1793 Lindley

10th. A fair wind - stemmed the heavy current of eighteen miles up Detroit river to the garrison. Many plantations are on both sides of the river, mostly occupied by French people. On our arrival, I went with three other Friends to the citadel, to produce our passport from governor Simcoe to the commanding officer, colonel England, a cheerful, open-countenanced, masculine soldier, who received us like a gentleman, and kindly offered civilities to us, - for which we acknowledged obligations to him.

Here are fine banks, well improved. The oldest orchards appear luxuriant - apples, peaches, pears, cherries, &c. But no springs of water, nor streams with falls: being obliged to have recourse to windmills to manufacture their grain. Of these mills they have a number in sight. The inhabitants are a mixture of French, German, English, Irish, Scotch, Yankees, Indians, and Negroes.

11. Held a conference with captain John and several other Indian chiefs and principal men; in which our peaceable mission was more fully explained than heretofore. Notwithstanding our disinterested and universal principles of love and good will to mankind, we are sensible our path is narrow and our situation delicate - the eyes of four different interests being open towards us; - British, United States, Indians, and the reputation of our religious society.

This afternoon, walked three miles down the west side of Detroit river, to a spring, at which I was refreshed, not having drank any other than river water for ten days. On our route to the spring, we called at a French house, to keep out of a gust of rain. The family appeared polite, loving and pleased to see us. On our return we called to see an old noted Indian trader, Isaac Williams, who is well acquainted with the Indian affairs, and their dispositions. He related many alarming circumstances of Indian cruelty; and said they were at present more haughty and insolent than heretofore. He rehearsed an instance of a riot which happened that day week, with a violent party of Indians: in which he interfered to prevent murder, but he got wounded in the arm with a scalping knife. He insinuated doubts of our ever returning from Sandusky, unless the commissioners submitted to the Indian demands, which were very high. These were also the sentiments of divers persons acquainted with Indians, in this place. All which conspired to our deep humiliaton and dependance on the omnipotent Arm, having none other to lean to.

We frequently meet Indians here, where they get too much strong drink; in which state they discover a very alarming and disagreeable ferocity. Here are divers persons who have been prisoners amongst them, some of whom recite shocking accounts of their cruelty, in many instances; others speak more favorably of their treatment. However, upon the whole, under all the circumstances of the approaching treaty, it evidently appears a serious business; and little, if any thing, short of offering up life, by those who attend it. We have hitherto found very few of the natives who have any knowledge of Friends or their principles.

This evening we met col. England and a number of the officers on the bank of the river; with whom we had considerable conversation; in which, I hope, we acknowledged and supported our peaceable principles of the gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. They treated us on every occasion like gentlemen, in their way, - polite, and courteous to strangers, at least to us. Col. England told us he had, with much pains and expense, procured more than fifty prisoners from the Indians, clothed them, and forwarded them homeward; many of whom discovered litle sense of gratitude for the kindness; yet he felt a reward, as being the friend of humanity. At night, returned to Matthew Dolson's, where we have taken lodgings.

12th. Had a solid conference with David Kennedy, a half Indian, a man of learning, and a man of influence; having been educated in Scotland, he visited London, Jamaica, &c. He lives with the Indians, and professes christianity; is well versed in the Scriptures, and says he has initiated divers into the christian faith, by a medium widely contrasted with our mode. He told us some Indians used to mock and ridicule his going to church; but at a certain time he undertook to drub them severely, and ordered them and their families to attend church in the future, or he would be under the necessity of dealing more sharply with them: on which, they appeared the next day of public worship, and had continued steady ever since. He supposed it the most substantial method of making converts, as also of ending quarrels or disputes. To all of which I opposed several texts out of the New Testament; to the validity of which he assented, and strongly avowed his friendship for us, and promised to use his influence in order to open our way amongst the other nations of his acquaintance, which is extensive.

We had to dine with us a religious Dunker and his wife, settlers here-away, with whom we had fellowship. They felt near to us; which I believe was reciprocal. In the afternoon, we had a visit from capt. John, Young Peter, and another Indian; to whom we read Friends' address, with which they expressed satisfaction, renewed their professions of fellowship, and wanted a copy of our epistle, which we waived, until the general assemblage at the great Council. In the evening, had a visit from two respectable, intelligent British officers, who behaved with politeness and civility.

13th. Had an interview with capt. Elliott, deputy under col. McKee, the British superintendent of Indian affairs, who has been, for several weeks, engaged with numerous tribes of Indians in their councils at the rapids of Miami, preparatory to the great Council. Elliott has great influence with the middle hostile nations of Indians, and being an intelligent person, and I thought, well disposed, might be extensively useful in promoting the desirable work of general peace. We suggested to him, as the supplies for the treaty came through his hands, to guard against spirituous liquors being furnished. To the propriety of which, as well as to differs other remarks, he assented. We received an invitation to dine with the British officers at the mess house tomorrow. Through the variety of company and visitors, my mind is preserved in a quiet, humble hope that the Lord is preparing our way. . . . .

14th. Breakfasted with captain Elliott and captain Cowen, who hospitably entertained us at table, also with agreeable conversation. On our return, we called to see about twenty Chipawa Indians, just arrived from Michilimackinack, about three hundred miles north-west of this post, near the west end of Lake Huron. To which place vessels can sail from Fort Erie, without interruption of carrying place or falls. These remote Indians were dressed, and painted with black, red, green, and blue; having turbans round their heads, with pikes and prongs of skins, feathers, hair, sticks, &c. projecting eighteen inches out from the sides of their heads - frightfully painted and cut - the squaws and others, with tails of wild beasts passing over the top of their heads, and hanging down their backs. But my genius, pen, and even imagination in its strongest picturesques, must fall short of the shocking, striking, curious prospect of these northern inhabitants of the wilderness. They had drunk rum to excess, before we reached them. Several were much disguised. The more sober shook hands, and appeared friendly, to whom I gave a small present. Yet two very stout, grim, middle-aged men, were raised into rage and anger at us, loudly saying - shemochteman! shemochtemen! I said no; not shemochteman - brothers, from Philadelphia. At which they rose higher, and more clamorous. We found they could understand little or none of our conversation. Some of the young Indians, meanwhile, were singeing the hair off a small animal over a fire, preparing, for breakfast. We conjectured it to be a puppy.

My heart felt exceeding sorrowful, and the language of my soul was, How much owest thou unto thy Lord? The picture of these poor, degraded animals in human shape, involved many serious considerations respecting the approaching Council; where would probably be many hundreds, more wild and ferocious than these. My mind was covered with lamentation respecting the cause of such degradation, which, at least in part, appears to arise from abandoned and profligate white people having the greatest intercourse with them in their trade and towns; to which, stimulated by the love of money, they resort, at the risk of their lives - carrying their vices, immoralities, and bad example with them. These, the poor uncultivated Indians easily imbibe; and, taking root in a soil adapted to receive evil seed, produce fruits, dreadful to behold.

The greatest discouragements attending from day to day respecting the desired peace, arise from a query or doubt, that a neglect of religious duty towards these poor people in earlier time, might be rewarded by a continuance of unrelenting, savage chastisement on our borders, from the old inhabitants of the land; whose murderous practices and their cruel instruments of death, and engines of destruction, I tremble to relate - such as rifles, bayonets, scalping knives, and tomahawks of brass and steel; and the bodies of some almost covered with silver, tin and other plates, broaches, bobs, &c. as hostile ensigns. In all which, may I not say with sorrow and blushing, they have been equalled, if not exceeded, by the professional followers of the meek and humble Jesus, whose holy kingdom and divine law suffer violence and depression, to a mournful degree.

This day we dined at the mess house, with about sixteen respectable British officers; all young gentlemen from Great Britain and Ireland: several of whom were estated men, to a great amount. They behaved with a modest civility, far exceeding my expectation from military characters. The entertainment was luxuriously sumptious, and hospitable, as to flesh, fish, fruit, and vegetables, with variety of wines and excellent London porter. We dined at four o'clock, and spent till near sunset in agreeable conversation, on various subjects - such as religion, governments, war, peace, theatrical exhibitions; and, at the conclusion, they begged leave to drink a toast; which, out of complaisance, they dispensed with, except the King's health. We told them we could not encourage the practice, as it frequently proved an inlet to intemperance, and sometimes intoxication - which they granted; nevertheless they took the liberty to drink, - Success to the Quakers in the present honorable and disinterested undertaking.

