June 1, 2020
Dear friends and colleagues,
As we move into June and continue to
plan for the fall semester, I want to take this opportunity to update you on what summer will look like on our Mount Pleasant campus.
I have several updates to share with you today related to campus operations through the beginning of the fall semester. More details follow on each of these:
Returning our campus to a "new normal" will begin June 15, when most buildings and offices on campus will reopen for normal business hours. This includes public buildings such as the Bovee University Center and Park Library.
While most will reopen in June, offices will not be fully staffed until later in the summer. More details on employees' return to campus are included below.
The reopening and staffing of academic offices will be determined — and communicated to necessary employees — by each college dean.
To achieve a reopening of campus buildings, we must continue with our
phased return to campus for CMU employees, which was announced last month. With our plan outlined above, as well as another extension to Michigan's "Stay Home, Stay Safe" executive order through June 12, the timeline of this plan will once again be adjusted.
Tier 1 employees (as outlined in the plan) can now begin returning to campus June 15. I also encourage supervisors to work with employees who are essential to have on campus before June 15 to facilitate an earlier return.
Further guidance on returning to the workplace — with a focus on protecting yourselves and others — will be provided to you soon.
As we reviewed Summer II session (June 29-Aug. 6) classes, we realized that very few are face to face, and for those that are, class sizes are small. Thus, we determined that we could safely hold them on campus and in person, as scheduled, following guidance and protocols from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including social distancing, face coverings, self-monitoring and sanitation practices.
These face-to-face classes will involve implementation of the HyFlex model — which combines face to face instruction with remote access, providing students a means to decide how they wish to access the learning experience — supplemented with alternative delivery modes, where appropriate.
Most on-campus events are postponed or canceled through Aug. 6 based on current CDC guidance and direction from state and local health agencies. Events past that date are being evaluated, and a further decision will be communicated as soon as possible. Any other on-campus gatherings or meetings must limit attendance to ensure social distancing.
While we are eager to reinvigorate our campus, we remain committed to the health and safety of our campus community. We will do all we can to slow the spread of the virus and flatten the curve in our community and in Michigan.
This means we — and our plans — must remain flexible and adaptable. We will continue to closely monitor the spread of COVID-19 and will take immediate action if necessary. We also are planning for the fall semester, and I'll communicate more on that as plans come together.
Be well,Bob Davies, president
May 11, 2020
Dear students, colleagues and friends:
Even before we wrapped up the spring semester last week, many of you reached out to me with questions about our next steps, especially our plans for the 2020-21 academic year at Central Michigan University. Today, I am pleased to announce our intention to reopen CMU’s main campus and satellite locations this fall for face-to-face instruction. This decision was not made lightly; it comes following many weeks of discussion and thoughtful planning.
Our Emergency Management work group, with guidance from local and state health officials, is finalizing a plan for a strategic, phased return to campus based on two primary imperatives:
We also are focused on preserving CMU’s unique atmosphere and culture. We know many students choose CMU with hopes of participating in our many campus programs and activities, and we are excited to once again offer a robust on-campus living and learning experience.
COVID-19 has changed the way higher education is delivered and requires us to think creatively and innovatively about our future operations at CMU. We know the fall semester will look very different than it has in previous years: Safe social distancing is here to stay, and it will affect everything about living, eating, working, playing and learning at CMU. Here are a few of the ways we are preparing for the future:
Provost Schutten and several academic leaders are developing plans to examine safe layout options for classrooms, labs and other venues for teaching and learning. This may include holding class in new locations, reducing class sizes and other adaptations. They are considering options for course delivery, including in person, face to face with remote access or hybrid delivery, as well as remote-only instruction as needed.
The health and safety of our students, faculty and staff remains our top priority, and we will continue to follow guidance from local, state and national health leaders as we move forward with plans to resume in-person instruction.
Last week, our faculty and staff received information about our phased return to campus for CMU employees. Many essential staff have been working on campus throughout the semester, and more will begin to return later this month if Michigan’s “Stay Home, Stay Safe” executive order is lifted. We will continue to develop and communicate detailed plans to help everyone, including students, prepare for fall.
We will continue to closely monitor the spread of COVID-19 and will take immediate action if a new threat to health emerges. We are committed to slowing the spread of the virus and flattening the curve in our community and in Michigan.
