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Copying for the Face-to-Face Classroom

These are recognized by the academic community and publishers as best practices when it comes to using copyrighted work in the face-to-face classroom:

A single copy may be made of the following by an instructor their scholarly research or use in teaching:

  • A chapter from a book
  • An article from a periodical
  • A short story, short essay, or short poem
  • A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture from a book, periodical, or newspaper

Multiple copies (not to exceed one copy per pupil in the class) may be made for classroom use or
discussion provided:

  • The copying meets the tests of brevity and spontaneity as defined below and
  • Meets the cumulative effect test as defined below and
  • Each copy includes a notice of copyright
  • Brevity:
    • Poetry: (a) A complete poem if less than 250 words and if printed on not more than two pages or (b) an excerpt from a longer poem of not more than 250 words.
    • Prose: (a) Either a complete article, story, or essay of less than 2,500 words, or (b) an excerpt from any prose work of not more than 1,000 words or 10% of the work, whichever is less.
    • Illustration: One chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture per book or per periodical issue.
  • Spontaneity:
    • The copying is at the instance and inspiration of the individual teacher and
    • The inspiration and decision to use the work and the moment of its use for maximum teaching effectiveness are so close in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a request for permission.
  • Cumulative Effect:
    • The copying of the material is for only one course in the school in which the copies are made.
    • Not more than one short poem, article, story, essay, or two excerpts may be copied from the same author, nor more than three from the same collective work or periodical volume during one class term.
    • There shall not be more than nine instances of such multiple copying for one course during one class term.

Notwithstanding any of the above, the following is prohibited:

  • Copying shall not be used to substitute for anthologies, compilations, or collective works.
  • There shall be no copying of or from works intended to be “consumable” in the course of study or teaching, such as workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and test booklets, etc.
  • Copying shall not:
    • substitute for the purchase of books or other materials.
    • be repeated with respect to the same item by the same teacher from term to term.
  • No charge shall be made to the student beyond the actual cost of the photocopying.

If you wish to use material beyond the scope mentioned above you need to obtain permission from the copyright holder. If you need assistance obtaining permission, contact the Course Reserves and Copyright Services office.