2008.
  • Qie, G, Dukkipati, R, Zhu, J and Qatu, M., "Vibrations and Instability of Front-end Accessory Drive belt System," Int. J. Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol. 4, No. 3, 247-268, 2008.
  • Iqbal, J, Chang, Y and Qatu, M., "Optimization of Frequencies of a Two-Span Shaft System Joined With A Hinge," Int. J. Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol. 4, No. 4, 317-338, 2008.
  • Sheng, G, Zheng, H, Qatu, M.S, Dukkipati, R.V., "Modeling of Friction-Induced Noise of Timing Belt," Int. J. Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol. 4, No. 4, 285-303, 2008.
  • Qatu, M.S., Abdelhamid, M.K., Pang, J, and Sheng, G., "Overview of Automotive Noise and Vibration," Int. J. Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol. 5, No. 1/2, 1-35, 2009.
  • Dukkipati, RV, G Qie, J Zhu, M Qatu, “Vibrations and Instability in Automotive Front End Accessory Drive Belt System,” SAE Int. J. of Passenger Cars. Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1222-1236, 2009.
  • Wang, J, Qatu, MS and Dukkipati, RV, “A Metric for Transaxle Rattle,” Int. J. Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 300-307, 2009.
  • Qatu, M.S. and Iqbal, "Transverse Vibration of a Two-Segment Cross-ply Composite Shafts with a Lumped Mass," Composite Structures, Vol. 92, pp. 1126–1131, 2010.
  • Iqbal, J, and Qatu, MS, "Transverse Vibration of a Three-Piece Shaft System Joined with Multiple Hinges," Int. J. Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 73-89, 2010.
  • Qatu, MS, Sullivan, RW, Wang, W, "Recent Research Advances in the Dynamic Behavior of Composite Shells: 2000-2009," Composite Structures Vol. 93, pp 14–31, 2010.
  • Qatu, MS "Effect of Inplane Edge Constraints on Natural Frequencies of Simply Supported Doubly Curved Shallow Shells,“ Thin-Walled Structures , Vol.49, pp 797-803, July 2011.
  • Hajianmaleki, M, and Qatu, MS, "Book Chapter: Mechanics of Composite Beam" Book Chapter in “Composite Materials / Book 1," ISBN 978-953-307-218-0.
  • Qatu, M.S., “An Innovative Industrial-Related One Semester Capstone Course in Engineering,” accepted for publication, International journal of Innovation and learning.
  • Qatu, MS and Asadi, E. "Vibration of Doubly Curved Shallow Shells with Arbitrary Boundaries, " accepted for publication, Applied Acoustics.
  • Qatu, MS, King, R, Shubailat, O, Wheeler, R, “Vehicle Design for Robust Driveline NVH Due to Imbalance and Runout Using a Monte Carlo Process," accepted for publication, SAE Int. J. of Passenger Cars.
Refereed Conference Publications
  • M.S. Qatu, “Linear Versus Nonlinear Laminated Composite Shell Theories,” Composites for the Pressure Vessel Industry, PVP, Vol. 302, pp. 33-38, 1995.
  • M.S. Qatu, “Vibrations of Laminated Composite Triangular Shell Segments,” Advances in Vibration Issues: Active and Passive Vibration, Mitigation, Damping and Seismic Isolation, ASME, PVP, Vol. 309, pp. 99-106, 1995.
  • E. Smid, M.S. Qatu, and M. Dougherty, "Optimizing the Power Steering Components to Attenuate Noise and Vibrations," Proceedings of the 1998 European Conference on Vehicle Noise and Vibration, IMechE, pp 103-112, U.K, May 1998.
  • M. S. Qatu, and M. L. Dougherty, "Measurement of The Bulk Modulus of Fluid Using Impedance of Hydraulic Circuits," SAE Transactions No. 1999-01-0942, SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, March 1999.
  • M. S. Qatu, E. Smid, and M. L. Dougherty, "Effects of Tuner Parameters on Hydraulic Noise and Vibration," SAE Transactions No. 1999-01-1776, Proceedings of 1999 Noise and Vibration Conference, Vol. 2, SAE P-342, 975-981, Traverse City, May 1999.
  • M. S. Qatu, and M. L. Dougherty, "Repeatability of Standard Impedance and Ripple Tests for Automotive Vane Pumps," SAE Transactions No. 1999-01-1715, Proceedings of 1999 Noise and Vibration Conference, Vol. 2, SAE P-342, 503-508, Traverse City, May 1999.
  • D. Kumar, M. S. Qatu, and M. L. Dougherty, "Reduction of Surface Vibrations of A Cup-Shaped Rotor in a Brushless DC Motor Using FEA," SAE Transactions No. 1999-01-1792, Proceedings of 1999 Noise and Vibration Conference, SAE P-342, 1087-1090, May 1999.
  • M. S. Qatu, M. L. Dougherty, D. Llewellyn and W. Spadafora "Analytical Versus Test Bench Results for Vibrations of Fluid Handling Systems," Power Transmission and Motion Control, PTMC 99, 325-334, Edited by CR Burrows and KA Edge. September 1999.