After night, a lad named Daniel Frazer, came to our lodgings. He told us he was taken prisoner by the Indians, out of Russell county in Virginia. Here came also James Henry, a smart young man, a prisoner with the Blind Chief, near the mouth of the river Roosh, twelve miles from Detroit. He is adopted; which renders his case difficult. They have put jewels in his nose and ears, and figured him like an Indian. He is desirous of returning to his relations near Georgetown, Eastern Shore of Maryland. In this house is hired a young woman, whose name is Field, taken from Ohio, below Fort Pitt, where her father lived when she was taken. We have met with divers others, whose cases excite sympathy and concern, and to which attention has been paid; but we thought it most prudent not to make strenuous exertions at present, lest it might operate to our disadvantage at the treaty, in procuring the enlargement of prisoners more generally.

15th. Abiah Park came to see us. He is a trader with the Indians. He entertains doubts of a peace; yet says, if one can be made, it will be permanent. This forenoon felt easy to appoint a meeting, to begin ten o'clock tomorrow, at a shop in the ship-yard, under the direction of William Baker, a Friend in principle, and cousin to George Baker of Philadelphia.

In the evening several Indians of the Wyandot tribe came to our lodgings to see us. They live abut twenty miles from this place, at a town called Mogogam. One Samuel Sanders, a Scotchman, who lives with them, interpreted. They told us they had heard their fathers say the Quakers were honest, and never wronged them; and they hoped we would stand for justice, and not see them wronged at the treaty. We informed them we came in love to see them, and renew old friendship; that the power did not lay with us - but we believed the commissioners were sincerely disposed for peace. There also came to our lodgings, a party of the Chipawas - an old chief and several warriors, one of whom had a human scalp, with beautiful fair curled hair on it, tied to his ear. These were some of those, who, a day or two before, had treated us so roughly. A white man who stood near us at that time, and understood their language, told us they had a desire to have our scalps. They appear to be a terrible nation, fierce, insolent and war-like; and, I believe, exceedingly injured by their intercourse with the white people, especially the French, many of whom are little more refined than they. Their almost incessant importunity for rum, made the interview not so agreeable. We mostly evaded giving liquor, and substituted pipes and tobacco, to put them off.

16th. First of the week. Went to meeting, where a large number of the inhabitants of the town, and military men, assembled. I believe it was a solid season, and truth's testimony was exalted over all opposition; notwithstanding rawness and dark insensibility were painfully prevalent. We came to our lodgings, and dined with two Wyandot chiefs, who had been to see us the preceding evening. - They behaved with decency at table, equal to any of us; handled their knife and fork well, ate moderately, drank two glasses of wine, and through the whole conducted with a decorum that would do honour to hundreds of white people. We afterwards went down the river in col. England's boat, about six miles, to the house of Judge Powell, where we had appointed a meeting. The Judge and his family being gone to England, his steward had kindly offered his house. A considerable number convened, and I was comforted in a belief that the everlasting gospel was preached in Canada. After which we returned to our lodgings.

17th. This morning there were many unfavourable reports respecting the hostile dispositions of the Indians, passing on to the treaty. The circumstances of things appear very critical and alarming. Even our personal safety is called in question, and much doubted, unless the commissioners had very extensive powers. As I was writing in the chamber where I lodged, two Wyandots, much in liquor, came up into the room, and teased me for rum. I put them off. After some time they laughed, shook hands and departed - at which I was glad, as I was alone. Dined with capt. England, capt. Leaburn, maj. Andrews, and several other military gentlemen, and two of their ladies. They were very courteous and polite.

18th. We wrote a letter two days ago, in order to hasten the commissioners to come forward to this place, being more contiguous to Sandusky, and more in the way of information. This morning we wrote a few lines to col. McKee, at the great preparative council at Miami rapids, expressive of our peaceable mission.

Ten principle Indians, Senecas and Cayugas, came to see us. Several of them old men, with grey hairs, and furrowed brows; evident marks of a round of years, attended with variety of hardships, exercise, sorrow, and pain. Their depressed countenances awakened all the compassionate feelings of my mind towards them. But my agency seemed so feeble, I could only retire into solemn quietude, and intercede the common Father to be the comfort and prop of their declining years. The old Fish-carrier was one of the number.

This day my exercise of mind was heavy, and my heart sorrowful, in a feeling of the sufferings of the pure Seed in this place, and the cruelty and oppression which reign among the children of men, even of the most polished nations. What enormous salaries are given to military officers, both sea and land, as also officers in civil government, who too generally stand opposed, with thousands of others in more inferior stations, to the spreading and increase of the kingdom and government of the Prince of Peace. In a little interview with capt. Munsey, a sprightly British officer, I took the liberty to mention the possibility, that when the broils in France should subside, the African slave trade be abolished, and a permanent peace concluded with our American Indians, all this globe might be at peace; and that swords (of which he had one by his side) might be beaten into ploughshares. He quickly replied, he hoped not to see such a time, as it would also beat up his bread and butter, (meaning his living.) Such are the views of too many in this day.

A middle aged Indian of the Delaware tribe, dined with us. He talked a little English, by which we understood he was in possession of several sheets of ancient writings; that he had heard of Friends, and just faintly remembered Z. Heston and John Parrish being at their town. He said there were but Buchongeholas, Pipe, and two other chiefs belonging to their nation; that we might depend, if they said peace, it would be peace; but if they said war, it would be war. Also said we would find the middle tribes more faithful and manly than the Chipawas and Wyandots; for they were treacherous. I told him they had called us Shemochteman, or Big Knife, and said they wanted our scalps; at which he laughed.

19th. Crossed the river, and went down the eastern bank four miles, to the house of John Missiner, where we had a solemn season, with a number of his neighbors, to the contriting of the hearts of divers present. Lodged with him that night.

20th. This morning had a religious opportunity in his family, in which, and the preceding meeting, dear John Parrish was favored in an extraordinary manner. After parting with them, we walked up the river about a mile, called at the house of Francis Cornwall, and had conversation with him and his precious wife Anna, on the subjects of water baptism, the bread and wine, &c.; which they endeavoured, for a while, to defend; but at length gave it up. We likewise had a close conversation with a French militia captain on the subject of war, which we held to be incompatible with the purity, spirit, and precepts of the gospel. To the general scope of which, he assented; but alleged, that according to the oath of allegiance to his king, when he ordered martial enterprises, he must obey; and that his king must be responsible for what was done. We silenced his arguments; and proceeded to Frederick Arnold's. On the way, I went to visit a man who was deranged. He was chained in a barn. At first, he would neither look at me, nor speak to me. He was sitting down. I spoke to him in the fear of the Lord, and desired him not to be discouraged; but trust in the Lord; for he was come to seek and to save that which was lost. He then lifted up his eyes, and stared at me wildly. I said I hoped he would be better. He said he hoped he would. He then stood up on his feet, and said, "My trust is in the Lord, and not in going into the water." I learned he had been pressed by some zealous Baptists to undergo that operation, which he could not consent to. I gave him some further council, and left him. I heard next day he was so rational as to be unchained. - Lodged with Frederick Arnold, a long bearded Tunker, an inoffensive man; but, like his brethren and too many others, loves money.

21st. John Elliott and myself walked several miles up the river, and were ferried over it in a canoe, by a Frenchman. The river is about three-quarters of a mile wide opposite the town. In this excursion I made the following observations:

From Lake Erie up to this place, is eighteen miles. Each farm is laid out about forty perches on the river - mostly improved, with houses, gardens, and orchards; and extending back, where the land is level, and abounds with grass, and where hundreds of cattle thrive exceedingly, producing beef, butter, cheese, veal, &c. in plenty. Their winters are about four months, in which it is requisite to feed stock. The country, at present, is excellently adapted for raising live stock. The soil is mixed, and various, clay, gravel, sand, &c. Here are fine fields of wheat and peas, but too wet for corn. The whole country is level, to a fault, without a stone, except on islands in the mouth of the river Croeseel, and on the banks of the lakes, which are generally limestone. These are monopolized by old Indian traders, and sold to the inhabitants at a high rate for the purpose of building their chimnies, &c.