Our university is committed to the ideals of innovation and excellence. We have the right people and the right resources for a successful academic year, whether it occurs on our campus, in one of our satellite locations or online.
I look forward to working — and seeing — you again soon. Until then, take care, be well and Fire Up Chips!
Bob Davies, president
April 30, 2020
As you may have heard, the federal government has made funds available to colleges and universities, through the CARES Act, to address the financial hardships resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Central Michigan University will receive approximately $14 million from this Higher Education Emergency Relief Fund, and the U.S. Department of Education recently released guidance as to how these funds may be used.
The first half of these funds will be provided to students who have experienced financial challenges during the crisis. These funds can help students with expenses incurred when campus operations were disrupted due to coronavirus, such as food, housing, course materials, technology, health care and child care.
CMU will distribute these funds to students with demonstrated financial need, and we have developed the following initiatives to provide support:
The second half the CARES Act funds may be used to offset costs incurred by the university due to the COVID-19 crisis. To date, we have not received a timeline from the federal government to know when we will receive these funds, and we await clear guidance as to how those funds may be used.
If you have questions about the CARES Act funding, please email email@example.com.
We know many of you have been negatively affected by COVID-19 and its impact on our region, and we will continue to look for ways to support you throughout the year. In all we do, your success and well-being are our top priorities.
April 10, 2020 (updated April 13, 2020)From: Tony Voisin, Interim Vice President,
Enrollment and Student Services
Dear CMU student,
We recognize that the coronavirus and Michigan's "Stay Home, Stay Safe" executive order have deeply
impacted everything about your routines for learning, working and even living. These are challenging times,
and we want you to know that CMU is here to support you as you navigate the days and weeks ahead.
We have created a special page for students on the Coronavirus Information Center
website that outlines resources and services available to our students. In addition, we
want to ensure that you are aware of the following benefits, services and updates that will help you finish
the semester strong.
Most students who live in on-campus housing are eligible to receive credit for housing and meals; students
who remained living on campus from March 22 to May 9 and those who received a full room-and-board
scholarship are not eligible for credit.
The credit amount takes into account differences in housing types listed below and include credit for
residential meal plans. Flex dollars are factored into the cost of residential meal plans, and the credit
amount listed below includes credit for those flex dollars.
These credits will be applied to student accounts in May. The credit will first be applied to any outstanding
balances on the student's account; any remaining credit will be refunded to the student according to the refunds
preferences they selected with Student Account Services and
Housing and meal credits
Students, faculty and staff with commuter meal plans will be credited based on remaining
Students, faculty and staff who purchased flex dollars will have their balances roll forward
to the new academic year. May graduates with unused flex dollars should email the Central Card Office at firstname.lastname@example.org for credit options.
Students with full-ride scholarships may not be eligible for credit.
About half of the cost of operating CMU's residence halls are variable and half are fixed. Variable costs
differ daily and can, in part, be based on consumption — things like food and utilities are variable. Fixed
costs are incurred for the entire year and include things such as debt payments for the residential
buildings, insurance and staff who continue to support students, such as Care Advocates and full-time
Residence Life staff.
CMU announced the transition to remote learning on March 19, meaning some students gave up approximately 46%
of their spring semester in their on-campus residence. Roughly half of the costs associated with this time
are variable, roughly 23%. Using this amount — and rounding up to the benefit of students — we arrived at
the credit amounts listed above. While this calculation does not reflect a true daily prorated amount, it
does represent credit for the variable costs that would have been incurred during the days students were not
living on campus.
This closely aligns with the approaches of colleges and universities throughout Michigan.
To recognize the financial hardships that students may face during these difficult times, CMU will
not assess fees for late payments in April and May.
CMU also will not place holds on student accounts that have past-due balances for April,
allowing students to proceed with registration. Additionally, to empower students to plan ahead for future
semesters, all students with past-due accounts with a balance below $2,000 will still be allowed to
CMU is offering deferments, extensions and flexibility to students in current payment plan agreements. We are
here to help you: If you are struggling financially, please contact the Student Account Services and
University Billing Office to develop a plan that meets your educational and financial needs. Call
989-774-3618 or email email@example.com.
In times of uncertainty, it can be reassuring to establish a path forward. We encourage all students
to consider the option of multi-semester
registration, which can shorten the path to degree attainment, ultimately saving time
and tuition dollars.
