| 6th Grade Geography|
| The World in Spatial Terms: Geographic Habits of Mind|
G1.1 Spatial Thinking: Use maps and other geographic tools to acquire and process information from a spatial perspective.
6 – G1.1.1 Describe how geographers use mapping to represent places and natural and human phenomena in the world.
6 – G1.1.2 Draw a sketch map from memory of the Western Hemisphere showing the major regions (Canada, United States, Mexico, Central America, South America, and Caribbean).
G1.2 Geographical Inquiry and Analysis Use geographic inquiry and analysis to answer important questions about relationships between people, cultures, their environment, and relations within the larger world context.
6 – G1.2.1 Locate the major landforms, rivers (Amazon, Mississippi, Missouri, Colorado), and climate regions of the Western Hemisphere.
6– G1.2.2 Explain why maps of the same place may vary, including cultural perspectives of the Earth and new knowledge based on science and modern technology.
6 – G1.2.3 Use data to create thematic maps and graphs showing patterns of population, physical terrain, rainfall, and vegetation, analyze the patterns and then propose two generalizations about the location and density of the population.
6 – G1.2.4 Use observations from air photos, photographs (print and CD), films (VCR and DVD) as the basis for answering geographic questions about the human and physical characteristics of places and regions.
6 – G1.2.5 Use information from modern technology such as Geographic Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite remote sensing to locate information and process maps and data to analyze spatial patterns of the Western Hemisphere to answer geographic questions.
6 – G1.2.6 Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the Western Hemisphere.
G1.3 Geographical Understanding: Use geographic themes, knowledge about processes and concepts to study the Earth.
6 – G1.3.1 Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.
6 – G1.3.2 Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using knowledge of spatial patterns.
6 – G1.3.3 Explain the different ways in which places are connected and how those connections demonstrate interdependence and accessibility.
G2.1 Physical Characteristics of Place: Describe the physical characteristics of places.
6 – G2.1.1 Describe the landform features and the climate of the region (within the Western or Eastern Hemispheres) under study.
Maps: World Deserts
6 – G2.1.2 Account for topographic and human spatial patterns (where people live) associated with tectonic plates such as volcanoes, earthquakes, settlements (Ring of Fire, recent volcanic and seismic events, settlements in proximity to natural hazards in the Western Hemisphere) by using information from GIS, remote sensing, and the World Wide Web.
G2.2 Human Characteristics of Place: Describe the human characteristics of places.
6 – G2.2.1 Describe the human characteristics of the region under study (including languages, religion, economic system, governmental system, cultural traditions).
6 – G2.2.2 Explain that communities are affected positively or negatively by changes in technology (e.g., Canada with regard to mining, forestry, hydroelectric power generation, agriculture, snowmobiles, cell phones, air travel).
6 – G2.2.3 Analyze how culture and experience influence people’s perception of places and regions (e.g., the Caribbean Region that presently displays enduring impacts of different immigrant groups – Africans, South Asians, Europeans – and the differing contemporary points of view about the region displayed by islanders and tourists).
G3.1 Physical Processes: Describe the physical processes that shape the patterns of the Earth’s surface.
6 – G3.1.1 Construct and analyze climate graphs for two locations at different latitudes and elevations in the region to answer geographic questions and make predictions based on patterns. (e.g., compare and contrast Buenos Aires and La Paz; Mexico City and Guatemala City; Edmonton and Toronto).
G3.2 Ecosystems: Describe the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on the Earth's surface.
6 – G3.2.1 Explain how and why ecosystems differ as a consequence of differences in latitude, elevation, and human activities (e.g., South America’s location relative to the equator, effects of elevations on temperature and growing season, proximity to bodies of water and the effects on temperature and rainfall, effects of annual flooding on vegetation along river flood plains such as the Amazon).
6 – G3.2.2 Identify ecosystems and explain why some are more attractive for humans to use than are others (e.g., mid-latitude forest in North America, high latitude of Peru, tropical forests in Honduras, fish or marine vegetation in coastal zones).
G4.1 Cultural Mosaic: Describe the characteristics, distribution and complexity of Earth’s cultural mosaic.