Hog Island is in sight, above the garrison. It appears to be well timbered. I am told it took its name from this circumstance: being infested with rattlesnakes to such a degree that people were afraid to enter upon it; and, as the best expedient, they turned on it a large herd of three or four year old swine. In time, the hogs destroyed the reptiles so that it became habitable, and thence was called Hog Island.

Large rafts of excellent timber are brought into the king's yard, in this place, from the river Latrench; and some fine masts and beams come by water out of Lake Huron, quite thro' lake St. Clair. The changes of weather are great and frequent here. There are no eels found in the waters, nor rats on the land, west, or above the great Falls of Niagara. Here is abundance of corn boiled in strong lye, and made into what we call hominy, to go in the north-west trade, as far as a place called the Black North, said to be eighteen hundred miles distant, now in the hands of British and Scotch merchants. They go thither in batteaux. I saw a man who resided there three years; who says, early in the spring they set out with choice peltry, such as beaver, otter, minks, martins, &c. come to the great portage, where they are met by the batteaux from Montreal, exchange their load, and each returns just the as winter sets in. To the north-west posts, Indians frequently come that never saw a white man before. They are clothed in buffaloe and bear skins, neatly softened, whitened and dressed. They are kind and good natured, use bows and arrows, and have no fire arms. They cover their cabins with large rough skins: as the merchants rarely purchase even deer skins; having such an abundance of more rich furs that they cannot send the coarse skins forward. This trade is rich and extensive, and employs the capitals of many merchants, both in England and Canada. The great channel of this trade is down the Grand river from Huron lake, to which is but a short carrying place. An immense quantity of skins pass this way. The whole of the trade makes way for large numbers of Canadian watermen to get a living. The wages for them, and also for hands on land, average about six pounds a month. Cows sell at fifteen pounds a head - sheep, six dollars a piece - veal calves, twelve dollars each.

The English and German farmers are likely to alter the manner of living, and customs in this place, for the better. The old French settlers in general are poor economists, and proud withal - live miserably at home, yet appear grand abroad. It is said they live much on boiled fish, supping the broth without either bread or salt. They are superstitiously religious, going to mass more than two hundred days in the year. They have two large worship houses here, and a number of crosses set up on the banks of the river and other places, to evince their christianity.

22nd. Walked up the river about four miles to a place called Bloody Bridge, from a contest which happened there between the British, Canadians, and Indians, where many fell. We called at a respectable French farmer's, who took us into a curious garden of fruit, flowers, &c.; also into his house, where were pictures, representing Christ on the cross, old Saints, &c. John Elliott talked French to them; they appeared pleased, and behaved politely. Though much apparent superstition and idolatry are indulged amongst them, yet I hope many are looking beyond it to the more substantial parts of true worship: although I have seen them after mass, frolicking and horse racing in the road passing the worship house, or as it were, at the door, the remaining part of the day, to their reproach. The buildings on the banks of the river, though low, being mostly a story and a half, are beautiful, and the farms fertile - but their fuel and rails are all to be drawn about four miles. On our return, we fell in with several Chipawa camps - they had tents of mats curiously wrought of flags, reeds, rushes, &c. Their canoes are made of bark, with great skill and ingenuity.

23rd. First-day. Had a meeting in the sail-loft, with a considerable number of people. It was a time of stripping and heavy exercise; yet I trust the gospel testimony did not suffer reproach. A number of Indians came to see us, and behaved civilly. One said he was glad at his heart to see us.

24th. Taken up in writing home.

25th. Air cold and chilly. This forenoon a wolf was brought to the wharf, which was shot on Hog Island. It is said to have been floated there from the main land last winter on a cake of ice. Since which time he has killed sixty pigs. The owner of the island advertised twenty dollars for his head. A half Indian shot him. He was higher than any dog I ever saw, and his teeth larger and stronger than a mastiff's. He was about six feet long from the end of his nose to the feet or paws of the hind legs - of a grayish colour, short, broad ears, and a long, hairy, but not bushy tail.

This morning we received account that a company of Chipawa Indians who had got too much rum, differed in their tent on the commons. Two of them attacked a third, and stabbed him to death with their knives. A sorrowful instance of the shocking, horrid effects of this man-bane, (distilled spirits.) This has been the great engine, and mainspring, which has prepared the way and led to thousands of acts of hostility, and murders without number. It has evidently appeared to me to be the greatest obstacle in the way of civilization and happiness of the Indian natives - the removal of which, loudly calls for the united exertions of our government, and that of Great Britain, together with the unremitting endeavours of all Christians, and lovers of mankind. I consider this important object of so great magnitude, as hardly to be equalled by any terrestrial achievement. Oh! that legislators would lay it more deeply to heart, and the professed followers of Jesus lift up a glorious ensign against this mighty destroyer of mankind! Instead of which sorrow is now added to affliction, until blood touches blood, by furbished swords, harnessed men and horses, glittering spears, sounding drums and trumpets- while elated captains, colonels, and generals, glorying in their multitude and their pomp, forget that "Tophet is ordered of old" for those, and that they should descend into it - forgetting also "the sword that is bathed, and that shall come upon the mountains of Idumea" - forgetting too the God of armies, who is able, by the diminutive fly or worm, to lay the glory and pomp of all nations in the dust - nor considering that it is righteousness which exalteth a nation.

This town is picketted all round. It consists of about one hundred and fifty houses, crowded together. The fort lays adjoining the town, on the north side. Watchmen are placed at four gates leading into the town; sentinels also stand on the ramparts an bastions of the fortifications, who cry from one to another, every fifteen minutes, from nine in the evening to three o'clock in the morning, all is well, and the last cries, all is very well. But it appeared a superficial sound to me. This day we dined at W.F.'s, which I think nothing could have induced us to attempt, but the remembrance of our great Example being a friend of sinners. The old man treated us with generous hospitality, which we requited with plain dealing.

26th. Twenty-eight Indians arrived to-day, from Mackinoi, [Michlimackinac] on their way to the Council. Dined at John Askin's, one of the most respectable merchants in this place. We were entertained in a pleasing manner. His wife is a French woman, of an amiable, easy, graceful deportment. We had the company of Dr. Wright, lately married to commodore Grant's daughter, a discreet young woman, who was present; also lawyer Smith, a British merchant, John Askin's daughter, an agreeable young girl, and others. Our topics were, resignation and dependence on Divine support, in the use of prudent and lawful endeavours, for both spiritual and temporal blessings; - the origin of the Indians, with remarks on many traces of antiquity found in the wilderness. From all which, with their sacrifices; observations of moons; care for the sepulchres and bones of their deceased ancestors; division into so many tribes, - the probability, and almost certainty, was inferred, of their being the dispersed tribes of Israel; and therefore, from Scripture testimony and prophecy (some part of which was fulfilled, which strongly corroborated that which yet remained,) it was inferrible that they would be restored, - not to a Jewish, ceremonious Israel, but to a spiritual Israel of the circumcision, made without hands. It was also urged, that it was our duty to use endeavours to promote, and pray for this, in preference to effecting their extermination. For which purpose, many dark and diabolical machinations are proposed; one of these I had recently heard of, viz. To take a large quantity of liquor, of which they are extremely fond, and infuse the strongest poison therein: take it into an army which should make feint shows, until the body of them should be collected, then make a sham battle, and retreat with precipitation, leaving the liquor behind. The subject was closely combated, and I thought, ended in favour of the cause of injured humanity.

After our interview closed, three of us walked out to speak to the Chipawas, lately arrived. We met five or six of them; but they could not understand us, neither we them, only this much, Chemochteman, Bostone. I offered my hand to them repeatedly, as also did John Parrish, which they as often refused. They had come down the lakes four hundred miles; which shows how wide and deep the prejudice against our citizens has extended.