You now have the option to search and register for courses through Spring 2021, but you will not be asked to
pre-pay. Each semester will have its own fee payment deadline, and financial aid disbursements will remain
the same each semester.
Make an appointment to speak with
your academic advisor if you have questions.
COVID-19 poses unprecedented challenges for learning, and we recognize that your academic performance may
reflect hardships related to the move to remote and online-only learning. CMU is offering an
extension of the withdrawal deadline and
a Credit/No Credit option for grades. You have until May 20th to
choose an option, giving you time to review your grades before making a decision.
We strongly suggest you discuss your
options with your academic advisor before making any decision that may impact your
educational progress or financial aid.
Through this difficult time, it is natural to feel sad, frustrated and even angry. As we are all practicing
safe social distancing, you also may feel lonely and isolated. We all need someone to talk to during tough
times — if you need help, please reach
Our Counseling Center
continues to offer appointments by videoconferencing and phone. Call 989-774-3381 to make an appointment.
You also can make an appointment to speak with a CMU Success
with the CMU Care Team or talk to the university
We are here for you. Please let us know how we can support you!
Tony VoisinInterim Vice President, Enrollment and Student Services
Friends and Colleagues,
Late yesterday, Gov. Gretchen Whitmer announced an extension of Michigan’s
"Stay Home, Stay Safe" order through April 30. This continues to be difficult, but
we truly believe the extension of the order is necessary to protect the health and safety of
the people of Michigan during this unprecedented time.
As a university, we anticipated this extension and have planned for how it may continue to
impact our operations. Here's what you should know:
To date, we have identified less than 50 individuals who qualify for full-time paid
administrative leave; most others continue their important work on our campus or remotely.
This is a testament to the adaptability of our employees and flexibility of our leadership
Thank you, again, for all you do to keep CMU open and operating during this difficult time.
Our students benefit every day from the work you do.
We will continue to update you on coronavirus announcements and resources. Please find these
at our online Coronavirus
Information Center anytime.
Bob Davies, President
Dear Students, Faculty and Staff:
As Central Michigan University operations continue during the COVID-19 pandemic, two
priorities continue to be front and center: supporting student success and keeping our
communities healthy and safe.
To meet these vital objectives, and in line with guidance from state leaders and public
health officials, CMU has two additional announcements for our campus community today:
All face-to-face classes at our main campus in Mount Pleasant — and at all of CMU’s satellite
campuses throughout the U.S. — will move to a remote/online format for the Summer I session
— May 18-June 25. This means students should not return to campus for Summer I classes.
Decisions will be made at a later date regarding specialized labs, courses at the CMU
Biological Station on Beaver Island and the June 29-Aug. 6 Summer II session.
All events and gatherings scheduled to take place on CMU’s campus are canceled through June
25. This includes all summer camps, including sport camps. No new events will be scheduled
on campus through June 25.
In addition, Special Olympics Michigan has postponed its State Summer Games — originally
scheduled for May 28-31 on CMU’s campus. They are currently working
on rescheduling and modifying the State Summer Games with a tentative placeholder
for the week of July 20, 2020.
CMU leaders continue to consult daily to manage the university’s response to COVID-19 and to
address the future of CMU’s operations. We are thinking ahead to late summer and fall and
will make additional decisions as we learn more about the spread of the virus. This
continues to be a rapidly evolving situation, and CMU will continue to make decisions based
on guidance from state leaders and public health officials.
In all our planning, our top priorities remain student success and our educational mission.
As we continue to move forward together, please take time to take care of yourselves. You
can find support resources — as well as campus updates — on our Coronavirus Information
I want to take this opportunity to once again express to you my appreciation and admiration.
You — our students, faculty and staff — continue to fire up with CMU's trademark cooperative
spirit at an unprecedented time. Your patience, attention and understanding make a
Bob Davies, President
Dear students, colleagues and friends,
As the son of a historian, I often find it reassuring in turbulent times to look to the past
to see how
others have navigated challenging circumstances. I find this quote from automaker and
Ford particularly apropos: “When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the
takes off against the wind, not with it.”
In the past month, it has often felt as though the wind was blowing against us all with
force. Yet Central Michigan University continues to move forward.