6 – G4.1.1 Identify and explain examples of cultural diffusion within the Americas (e.g., baseball, soccer, music, architecture, television, languages, health care, Internet, consumer brands, currency, restaurants, international migration).
G4.2 Technology Patterns and Networks: Describe how technology creates patterns and networks that connect people, products, and ideas.
6 – G4.2.1 List and describe the advantages and disadvantages of different technologies used to move people, products, and ideas throughout the world (e.g., call centers in the Eastern Hemisphere that service the Western Hemisphere; the United States and Canada as hubs for the Internet; transport of people and perishable products; and the spread of individuals’ ideas as voice and image messages on electronic networks such as the Internet).
G4.3 Patterns of Human Settlement: Describe patterns, processes, and functions of human settlement.
6 – G4.3.1 Identify places in the Western Hemisphere that have been modified to be suitable for settlement by describing the modifications that were necessary (e.g., Vancouver in Canada; irrigated agriculture; or clearing of forests for farmland).
6 – G4.3.2 Describe patterns of settlement by using historical and modern maps (e.g., coastal and river cities and towns in the past and present, locations of megacities – modern cities over 5 million, such as Mexico City, and patterns of agricultural settlements in South and North America).
G4.4 Forces of Cooperation and Conflict: Explain how forces of conflict and cooperation among people influence the division of the Earth’s surface and its resources.
6 – G4.4.1 Identify factors that contribute to conflict and cooperation between and among cultural groups (control/use of natural resources, power, wealth, and cultural diversity).
6 – G4.4.2 Describe the cultural clash of First Peoples, French and English in Canada long ago, and the establishment of Nunavut in 1999
| Environment and Society|
G5.1 Humans and the Environment: Describe how human actions modify the environment.
6 – G5.1.1 Describe the environmental effects of human action on the atmosphere (air), biosphere (people, animals, and plants), lithosphere (soil), and hydrosphere (water) (e.g., changes in the tropical forest environments in Brazil, Peru, and Costa Rica).
6 – G5.1.2 Describe how variations in technology affect human modifications of the landscape (e.g., clearing forests for agricultural land in South America, fishing in the Grand Banks of the Atlantic, expansion of cities in South America, hydroelectric developments in Canada, Brazil and Chile, and mining the Kentucky and West Virginia).
6 – G5.1.3 Identify the ways in which human-induced changes in the physical environment in one place can cause changes in other places (e.g., cutting forests in one region may result in river basin flooding elsewhere; building a dam floods land upstream and may permit irrigation in another region).
G5.2 Physical and Human Systems: Describe how physical and human systems shape patterns on the Earth's surface.
6– G5.2.1 Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment could have on human activities and the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change (e.g., drought in northern Mexico, disappearance of forest vegetation in the Amazon, natural hazards/disasters from volcanic eruptions in Central America and the Caribbean and earthquakes in Mexico City and Colombia).
- Deforestation in Haiti
| Global Issues Past and Present: Global Topic Investigation and Issue |
6 – G6.1.1 Contemporary Investigations: Conduct research on contemporary global topics and issues, compose persuasive essays, and develop a plan for action. (H1.4.3, G1.2.6, See P3 and P4)
Global Climate Change – Investigate the impact of global climate change and describe the significance for human/environment relationships.
Globalization – Investigate the significance of globalization and describe its impact on international economic and political relationships.
Migration – Investigate issues arising from international movement of people and the economic, political, and cultural consequences.
Human-Environmental Interactions – Investigate how policies from the past and their implementation have had positive or negative consequences for the environment in the future.
Natural Disasters – Investigate the significance of natural disasters and describe the effects on human and physical systems, and the economy, and the responsibilities of government.
6 – G6.1.2 Investigations Designed for Ancient World History Eras: Contemporary Investigation Topics – Related to Content in World History and Contemporary Geography
Population Growth and Resources – Investigate how population growth affects resource availability.
Migration – Investigate the significance of migrations of peoples and the resulting benefits and challenges.
Sustainable Agriculture – Investigate the significance of sustainable agriculture and its role in helping societies produce enough food for people.
Development – Investigate economic effects on development in a region and its ecosystems and societies.