27th. Were visited at our lodgings by Dr. Wright, captain Munsey, Broadhead, Crawford, and several other officers, who continue very respectful of us.

From this place, many hundreds of bushels of hominy go yearly to Mackinoi, from whence it is forwarded to the Grand Portage; there it is parceled out at one bushel to a man - who is more prudent that to use one grain in his north-western route of about eighteen hundred, or some say, two thousand miles from the Grand Portage, as it is to be his main support in case of sickness, accidents, &c. one whole year. But while health remains, they substitute huckleberries in their season, which they dry in the smoke to take off the insipid sweet taste, - other times, wild rye is gathered and boiled - at others, they catch large fish, boil them, select the large bones, which being pounded or beaten, are packed in the skin of some beast just taken off, to preserve for use. They kill beasts and birds, eat the flesh and drink the blood, without either bread or salt. Thus they live.

The trade is principally carried on (that is, the labour,) by Canadians, who are quite as hardy, and almost as savage, as the Indians themselves. They are not allowed by the merchants of Montreal to take into the north-west more than one bushel, as their canoes must be of just such weight as two men can carry on their shoulders, an will just hold so much, as is completely filled with goods suitable for the Indian trade. The company has arrived at great opulence by this business. They extend it by their accounts so far as to mix, at times, and meet with merchants of the wilderness like themselves, employed by the Hudson Bay Company. One old man is returned, whom John Askin says he never knew to deviate from the truth, as too many travelers do. He says he has explored those high latitudes fifty years, and that far beyond all buffaloes, bears, and large beasts of any kind; the country there will produce no kind of grain, nor large trees; but the most fine furs, the beaver, otter, and martin skins, always selling at market for a third more than middle furs. Askin says Alexander Henry frequently tried to raise corn on the banks of Lake Suuperior, but never could get one ear in perfection. All which, and abundance more that might be truly inserted, conspire to give forty degrees north latitude the preference for human beings to breathe in. This evening, had a visit from capt. John Drake, an old Guinea trader, now a navigator on these lakes, remarkable for using no kind of drink but water; yet is a healthy, robust man. He is employed in the north-west trade, and just arrived from the Falls of St. Mary, at the entrance into Lake Superior. On this trade, the company has one topsail vessel, and a larger one on the stocks, ready to launch. They navigate that lake about four hundred miles, and some distance up a river, to the Grand Portage - where the goods are taken to canoes, by about one thousand men. These canoes run, as it is supposed, at least fifteen hundred miles west-north-west, - which requires them to be exceedingly industrious to make the post before winter - and when winter sets in a week or two sooner than common, they are frequently caught by the way.

One McKenzie, and ten men, set out last spring was a year from the Black, or by some called the Grand North Post, to attempt further discoveries; they have not been heard of since. He had been out once before, for twelve months; and met with mountains of salt ice. He now expects to be out three years. Some of these northern adventurers return, and appear as well as those who remain at home feasting on delicacies. In short, the young men hereaway think themselves no more accomplished for company or conversation, not having taken this journey, than our young gentlemen, not having taken the tour of Europe.

A day or two past, we had the company of five Moravian Indians, whose sorrowful history deeply affected us. After ninety-six of their people had been barbarously murdered at Muskingum, they were terrified and driven from one place to another, seven times. Their last movement was to the river Traunch, or Thames. They put in seventy acres of corn last year, which grew to good size, but being a little too late was killed by the frost. By which means, about one hundred and forty men, women, and children, are under great suffering for want of bread. Government furnished two hundred bushels of corn for their relief, which was nearly expended. On consideration of their being as the first fruits of Indian civilization, and are reputed very industrious; as also on the consideration of the concern of our society for the natives of the land, and the business in which we were embarked, we, on conferring together, were united in prospect, that it would be right, strangers and pilgrims as we were, to try our credit to supply them with one hundred dollars worth of corn and flour. Which being procured from Matthew Dolson, we furnished them with it; for which they and their missionary, Sensemer, appeared thankful; and I believe it had a good savour amongst the people here. We wrote a short epistle, expressive of our good wishes for and kind remembrance of them, and sent by Sam. White, John Kilbuck, and their companions, to David Zeisberger, to be read generally among their society at home.

28th. Warm and sultry. Stayed mostly at our lodgings.

29th. Had a visit from a Wyandot chief, who appeared to have much concern respecting the approaching treaty - also, a remembrance of former treaties and belts. Some long and broad belts he said they had, that were intended not only to bind us by the hands, but clasp us by the arms, so that no small accidents should in future be able to make a separation; - and that, notwithstanding all that had happened, the Wyandots felt some of the old affection to possess their breasts, and he hoped we would find it so at the general Council: but could speak for none but themselves. We desired our interpreter, J. Heckewelder, to assure him we possessed the same love and friendship for them, and for all other Indians, that we, or our forefathers ever did - that our principles had always restrained us from making war against them. But when we believed the government was disposed to make peace with them, on principles of justice, we were willing to leave our homes and near connexions, and at a great expense, undertake a long and hazardous journey, to endeavour to promote it, and to be present at the concluding of so good a work. On delivery of which, he said he knew long ago we did not fight, but were for peace. He then got up, and shook hands with Friends, then sat down, and spoke in substance as follows: That as we had come a long journey, and were all preserved in health, it was evident the Great Spirit was pleased with our coming; and he hoped some good would be done, and that the Great Spirit would bring us home in the same good health, with peace and joy. To which we replied, we were glad of such an opportunity it talk with him, and if the great and good work of peace could be effected, we hoped we should return home with joy and peace; which was all the reward we wanted or looked for. He asked whether it would be disagreeable, if he was to come and dine with us, to which we invited him.

We were also visited this morning by Abram, Katherine his wife, Rebekah and Mary, his daughters. They live at Miami Rapids, are Mohickons, and appear much civilized. Also, some Shawnee women, one a widow, who, because of her situation, had taken off her bobs, jewels, and trinkets, with which the others shone with splendor, having massy plates of silver about them, I have no doubt to an amount that would have clothed them in silk and velvet. Had it not been for the profuse introduction of distilled spirits amongst these people, and the frauds in consequence of it imposed upon them, also the ravages and depredations of war, with miltiplied murders and thefts, they would at this day have been a very wealthy people in silver and gold, cattle and horses. But the reverse is, at present, their sorrowful situation, I fear, to our condemnation. The history of their barbarity, treachery, and breach of faith to the white people, and to one another, which we have heard rehearsed by people well acquainted with the facts, since we arrived here, would be painful, tedious, and indeed too shocking to relate. These circumstances almost stagger the faith of their best friends. Even one of the Moravian missionaries said, that even if peace should be concluded, it would not last long, until they were further chastised. John Parrish asked by what means? Did he mean the sword? It was answered, "yes - not until they were convinced the United States were too powerful for them, and able to subject them." These being the sentiments of those who had lived long among them solely to promote peace, an the principles of the gospel proved very discouraging to us. They also pronounced it impossible to instruct them in the principles of justice, equity, and government; which I was not willing to admit.

We had a visit today from Nathan Williams, an intelligent man, especially in Indian affairs, which he has been intimately acquainted with. He, in a friendly manner, suggested fears that we would be either killed, or kept as hostages, at the ensuing Council. And truly I am not astonished at their ideas, considering the spectacles of human misery they are almost daily presented with, and the rumours they hear - where tribes of Indian warriors have so frequently passed, with their disconsolate prisoners; and with poles stuck up in front of their canoes, some with fifteen, others with thirty scalps suspended on them, in trophy of their courage and victory. Though it must be said in honour of British humanity, and commendation of this government, Upper Canada, and its truly respectable and generous officers, they have interfered to the relief of scores of prisoners, and obtained their redemption at a great price. Divers of these we have met with, and they appeared as the very outcasts of England and Ireland, who, as col. England and other officers told me, hardly had the manners to acknowledge the kindness, and in some instances it cost one hundred pounds. But in case of a real American, they never begrudged it.