Daily, we carry out our mission and adhere to our core values. We are strong and resilient.
community, we opt to bend instead of break, and we continue to adapt to overcome adversity.
In short, we
choose to take off against the wind.
One of the chief complaints often leveled against higher education is that we are slow to
would argue that in the past few weeks, higher education has adapted more quickly — and more
successfully — than nearly any other industry. I am immensely proud of how our CMU community
Faculty who never imagined teaching online have reimagined classes in mere days, learning new
technologies quickly so they can continue to offer incredible learning opportunities for our
Staff who depended on weekly or daily face-to-face meetings have shifted quickly to video
and phone calls to ensure their work continues. They’ve developed creative ways to host
meetings, events and activities for students, keeping them engaged with our university
And our students, who are among the most active and social people I have ever encountered,
dozens of unique ways to stay connected with their instructors and with one another. I am
the way they continue to pursue their passions from their residence hall rooms, apartments
around the country.
These adjustments have not been easy. We’ve all experienced frustrations and hiccups along
the way, and
there have been more than a few long days and sleepless nights for everyone.
Yet we persevere. We move forward. It has been stressful — and successful. It is often said
times don’t build character, they reveal it. We can all be proud of what this
has revealed about our university community.
We have always been a community of lifelong learners, and these past few weeks have proven to
be a very
effective learning lab for many of us — often in surprising ways. I think back to my State
University address in November: I called for big, bold ideas; innovative and creative
options to serve students in new ways. What I didn’t know then was that we’d be implementing
many changes quite so quickly.
Yet, for all the discomforts this situation has caused, I hope it also gives you an
reflect on how we operate. This crisis has been an unasked-for experiment for CMU, allowing
explore new ways of learning, teaching, living and working. We now have proof that we are
of far more than we previously knew.
I invite all of you to join me in both contemplating what we’ve learned and considering how
these lessons as we move forward. Let’s look at what this situation has revealed about our
and the structures we have in place and think about how we could build upon them to
strengthen CMU. Ask:
What actions have we taken and what elements have we added, that we could — and should —
include in the
future? What have we learned about ourselves, about our strengths and weaknesses, that we
or address as we continue to serve our current students and expand into new areas?
I invite you to share your answers with me. You can send them as an email to firstname.lastname@example.org or by submitting them
feedback form. I look forward to reviewing your ideas and sharing them with our
envisioning process working groups.
Let’s emerge from the crisis stronger than ever before.
In the weeks ahead, as we navigate uncertainty together, our networks of support will be more
It can be hard to feel close to others when we’re maintaining a minimum distance of 6 feet,
shifts to minimize contact, or completing assignments and work from home to stay healthy. It
is in our
human nature to be social, and you may feel the pains of isolation after several weeks of
from classmates, colleagues and friends. You likely already are feeling them.
This is why it’s so important for CMU Chippewas to continue to Take Care of one
We must look for ways to foster a sense of community and remain socially close even as we
Consider how you can creatively reach out to connect with others. Our Counseling Center has
outstanding suggestions in a recent
online, and I’ve received some excellent tips from students, faculty and staff in
the past week.
Here are a few of my favorites:
And if you need someone to talk to, please remember that our Counseling
Center and Employee
Assistance Program are here for you. Don’t wait to ask for help!
You also can find many more support services and resources on our Coronavirus Information
We’re about a month away from the end of the semester, and I urge everyone to finish strong.
hopefully you’ve developed some routines and processes that help you manage this new normal.
the tools available to you to make this a GREAT semester.
Be well, take care and, always, Fire Up Chips!
Following governor's order, CMU continues essential operations
As the world, our nation and our state continue to respond to the rapidly spreading threat of
COVID-19, we continue to face new challenges as a university — challenges we've never
This morning, Gov. Whitmer issued a
"Stay Home, Stay Safe" order for the state of Michigan,
at 12:01 a.m. tomorrow for at least three weeks, an aggressive measure designed to combat
of the virus.
During this time,
CMU will continue to operate to the fullest extent safely possible, and remote
continue through the end of the semester.
This means that all on-campus operations are suspended except for those that cannot be
remotely. Individuals working in essential roles that must be conducted on campus will need
continue to fulfill their responsibilities. We are working with supervisors to define and
these roles and personnel. We will reach out to them with additional information as soon as
For the rest of us, we will continue to work remotely if possible. If you have questions or
about your ability to work remotely, please contact your supervisor.