  • M.S. Qatu and R. Edwards, "Correlation between Analytical and vehicle results for Fluid Borne Noise Simulation," SAE Transactions No. 2000-01-0071, SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, March 2000.
  • J. Pang, and M. S. Qatu, "Robustness of Exhaust Hanger Location Design," Internoise Conference, Paper No. N 131, Dearborn, Michigan, 2002.
  • J. Pang, P. Kurrle, M. Qatu, and R. Rebandt, "Attribute Analysis and Criteria for Automotive Exhaust Systems," SAE-2003-01-0221, SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, March 2003.
  • M.H. Sirafi, and M.S. Qatu, "Accurate Modeling for the Powertrain and Subframe Modes," SAE Transactions No. 2003-01-1469, Proceedings of 2003 Noise and Vibration Conference, Traverse City, Michigan, May 2003.
  • M.S. Qatu, and J. Iqbal, "Robustness of Axle Mounts System for Driveline NVH," SAE Transactions No. 2003-01-1485, Proceedings of 2003 Noise and Vibration Conference, Traverse City, Michigan, May 2003.
  • M.S. Qatu, and A. Rohilla," Finite Element Analysis of As-Installed Powersteering Pumps,” SAE Transactions No. 2003-01-1671, Proceedings of 2003 Noise and Vibration Conference, Traverse City, Michigan, May 2003.
  • J. Pang, M.S. Qatu and R Rebandt, "Influence of Vehicle Exhaust Y-Pipe on Tailpipe Noise," SAE Transactions No. 2003-01-1657, Proceedings of 2003 Noise and Vibration Conference, Traverse City, Michigan, May 2003.
  • Pang, J., and M.S. Qatu, "Exhaust System Robustness Analysis Due to Flex Decoupler Stiffness Variation," SAE Transactions No. 2003-01-1649, Proceedings of 2003 Noise and Vibration Conference, Traverse City, Michigan, May 2003.
  • Pang, J., R. Rebandt, G. Knapp, M. Qatu, D. Demmith, G. Sheng, "Flow Excited Noise Analysis of Exhaust SAE Transactions No. 2005-01-2352," Proceedings of 2005 Noise and Vibration Conference, Traverse City, Michigan, May 2005.
  • Afaneh, A., M.K. Abdelhamid, and M.S. Qatu, “Engineering Challenges with Vehicle Noise and Vibration in Product Development," SAE Transactions No. 2007-01-2434, Proceedings of 2007 Noise and Vibration Conference, Peasant Run, IL, May 2007.
  • Qian, Z., J Pang and M. Qatu: Parameter Influence Analysis on Suspended Vehicle Rollover Model,” 07APAC-23, 2007.
  • Qatu, M.S., Iqbal, J., Chang, “Frequencies of a Two Span Shaft System Joined with a Hinge Using Exact Solutions,” NoiseCon 2008 and ASME NCAD Congress Dearborn, MI , 2008.
  • Qatu, M.S. and Iqbal J. "Vibration Analysis of a Composite Shaft," Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 2009-01-2066. Proceedings of 2009 Noise and Vibration Conference, Peasant Run, IL, May 2009.
  • Iqbal J. and Qatu M.S. "Vibration of Three Piece Shaft System," Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 2009-01-2067. Proceedings of 2009 Noise and Vibration Conference, Peasant Run, IL, May 2009.
  • Sheng, G., Qatu, M.S. Dukkipati, RV, and Zhang, H, "Time Belt Dynamics and Noise Study,” Proceedings of 2010 SAE Congress, SAE paper: 10AC-0154, Paper Number: 2010-01-0902, DOI: 10.4271/2010-01-0902 Detroit, MI, April 2010.
  • Qatu, M.S., “A Curricular Model for a One Semester Capstone Course in Engineering,” American Society of Engineering Educators ASEE Southeastern Conference April, 2010. http://155.225.14.146/asee-se/proceedings/ASEE2010/Papers/PR2010Qat222.PDF
  • Fulton, I, Shi, S., and Qatu, MS, “Application of natural fiber composites in the automotive industry,” accepted for publications in the Proceedings of 2011 SAE Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2011, Paper No. 2011-01-0215.
  • Sheng, G., Qatu, M.S., Narravula, V., Kitchin,T., "Study of Noise of Accessory Belt under Cold Condition,” accepted for publications in the Proceedings of 2011 SAE Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2011, Paper No. 2011-01-0929.
  • Qatu, MS, King, R, Shubailat, O, Wheeler, R, “Vehicle Design for Robust Driveline NVH Due to Imbalance and Runout Using a Monte Carlo Process," Society of Automotive Engineers, Proceedings of 2011 Noise and Vibration Conference, Grand Rapid, MI, May 2011. Paper Number 2011-01-1580. Accepted as a full paper.
  • Qatu, MS, King, R, Wheeler, R, Shubailat, O, "Determination of interior NVH level from wheel imbalance and/or tire uniformity," Society of Automotive Engineers, Proceedings of 2011 Noise and Vibration Conference, Grand Rapid, MI, May 2011, Paper Number 2011-01-1580. ​​​