This has been a high day at the Roman chapel; being canonized in honour of St. Peter. They rung the bells, and it is said, carried about the host. At ten, they assembled at the chapel in great numbers, men, women, and children. Some kneeled, and many sung aloud. I saw them through the windows, from our lodging. Many of them appeared sincere. But oh! The clouds of lifeless ceremonies, of images, pictures, water, wine, wafers; schemes of human policy and earthly wisdom, operating as so many veils which obscure the inshining of the rays of the Sun of righteousness, darkening counsel to a sorrowful degree, often amongst men in eminent stations. Indeed, the veil of the covering spread over all nations, is only destroyed in proportion as we approach, and ascend the Lord's peaceable, holy mountain, in the purity of his saints, as little children, - where, without cloud of ceremony, or mist of darkness or unbelief, their angels do behold the face or appearance of their Father in heaven, - they behold his universal love, - in his pure fear, - in the awful attributes of his righteous judgments, - and incomprehensible mercies, - more than heart can think, or tongue can speak, - and, in abasement, they bow before the name of the Lord Jehovah, in whom surely is everlasting strength, and to whom I desire to commit my cause, and commend my soul, with my dear companion and our tender babes, if we should never more meet in this vale of tribulation.

Last night, about eleven o'clock, five or six guns went off smartly one after another. The report sounded unpleasant, especially, anticipating if it should so happen at Sandusky, how it would probably alarm. I understand it was at some wolves which had destroyed a neighbour's sheep.

30th. We were visited by a principal man of the Wyandots, called the Blind Chief, with his nephew, grand-son, and great-grand-son, a likely lad of twelve years old. They were well dressed, and appeared friendly. We informed them, by an interpreter, of our friendly motives in this visit, and explained our uniform peaceable principles and practice, for more than one hundred years; and that we wished to promote peace in our country. He told us, eight of their principal men were gone to the Council at Miami Rapids, with pacific views and intentions. They took leave of us in a decent respectable manner.

This day we had two meetings in the king's sail-loft, largely attended by citizens, officers, and soldiers, of Detroit; which, though deeply exercising, wading as through mire, and dirt, and rubbish, yet were to a good degree satisfactory.

1st of 7th mo. Breakfasted at capt. Elliott's: afterwards attended the burial of Isidore Shone, at the Roman chapel, where the priest in his pontifical robes was preceded by a man bearing an ensign like a halbert, a large cross; and attended by singers, and two little lads, each with a candle. They, with the priest and singers, were clothed in black petticoats, and covered over the arms and shoulders with a white surplice, which reached down to the knee. When the coffin, which was covered with a black pall with costly fringe, approached the threshold of the chapel, the bearers made a small halt, the priest turned round with a brush in his hand, and sprinkled water on the apparatus about the deceased. I did not go inside of the house, but saw numbers of lighted candles burning in it; which made but a faint light, as the sun shone bright, and the day was exceeding warm. Notwithstanding which, the ecclesiastical part of the procession went bare-headed, and very slow, muttering or rather growling, a sentence or two of Latin, over and over, all the way. Indeed the whole of this religious parade appeared to have more of Jewish ceremony, or Gentile superstition in it, than Christian simplicity or gravity. - They deposited the poor tabernacle under the floor, rung the bells, sung aloud, made their sanctum sanctorum resound and then departed. Numbers of them come to mass on first day, eight or ten miles, just step in, and (they say) rhyme over their paternoster, dip their finger into the font, cross themselves, and out again, to drink and frolic.

2nd. I went on board the Ottaway, capt. Cowan, just arrived from Fort Erie, in hopes of hearing from home; in which I was disappointed. I found eighteen Oneida Indians on board, with whom I had some conversation. The captain informed me he had put sixty on shore at the mouth of the Miami, on their way to the Rapids, where, we are informed, twelve hundred Indians are assembled. This day we received a letter from colonel McKee, containing friendly sentiments, and an assurance that we should have timely notice of the opening of the treaty. We also received one from a young man on board the Chipaway, informing that colonel Butler, who was passenger with his Indians on board capt. Cowan's vessel, came on board their vessel, and in conversation with a select company where he had no suspicion, expressed, that if the commissioners should propose, or even hint any other terms than what were concluded upon by the Indians, he would not think it strange if every person from the colonies, commissioners, Quakers, and all, should be sacrificed on the spot; for they know no distinction, but their own people. This, the young man communicated to us out of pure friendship, having heard it himself: which we treasured up at present. But truly, the pressure of murdering, dark, blood-thirsty spirits, from day to day, is exceeding heavy; always requiring us to watch and pray, that we may be furnished with the whole armour of light.

3rd. Col. England came to visit us. We went to see his garden - in the interview he showed every mark of respect to Friends, and desired us as often as we wished to retire into his arbours in the heat of the day. We acknowledged his kindness, and went to our lodgings to dine, where we had the company of a young Shawnese chief. He was neatly dressed in Indian style. I computed he had, at least, one thousand silver broaches stuck on a new silk hunting shirt. He behaved at table with great gentility.

4th. Fourteen Indians came to see us. They appeared friendly. The weather exceeding warm. Although we are well supplied with provisions, yet, the water being all brought from the river, and standing in a tierce in the sunshine, makes our drink disagreeable. This, with a host of flies by day, and fleas and bugs by night, added to our state of suspense, required some fortitude and patience to keep our post without looking back, or meditating an escape.

5th. Had some conversation with an intelligent woman who had been taken prisoner in Kentucky, and separated from her husband and nine children. All had been favoured to meet again except one, which she says is now in Kentucky. She says, three hundred and ninety-five persons were taken, and scattered through the wilderness at the time they were, fourteen years ago. Such a situation, contrasted with a land of peace, and the security of life, liberty, and property, may enable us to make some estimate of the blessings we enjoy, and the principles which lead to a permanent security of them.

This morning the Ottaway, capt. Cowan, sailed for Fort Miami, to go by the way of Miami Bay, having provisions on board for McKee and the Indians at the Rapids. In this vessel captain Elliott, deputy Indian agent for the British, embarked to join McKee at the council. We acquainted him repeatedly with our design in coming to this country, and our prospects of the importance of the business in agitation, and engaged him to use his influence as speedily as possible to open the way for a treaty. I sent by this vessel some intelligence to Philadelphia, and sailed up the river past Hog Island and Pearl Island, into the lower end of Lake St. Clair, which is about thirty-six miles long, and eighteen broad. After taking a prospect of Gross Point, the residence of commodore Grant, we viewed N. Williams's stone wind mill, dined at his house, and returned eight or nine miles to our lodgings.

William Savery and William Hartshorn, in our absence, were visited by a Shawnese warrior, who announced to them what had before been frequently suggested to us by divers persons, that if the commissioners did not immediately agree that all the land west of the Ohio should be evacuated, and given up by the United States, or even hinted anything to the contrary, by offering gifts or money as purchase, of which they understood they had brought abundance with them, that none of them, or their company, would ever go off the ground alive - for their fathers, who are now all gone, had sold lands for knives, broaches, and rum, till they were driven almost to the sun-setting, where they were determined to make a stand. He complained of the ruinous consequences of the introduction of spirituous liquors amongst their fathers, saying, at first they called it bitter water, and some, fiery water; but by repeated offers of it to them, they at length fell in with it to their hurt in general. He also informed, that four days before he left the Rapids, a deputation of two chiefs of each nation had embarked to meet the commissioners at Niagara, to let them know the outlines of their conclusions, and that if the white people would settle to the banks of the Ohio, on the east side, and agree that the river should be the line, they would be glad, and take them by the hand, and call them brothers. All which intelligence, he said, might be depended on as true. Our apprehensions that the commissioners were vested with no such powers, and that the government had no such intentions, tended to thicken the cloud which seems impending over this land; as the seeds of destruction are sowing in a soil, prepared to produce shocking scenes.