In addition, we should all do our best to stay home, unless it is to get outdoors to
for ourselves and others; and to obtain necessary supplies, as outlined by
the executive order. Self-care, both physical and mental, is
this time. Remember, resources are available virtually and via telephone if you need someone
to — you can find them on our
Important university updates related to this order:
You should not do the following:
You likely have many questions that remain unanswered. We will share additional information
in the days ahead — thank you for your patience and understanding as we move quickly to
I've said it numerous times, but this is an unprecedented situation. Campus leaders are
continuously working to answer questions and to do what's right to protect the health
of our university community while ensuring we deliver the high-quality education we promised
thousands of CMU students.
I am proud of the way our university community has responded to this crisis. I am confident
faculty, staff and students will adapt to these new measures with the same resolve,
and cooperative spirit shown many times already amid these rapidly changing
Continue to check our website for updates and send any questions you may have to email@example.com.
Please continue to take care of yourselves and others. Your well-being is paramount. We will
through this together. That's what CMU Chippewas do.
Familiarize yourself with the facts about
COVID-19 to help reduce any associated fear or stigmas toward affected
returning travelers. Remember:
In addition, to better understand coronavirus, please take time
review this presentation by biological anthropologist Catherine Willermet, faculty
our Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work.
Although classes have shifted to an online format, the university is not closed. As a
continue to protect the health of our community,
do not come to campus if you can answer yes to either of the
Also, practicing social distancing is critical during this time.
According to the
CDC, the virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person and the best way to
illness is to avoid close contact that fosters exposure.
This means that it is critical to avoid gatherings and large crowds, both
and personal. Don't go to parties or crowded establishments. Be thoughtful about your
interactions with others. We can all do our part to help lessen the spread of the
While there are no known cases of COVID-19 in Mount Pleasant or on CMU's
campus, CMU Health and the CMU Police
Department are engaged
with the Central Michigan District Health Department and local health care systems to
potential response plans for our campus and the greater Mount Pleasant community. These
meet regularly to ensure campus is prepared to respond to an outbreak locally.
We understand many of you have questions and concerns related to refunds for residence halls
dining. Please know we are discussing and studying these concerns. With a student-centered
at the forefront, we will provide proportional and appropriate refunds.
We are gathering data and monitoring the coronavirus situation as it unfolds. We look forward
sharing updates as we develop the process and timeline for refunds.
As university operations continue, CMU is committed to supporting our students'
completion of their academic pursuits, while keeping our communities healthy and safe. We
there are many questions about how we can best maintain operations during these times, and
university leadership are meeting daily to address rising issues and concerns.
We urge all CMU units to take every measure possible to encourage employees who are able to
home to do so. Supervisors are empowered to determine what functions are essential and who
to complete these functions to maintain normal operations. This may mean either working
other flexible work arrangements.
For employees, answers to many of your questions may be found on
the Human Resources FAQ.
With the university's spring break approaching, it is important for all Central Michigan
University students, faculty and staff to stay informed about the spread of coronavirus.
Fortunately, there have been no cases reported in Michigan but we are taking precautionary
for the well-being of our CMU community.
According to the
Control and Prevention website, the coronavirus is spreading quickly — it is now in
than 70 locations around the world, including the United States. The CDC notes that risk of
in the U.S. is currently low, although that is not the case in many international
We strongly recommend and encourage you to be cautious about your travel choices during
and beyond, particularly for international travel.
If you are considering international travel this spring, please monitor
CDC travel information and advisories — as well as
university updates — before you depart, due to the evolving
of the outbreak.
For guidance, consult these
frequently asked questions for travelers.
If you plan personal travel to a country with a
CDC level 3 or higher health
CMU is mandating a 14-day self-quarantine before you can return to campus.
are traveling to China, you'll
encounter further restrictions, as mandated by the CDC. In certain
the U.S. Customs might impose a 14-day quarantine at designated sites. If you have questions
self-quarantine, please contact your health care provider or local health department.