This same Indian getting raised with strong drink in the afternoon, made a stroke with his tomahawk at one Sylvester Ash, an interpreter, who had long resided with the Shawnese; Ash's exertions prevented his killing him: he then knocked off our landlord's hat, who struck him several hard blows, and turned him out of the house. Capt. Munsey being present, sent for two soldiers, who put him out of the garrison. He was much enraged. Upon the whole, all things conspire to increase the gloom, and assure us that nothing short of wisdom from on high will do for us to lean to.

6th. My mind was deeply exercised with a consideration, how the way may open in this dark land, to lift up our testimony for the excellency of the government of Christ, our Redeemer, in these heathen regions of both white and red people. The Felicity is just arrived from the Miami, and confirms the account of the Indian deputation being gone to meet the commissioners at Niagara, accompanied by col. Butler and Simon Girty.

7th. First of the week. Held a meeting in the sail-loft, which was in a good degree comfortable and satisfactory. Just arrived from the Rapids, capt. John, David Kennedy, and Mohican Samuel, by whom we received a letter from capt. Hendricks, importing, that twenty nations were then assembled; that there were runners sent to bring forward the Powtowatomie chiefs; that in a few days they should move to Sandusky, and that a desire for peace was gaining ground amongst them. This account from a man in whom we had confidence, was encouraging to us.

In the forenoon, we held a meeting for worship at a mill, at the river Ruzche, about five miles from Detroit, with a considerable number of middle aged and young people, to the peace of our minds. Returned in the evening, they having sent up horses to bring us down and carry us back.

8th. Had an interview with David Kennedy, a learned, intelligent man, just returned with captain John from the Rapids. He informs, there are a numerous host of Indians there, and that the general sentiments were looking towards peace; yet the young Shawnese were high, and rough in their dispositions, expecially the warriors. We also had an opportunity with about ten or twelve Indians of the Six Nations, desiring them to use their influence to promote the work of peace; which they appeared to unite with.

This forenoon we wrote to captain Hendricks by Samuel, also sent him some money (five dollars) for which he wrote. We have lately understood that hostilities have commenced between the Chipawas and Sioux of the Meadows, and Sioux of the Woods, against each other. They are powerful nations.

This day was another interment at the Roman chapel, of a man, said to be one hundred and fifteen years old. It was, as usual, attended with abundance of Romish pomp and superstition. The house was wonderfully replenished with lighted candles, which, in meridan sunshine, appeared to reflect no light at all; but rather a gloom - which is truly the case with spiritual sunshine, or gospel light. It all appeared dark.

9th. I went to visit col. England, where I met capt. Blue Jacket, a chief warrior among the Delawares, who, it is said, was in command at general St. Clair's defeat. He was dressed in scarlet, with gold tassels, and a laced hat. A brave, masculine figure of a man. I spoke to him by an interpreter, letting him know I was one of the people called Quakers, who were men of peace, and that we were come to try to heal, and make peace. He replied, he had heard of Quakers, and that they were harmless people, and did not fight. He was going to Montreal; but had given his opinion before he came away, and hoped matters would be settled.

We also had a visit to-day from several Shawnese. One of them was a middle-aged man, the most solid countenanced I had seen amongst them. We spoke to him by an interpreter, and let him know who we were, and what our views were in coming; and also our apprehensions of the sincerity of the government, in the present embassy. With which he appeared pleased, and said he heartily wished we might get through with the work of peace, that the young and active part of the Indian nations might know what to do, as it concerned them most, for the old ones had not long to live. He said he had heard of our people, that we did justly, and did not fight, and that he was glad to be with us. After drinking a glass of two of wine he wished us well, and departed.

In my interview with col. England, I was presented with a sketch of the great falls, curiously taken by capt. Steel, who is an artist at such designs. I also had an account to-day, from a man employed at the Grand Portage. It is nine miles over, and three bundles of seventy pounds each, is the stipulated burden for each man to carry that distance. But some will carry more, and ascend and descend two mountains on the way. Two men carry the canoe on their shoulders, until the blood will run down, on green hands; but at length, the skin becomes as hard as a bullock's neck accustomed to the yoke. - Thus they carry and row, over ninety carrying places, and as many creeks, puddles, little lakes, and rivers, for more than one thousand miles beyond the Grand Portage.

10th. Capt. Blue Jacket came to us. We had a friendly interview with him. He is married to a French merchant's daughter, late of this place, now deceased. Two Cayugas also visited us. But we painfully feel the need of suitable interpreters. - Many understand their language; but our sentiments being generally peaceful, serious, and religious, so opposite to those held by persons qualified to serve us, that what they delivered appeared to be with shame and reluctance. This put it out of our power fully to relieve our minds. My mental powers often centered in secret intercession to the Preparer of hearts, that the travail of my spirit might be conveyed through such aqueducts, to their advantage and edification, as may best consist with his wisdom and power. As our minds were bowed and patiently waded under it, there evidently appeared a seriousness at times to impress our countenances. - Last evening we received a grateful letter from the Moravian Indians.

We had interviews to-day with several Indians, Munseys, Shawnese, and Delawares, to some satisfaction. They appeared pleased with our motives in coming. This afternoon, I visited a young woman educated at Newport Rhode Island. Her father's name, William Foster. She went from home, contrary to her father's will, with one Molay, an officer in St. Clair's army. He was killed in the defeat of 1790, and she taken prisoner by the Indians, who kept her eleven months. She then got off, and has since lived in Detroit, and by her conduct evinced that she was not thankful enough for the many mercies and great deliverances wrought for her. Latterly she has been taken with epileptic fits, of which she frequently has divers in a day. The intervals of health are filled with bemoanings and cries for mercy. Notwithstanding it appeared to me to be the chastening hand of judgment laid upon her, yet my sympathy was touched, to consider if she was my child, poor and quite destitute of friends able to comfort her, how should I feel. Oh! saith my soul, that the multiplied mournful instances recited in the catalogue of rebellion and disobedience to parents, might have the happy effect to induce young people early to seek the kingdom of God, and his righteousness: so would they be preserved out of snares, temptations, and beds of anguish and sorrow, the sure rewards of sin and disobedience.

11th. Dined at - Abbott's, a Detroit merchant, with all our company, except Joseph Moore. Indian affairs was the topic. In the course of the conversation, I felt some zeal for the testimony to arise; under which I spoke plainly to divers points, and some persons present urged the necessity of whipping, or further chastising the Indians, and the impossibility of effecting their reformation without it.

12th. Went down to the river four miles, and paid three or four little visits to some friendly people. This afternoon, a vessel arrived from Fort Erie, bring accounts that the Indian deputation had arrived there, and the commissioners were returned to Niagara. Which accounts, with no way opening as yet to see the Indians at the Rapids, and no letters from Philadelphia, make our situation here singularly trying.

13th. A small vessel arrived from Fort Erie, which brought letters from my wife, M. Miller, brother of J.L. and Jonathan and Rumford Dawes, all frought with love, and instructive communication. This was a joyous feast to my mind, and as marrow to my bones, ministering much consolation and encouragement, and animating with increasing fervency and dedication to encounter the difficulties of our wilderness journey, with the varied conflicts and perils attendant thereon. We also received three general epistles, one from James Pemberton, one from John Pemberton, and one from Henry Drinker, all dated about 6th of 6th mo. 1793, which were mutually comforting and strengthening to our little band. To find and feel the help, sympathy, and travail of the spirits of our friends at home, was like the consecrating oil to each of us. This vessel also brought a letter to us from col. Pickering, announcing the arrival of the Indian deputation, just as they were about to embark, and the commissioners were requested to return to Navy Hall, to have a short speech in the audience of gov. Simcoe. As it was to be a short conference, they desired our further patience, and hoped to see us in a few days. This intelligence, after five weeks of suspense, was not very pleasant.

14th. First of the week. Held a public meeting for worship in the ship-yard, which was attended by a large number of people, divers of whom are nearly attached to us. It was a solid, quiet season. But through ignorance of the divine principle, or through their inattention to it, and want of faith in it, truth, in the Babylonish land, does not rise into that dominion, as I have felt it in some other places.