University leaders, in collaboration with multiple offices across campus, also decided
immediately suspend all study abroad trips scheduled to depart during the
remainder of the spring 2020 semester. This decision, which follows
recommendations shared by the CDC, has been communicated to
students and faculty. We are monitoring the coronavirus worldwide and its possible impacts
2020 Study Abroad programs — no decision has been made yet regarding summer programs.
questions about Study Abroad programs may contact the Office of
In addition, all other faculty and staff CMU-sponsored travel to countries with CDC level 3
notices is suspended until further notice. We will continue to monitor the situation and
regular updates. More information related to travel restrictions, self-quarantine and more
found on the
Coronavirus: What you need to know page.
CMU has an emergency preparedness team consisting of leaders from across our campus who are
regularly to review information from outside experts to assess how the virus may affect our
The safety and security of our students, faculty and staff are our No. 1 priority. Thus,
recommendations shared yesterday by the
CDC urging higher education institutions to take precautions, CMU is
suspending all study abroad trips scheduled to depart during the remainder
of the semester.
This follows decisions to
suspend programs in China, South Korea and Italy. To ensure the safety of our entire
community, students returning from programs in these countries are being mandated by CMU
self-quarantine for 14 days before they can return to campus. Students currently
countries with a
level 2 or lower health notice are not required to return to the U.S.
all other nonessential CMU-sponsored travel to countries with CDC level 3 health
suspended. These countries currently include China, South Korea, Iran and Italy.
continue to evaluate faculty/staff requests to travel abroad on a weekly basis.
These were not easy decisions to make. I greatly value the experiences that study
and international travel bring to our students, faculty and staff and understand how
personally affect those who were scheduled to travel. But, we must put health and safety
Our Office of Global Engagement staff is communicating directly with affected
we are doing everything we can to minimize disruption to their academic studies and
This includes discussion about alternative paths to earn their course credits and/or to
reimbursed for their trips.
We are monitoring the coronavirus worldwide and its possible impacts on summer 2020 Study
programs. Anyone with questions about Study Abroad programs may contact the
Faculty who have questions about international travel restrictions should contact their
staff should speak with their supervisors.
For more information on the coronavirus, please visit the
Disease Control and Prevention and the
World Health Organization.
We will continue to utilize this page and other communication channels to communicate
students, their families, faculty and staff about the coronavirus.
Campus continues to operate normally. There are currently no plans to cancel
classes, and we
will not do so unless directed by our local or state health
There have been no identified cases of coronavirus at CMU, and there are no
Officials from CMU and CMU Health are meeting regularly — working closely with our partners
and state health departments — to implement measures to protect our community should a
identified in the future.
Our Office of Global Engagement has been in communication with CMU students currently abroad
students with upcoming university-related travel plans — and has developed
address issues of concern. Additional offices throughout campus are in communication
with faculty with upcoming business travel plans.
You can remain up-to-date on travel advisories and the coronavirus on the following websites:
The U.S. State Department issued a Level 4 Travel Advisory, "Do Not Travel," for
the Centers for Disease Control issued a Level 3 Travel Health Notice, "Avoid
Travel," for South Korea. Therefore, CMU Study Abroad programs to China and South
have been suspended until further notice. Neither the U.S. State Department nor the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has issued a Level 3 or 4 advisory/notice for any
country in which our students are currently studying abroad.
We are closely monitoring advisories for countries impacted by coronavirus. The number of
cases increased in Italy over the past week, mostly in the northern regions. The CDC issued
2 Travel Health Notice for Italy, "Practice Enhanced Precautions." Neither
Department nor the CDC are recommending that U.S. citizens cancel travel to Italy at this
The CDC on Tuesday advised Americans to avoid travel to all of mainland China. CMU has
Study Abroad students in Asia to avoid travel to Wuhan and Hubei Province in China and to
medical care if they have symptoms and have traveled in China in the past 14
days. We encourage students abroad to enroll in the U.S. State Department's Smart
Enrollment Program to receive email health and safety alerts and informational
from the local U.S. Embassy and to update their locations with STEP as they travel to other
countries. Students also are advised to follow the news, check the World Health
Organization and CDC websites for updates and remain in
contact with international staff at their host institutions. At this time,
are no restrictions or warnings in place at CMU or in Mount Pleasant. The university will
to track the situation and communicate any changes affecting campus and the university
community. CMU students, faculty and staff at global campus locations should follow
installation or local guidelines and directives.