I had an opportunity of conversing with Simon Girty's wife, who seems an inoffensive woman. She had been long a prisoner amongst the Indians. She gave an account of many of their methods of torture on their enemies. She says they used frequently to speak of the Quakers in the nations, as a people that did not go to war. Capt. Elliott has just arrived from the Rapids, but nothing further has yet transpired.

15th. Had an interview with Elliott; he appears much reserved. Our anxious state of suspense continues. Being apprehensive of the Indian embassy to the commissioners preventing the proposed treaty, we wrote to col. McKee, also a short epistle to the Indians, to be in readiness to forward by the first opportunity.

Here we observed a species of Indian slaves, called Pawnees, or Punins, who are captives, chiefly taken by the Chipawas from the Suez, (Sioux) or Pawnee nations. But it is sorrowful to think, that in a British government so famed for liberty, they, and a number of the African race, are held in bondage during life.

This day I walked out into the woods, a mile and a half; when my further excursion was prevented by swamps, bogs, and marshes. In my route, I found stones in divers places, such as are observed on the margin of the lake. The land in general is almost sunk under water. My mind was strongly impressed with the belief, that lakes Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Michigan were once united, and the tens of thousands of acres of low adjacent land, were all overflowed. By the breaking and wearing away of the great falls as mentioned before, the water has lowered to the present surface: and as cultivation increases, I have no doubt the country will be improved by a further diminution of the marvelous cataract. The progress of population, at present, is obstructed, not only by the wet, unhealthy state of the country, but also by other circumstances: viz. one-seventh of the whole country is reserved for the crown, and one-seventh for the episcopal clergy: also by an existing law of old Canada, all real estates, though sold seven times in seven years, must be sold at the chapel door, mostly on first-day afternoon, one-ninth whereof goes to the Roman church. By this means some congregations, especially in Montreal and Quebec, have become immensely rich, and enabled to carry on their Idolatrous pomp and parade of worship, so as to make the world wonder. But as light is rising a necessary reform is apprehended to be not far distant.

16th. Had a solid interview with Elliott, deputy agent of Indian affairs for the British. He is preparing to return to the Indian council at the Rapids. We proposed to him, whether there would be any impropriety in our going with him. To which he replied, as his sentiment, that where the Indians were now assembled was their own council ground, and on a path that was not to be trod in but by warriors: and therefore, it was his opinion, it would not be eligible to move that way at present. We let him know our prospects were, that every assistance from the British government towards negotiating a peace with the Indians, would be afforded. He gave us to understand, the Indians were generally acquainted with our being here, and our views towards them, and hoped, on the return of the Indian embassy, some way would open for our relief. Finding no way to have an opportunity with them collectively, we concluded to write again to the agent, McKee, and also to the Indians; which Elliott assured us should be fully and fairly interpreted to them. With this we were for the present obliged to rest satisfied in our probationary tribulated allotment. I can truly say, I travailed with many pangs to be delivered, with breathings to Him who alone can help and interpose, when all human aid is utterly unavailing.

It is wheat harvest; the grain is well filled; but in many places it is much injured by a kind of smut, or blast. The grain is as large as good wheat, but appears of a dusky colour; and being bruised, or cut in two, the contents are like soot, black and dusty; sometimes ten blasted ears for one sound one. In divers instances, wheatfields are rendered entirely useless. When one-half, or one-third, or even one-tenth, is smutted wheat, it spoils the whole. The farmer is obliged to wash all his wheat through three or four waters, before it is fit for bread.

17th. No admission being apparent into the Indian country, as the best expedient, we concluded to send by capt. Elliott, Friends' Address, accompanied by a short epistle of our own, to the Indians: also, a letter to col. McKee. We remain daily exercised in a patient, fervent travail, that the Supreme Controller of events may bring to pass his hidden purposes, according to his own sacred determination, to the exaltation of his own great name, in these dark regions of violence, murder, and licentiousness of almost every kind. The awful language of the Most High to a backsliding people formerly, has frequently impressed my mind, as applicable to the inhabitants of these countries, with some few exceptions, - "My soul loathed them, and their souls abhorred me."

This day a cannon was fired, for the direction of a man supposed to be lost in the woods. It frequently happens that people get bewildered in this country, and sometimes lost, especially in cloudy weather. If they go but one mile in the woods, such is the sameness of soil, timber, &c. with no mountains, and few streams to guide them, they frequently take the opposite direction from the settlement, and get into difficulty.

We have lately heard of the arrival of a number of Creek and Cherokee Indians, in the neighbourhood of the Indian council; we fear, with views not friendly to a peaceable accommodation of matters with the western Indians. We have heard hostilities between them and the whites have been renewed to the southward. Great is the opposition, at present, in the earth, to the peaceable kingdom of Christ, our Redeemer: under a sense of which, my spirit bows wit intercession, that Israel may abide in their tents, where they will be covered as under the hollow of his divine hand, until his indignation pass over.

18th. I had an interview with capt. George Welbank, who appeared an intelligent, cool, dispassionate man. He came with a detachment of Cherokee and Creek Indians, from their towns in the southern territory, he says, more than a thousand miles from hence in a straight line; and that they were ninety days on their journey. His principal business appeared to be with col. England, who immediately gave orders for the sloop Felicity to sail, with capt. Welbank on board, to Fort Erie, on the way to gov. Simcoe. Large rolls of intelligence were dispatched by him, containing, as we supposed, matters of importance. Shortly before, col. England, assured our friends, the Felicity was detained in the harbour on purpose to transport us to Sandusky, or Fort Erie, as was most eligible, on the shortest notice.

In conversation with capt. Welbank, on the situation of Indian affairs to the southward, with which he discovered extensive knowledge, he asserted as follows: - That in the year 1791, a treaty was held with the southern Indians, negotiated on behalf of the United States, by a person who made out the articles of the treaty in writing, wherein he inserted the free navigation of the Cherokee river, without their knowledge, and bribed the interpreter to read, ten miles round Nashville village, where forty was inserted. There was a large extent of country, for which the natives required three thousand dollars per annum, but he assured them his power would not permit him to go so high; but for the present he would insure two thousand dollars, and had no doubt of obtaining the whole sum, by application to Congress. But in the article it was read, two thousand dollars, where one thousand only was entered. And after all, the survey far exceeded the limits of the land agreed on. Of which grievances, the bloody fellow, Notawasky, Joberson, and Prince of Eastern Airy, came to Congress for redress; they were politely received, and assured justice should take place. On the faith of which, they returned, and made report to their people, who rested satisfied, until their hopes of redress were laid waste, by Spencer and others coming over the dividing ridge, between Holstein and Tennessee rivers, (which was the boundary prescribed) building mills, and picketing forts, on the waters of the Tennessee. Capt. Welbank says the Indians have applied to the Spaniards, and received assurances they shall be supplied with necessaries. There were some reasons for believing capt. Welbank was now here to negotiate a friendship with the British.

This afternoon, John Elliott and myself walked three or four miles to see sixteen Oneida Indians, amongst whom are several principal men, George Duckwell, Abram, &c. We had some conversation with them on the advantages of peace, and the blessings consequent on being redeemed out of the spirit of war. We also entered a little into the subjects of the existing uneasiness between the Indians and our government. Duckwell, an old man, said, the dispute was about lands west of the Ohio - that he was at a treaty, held at Fort Stanwix, twenty-four years ago, which was a general treaty with all the tribes; and then, the Ohio was agreed to be the boundary. Since which time, he knew of no treaty, where the chiefs who had a right to sell lands, were collected. I find the Six Nations claim a kind of sovereignty over the soil, to a great extent southward. Abram said he married his wife amongst the Wyandots, and some years ago, they made a visit to see her relations, "and I say, brothers, what you always go to war - fight 'mericas? They say - if 'mericas love peace, give us our lands - stay that side 'hio - shake hands - call brothers; - but if 'mericas come take our country, where deer plenty, turkeys, wild cows - good land - then war - always war." We told him we never went to war, nor our friends, for one hundred fifty years past - that all men, of all nations, white, red, and black, were our brothers - that one Great Spirit made us all, and was father of us all. They said "Ouch," that is good, very good.

19th. Stayed mostly at our lodgings, writing, conversing with some intelligent travellers. One of them related a conversation between one Frobisher, a merchant in the north-west trade, when at the Grand Portage, west end of Lake Superior, and an old Indian from the northwest; which so much coincided with my own sentiments, that I note it. - Frobisher was inquiring after the curiosities of the northern clime, which the Indian related as far as he had travelled - but added, that younger Indians, who had travelled further north-west, had seen some things still more wonderful. Frobisher asked him if he did not think some parts of their relation untrue? The old Indian replied, "No; it is not possible it can be lies, for they had never seen a white man in their lives!" A severe reflection on Christians, so called!

20th. A woman was interred at the Roman chapel, with the usual pomp, parade, and superstition. Candles burning in clear sunshine - host and holy water displayed - black pall surplices. All the males bare-headed, walking slowly - the sexton going before, the host-bearer next, with a boy on each side carrying lighted candles. Then the priest, in his pontifical robes, with a boy before him, with a brass laver or font, containing the consecrated water, with a brush in it. On each side of the priest were singers dolefully humming Latin. The priest held a book in his hand, which he sometimes opened, and then sung Latin - several times sprinkling the bier and pall with the water. The singers and boys bearing the candlesticks and laver, as also those who supported the bier, were clothed outside with black. The bells rung frequently. Indeed, the whole procession appeared solemnly dark. When they came to the grave, which was about two and a half feet deep, in which was much water, the priest took the brush and added a little more - they laid down the coffin, and for a time dolefully hummed more Latin. During which, the people generally went on their knees. When that was over, the people departed, leaving the sexton to fill up the grave alone. I am told the water rises so near the surface of the ground in these countries, that it is difficult to bury a corpse so deep but what the wolves can scratch down to it. As they often bury without coffins, many who are killed in battle in the woods, and other murdered in cold blood and left above ground, the wolves have devoured them. It is said, these animals have become so fierce and fond of human flesh, that they have attacked, and destroyed people in the woods. The Indians used to call them brothers, and would not kill them; but one or two of their people having been killed by those creatures, the Indians have now proclaimed war against them, killing all they can.

This low, level country, abounds with sugar trees to such a degree, that if the manufactory of sugar was promoted extensively in this place, it might be ranked among the exports of North America. The Indians who have kettles suitable for the business, make large quantities in the spring of the year and sell it as low as six-pence per pound, and under. Some have been so fraudulent as to mix sand with it, and when detected, endeavour to justify themselves by the example of the white people mixing water with the rum sold to them. A practice very common amongst rum sellers, who say rum hurts them, and the less they get the better for them. It is therefore evident, that in proportion to their intercourse with the whites, they have increased in treachery, fraud, drunkenness, and licentiousness of every kind; and appear, at present, not unlikely to be a rod prepared for our close chastisement.

Being in their nature or by habit, unfeeling and ferocious, I have often in this journey had my feelings wounded, by seeing old gray-headed women carrying heavy burdens of skins, venison, brooms, matchcoats, &c. with large drops of sweat rolling from their aged brows; when several sprightly young and middle-aged men, went lightly on before them, with nothing to carry but their clothes, tomahawk, and scalping knife dangling by their thigh.

21st. Last evening I had an account from a man who came from the Glades up the Miami-of-the-Lake that the Creek and Cherokee Indians passed through the Delaware towns there, and produced a piece of tobacco died red, which was received as the declaration of war against the United States - that the white prisoners were very numerous amongst the Indians - and that, at the Rapids as he came along, he saw a beautiful woman, well dressed, just brought in.

This morning, a number of Oneida Indians came to our lodgings, and informed, that two of their number had just come from the Rapids, and brought tidings, that it was reported there, that Wayne's army was advancing, and large numbers of the Indians had left the council, to go to defend their towns. They sent the Oneidas to repair to their assistance, which they were resolved not to comply with. Which determination, we endeavoured to strengthen, and gave it as our opinion, that the army was not advancing, and would not advance, until the result of the treaty was known. They were very jealous of some deception, which it was hard to remove.

This forenoon, had a solid meeting in the ship yard; after which, a number of the gentlemen of the town came to see us. In a little time one came who announced the Dunmore was at the mouth of the river, with the commissioners on board. Soon after, capt. Gibbons, who was a passenger, came and confirmed the news. We had appointed a meeting at five o'clock, and thought best to endeavour for stillness at present. The afternoon meeting was not as large as the former. It was a season of heavy exercise, through the presence of a carnal, lukewarm disposition, in many; yet the great Shepherd was mercifully pleased to baptize a remnant int tenderness of spirit; and the opportunity concluded with solemn supplication.

In the evening we had a visit from - Gibbons, an officer in the regiment of Queen's Rangers. He was present when the Indians opened their embassy to the commissioners, at Navy Hall. About ninety Indians were there. When the governor, Simcoe, was present, capt. Brant spoke as follows: "Gentlemen, you say you are commissioners from the United States; have you power to alter the disputed line between you and us?" They answered, "We have." "Can you tell us the reason of an armed force advancing at this time into our country?" The answer was, "We cannot, neither do we believe it; yet to make all parties satisfied, we will despatch an express immediately to the war office, to stop every motion of an advance." Then they said, "Come on, we will treat with you." Jasper Parrish was despatched to Philadelphia.

The commissioners not being permitted to come here, were landed at the mouth of the river, and have sent for us.

22nd. Settled with our landlord, Matthew Dolson, for six weeks accommodation, twelve pounds, seven shillings, and six-pence, York money.

23rd. I visited col. England, in company with John Parrish, to confer with him on the most eligible mode of departure from Detroit. He, with his wonted politeness, offered his barge; but gave it as his sentiment, that we had better stay till fifth-day, when the Dunmore would sail, to be at the commissioners' direction. As it was his orders, it was also his inclination to accommodate them all in his power, so we consented to add two more days to our confinement.

We had an interview with several Indians to-day; one of them acknowledged he had killed a Kuhemocomon, and stole three horses this spring. He was a warlike creature, and we could do little with him, for want of an interpreter. I gave him a few hints, a pipe, and a loaf of bread, and he departed.

24th. A solemn morning; my mind composed, and engaged in mental aspirations to the Supreme Controller of events, that he might be pleased to bless our endeavours to promote the glory and honour of his own great name, the advantage of our country, the peace of nations, and of individuals. - In which I beheld, that so long as we dwell only on the surface and suuperficies of important subjects, in a chain of carnal reasoning, and in the fogs and mists of earthly wisdom and human policy, we are in danger of making errors of judgment, and of viewing the agents of distress, as the primary cause of evil. But by tracing effects to their causes, and weighing actions in the equal and unalterable scales of justice and truth, I believe we shall centre in prospect with the inspired penman, "Affliction cometh not forth of the dust, neither doth trouble spring out of the ground." Is there not a cause? Consider, yea, awfully contemplate the announced decree of Him "who weigheth the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance, and meteth out the heavens with a span, and measureth the water of the seas in the hollow of his hand; and before whom, all nations are but as a drop of a bucket, - "Such measure as ye mete, to you it shall be measured again.". . . .

Took an affectionate leave of Matthew Dolson and Hannah, and divers other inhabitants of Detroit, and went on board the Dunmore; col. England, lieut. Henry, ensign Ross, and Edward O'Brien, accompanying us. Many of the officers of the garrison and inhabitants of the place came to the wharf to take leave of us. Among the latter is a very respectable family, of the name of Reynolds. They have an amiable daughter, Margaret.

From: FRIENDS' MISCELLANY: BEING A COLLECTION OF ESSAYS AND FRAGMENTS, BIOGRAPHICAL, RELIGIOUS, EPISTOLARY, NARRATIVE, AND HISTORICAL. Jacob Lindley's Diary. Philadelphia: J. Richards, 1836. Reprinted in the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections. 17 (1890): 584-617.

See Also:

Russell, Nelson V. The British Regime in Michigan and the Old Northwest 1760 - 1796. Northfield, MN: Carlton College, 1939.