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1793 Moore

Jacob Lindley, Joseph Moore, and Oliver Paxson were Quakers on this expedition hoping to settle the differences between the United States and the Indians at Sandusky, Ohio. The U. S. Commissioners were General Benjamin Lincoln, Timothy Pickering, and Beverley Randolph. The proposed Council was an effort to bring about a peaceful settlement with the tribes north of the Ohio. The U.S. Commissioners were not allowed to go to Detroit, meanwhile the British were holding their own general council with all the tribes at the Rapids of the Maumee River to unite the Indians and present unanimous terms to the Americans. After waiting two weeks the U.S. Commissioners departed. The Quakers, also not allowed to attend the council, departed without ever fulfilling their goal of speaking to the Indians. The Indians had recently won several battles and felt empowered against the Americans. The Quakers had a direct interest in the peace process since they were also effected by the war which included Pennsylvania. The two accounts which follow are full of important information about the area at this time.

Joseph Moore's Account.

9th , and first of the week; - fine pleasant morning with light airs of wind. The islands now appeared in sight. This day we had a small meeting in the cabin with out fellow passengers and two Indian chiefs. In the evening entered the mouth of Detroit river, and anchored till morning; when we ran up the beautiful river a northerly course, with a fair wind to Detroit. This is a small garrison town, with a variety of inhabitants. Here is much of the sound of drums and trumpets, but not much religion. The people here, as well as those on board our ship, were very respectful to us - and there was great harmony amongst ourselves. Thanks be to kind Providence for all his unmerited favours. Here we landed our small baggage, and took lodgings at Mathew Dolson's for the present.

11th. Found our accommodations comfortable and easy. We visited the commandant, colonel England, and showed him our passport from governor Simcoe, at Niagara, and are now waiting the commissioners, coming forward, which we hope may be soon. From the present complexion of things, it looks likely to be some time before the treaty commences; so that we find patience very necessary to be necessary to be exercised. We hear many sentiments expressed, some favourable and some otherwise. Hope our minds may not be diverted by either from that humble dependence on the omnipotent Arm of power, under whose banner, I trust, we have enlisted in the righteous cause of peace-makers.

12th. Took a walk down the bank of the river, about three miles to a fine spring, of which there are few hereabouts. The inhabitants mostly use the river water, which is said to be very wholesome. The banks of this river for many miles above and below the town, are very thickly settled, mostly with French, who have fine orchards and meadows, and good wheat growing. Their grain is mostly manufactored by wind-mills, of which there are many in sight. The inhabitants of the town are as great a mixture, I think, as I ever knew in any one place. English, Scotch, Irish, Dutch, French, Americans from different states, with black and yellow, and seldom clear of Indians of different tribes in the day time. These are all turned out by nine o'clock at night, and the gates are shut - sentries are placed constantly in various parts round the town, which is enclosed with high pickets. There is no place of worship except one Roman Catholic chapel. There are large ships employed on these waters, some of which are from one hundred to two hundred and fifty tons burden; they sail up to Michillimackinac, several hundred miles from this place, and return with abudance of peltry - the staple commodity of this country.

13th. John Parrish, John Elliott, and myself, dined with the commandant, colonel Richard England, and a number of other officers, and were friendly and liberally entertained.

14th. Took passage in a small boat, bound up the river Latrench, on the east side of Lake St. Clair, with a fair wind - passed through the lake, more than twenty miles over, and went up the river about fifteen miles, to Isaac Dolson's, where we lodged. - Next day, with some Indians in a canoe, proceeded up the river about twenty miles, to Edward Watson's, son of Thomas, of New York, an intimate acquaintance. The respect I felt for him and his connexions, induced me to take this tour to see him, and know how he fared here. He and his wife received me kindly. They are connected with the Moravian brethern, and were very civil to me. John Heckewelder, Indian interpreter and Moravian minister, was passenger with me as far as Dolson's, where he took horse and went up the river to visit his brethren at a settlement of that people. This appears to be a beautiful new country, just settling; fine wheat, corn, peas, &c. now growing, and grass in abundance; - the timber, white and black oak, cherry, hickory, black and white walnut, ash, linn, poplar, &c., I am informed it continues in that way for one hundred and fifty miles up this river - the general course of which runs about east from its mouth, and the farther up, it is said, the better the land. The inhabitants here appear to want as much cultivation as the lands they live on. May the Lord's power so reach their hearts, as to bring them into subjection to his Divine will.

16th, and first of the week, after breakfast took leave of this family in a solid manner, and returned to Dolson's: on the way, called at several houses where divers were collected, being much accstomed to visit each other on first-days, - among whom I had several opportunities for religious conversation, and informing them of our principles.

17th. The boat being ready for sailing having on board about twenty-five bushels of wheat, we got under way, and had a pleasant passage to the town, where we arrived about ten o'clock in the evening. The gates being shut, we were obliged to lodge without the pickets.

18th. Went early into the town - found all my dear friends well; they gave me an account of two public meetings held by them; one with the inhabitants of the town and soldiers, and a number of the officers, in the forenoon; and another in the country in the afternoon, both to pretty good satisfaction. Jacob Lindley, William Savery, and William Hartshorne, dined with the commandant yesterday. With respect to Indian affairs, things look dull and gloomy - the commissioners not yet come forward; so that we are here in suspense with respect to the time of the opening of the treaty, and hear many frightful stories about the conduct of the Indians; but we endeavour to keep our minds quiet, trusting in the arm of divine power for preservation, and believing we are engaged in the righteous cause of promoting peace on earth and good will to men.

19th. William Savery not very well - the rest of our company, to wit, Friends, went down the river in a small boat, about four miles, to Frederick Arnold's where we dined - then went on foot about two to John Messemer's, who is of the religious society called Dunker's, - with whom and divers of his friends and neighbours we held a meeting, which was a solid, satisfactory opportunity, I believe to them and us. Here we lodged.

20th. After a solid opportunity with the family, we went on toward our boat - dined at Francis Cornwell's; the weather being wet and the wind ahead, William Hartshorne and I lodged here - the rest of our company went to Frederick Arnold's.

21st. In the afternoon, John Elliott and Jacob Lindley went on foot up the river and crossed over to the town. The others lodged here - being very kindly entertained.

22nd. Set out and rowed up to the town - found William Savery and the rest of our company all well. We have frequently been visited by numbers of the Indian chiefs that were on their way to Sandusky, who mostly called us Shemucteman, or long knives, the term they use to describe Americans of the United States; but when informed what we were, they signified they had heard of our being come, and were glad. This day, we were visited by several that had just come to town. We observed the generality of all the tribes had a remarkable thirst for rum; and when intoxicated were very troublesome.

23rd. First of the week, we held a meeting in a large sail loft in the shipyard; had a considerable gathering of the town's people, and a few soldiers, who behaved quietly. The meeting held about two hours and a half, and I believe ended well. In the afternoon had some more Indians to visit us, of the Chipaway nation; one of whom, called a chief, was pretty clean dressed, which is not general among that nation.

24th. Our landlord's boat set out for the river Rushe, with grain, to the mill. I took passage therein with William Savery. Matthew Dolson met us at the mill, and William returned with him in the evening; I stayed all night at Jacob Troxler's, a Dutchman who served his time in Jersey. The people were as kind as it was in their power.

25th. The boat with the cargo being ready, we rowed most of the way home, being about ten miles. This river is called Rushe, which signifies red, and the water appears stained with something which causes ti to appear with remarkable redness.

26th . John Heckewelder returned from Latrench river; with him came a number of the Moravian Indians, who adhere to the religion of that family of the brethren. We understand they suffered much in the time of the late war, and since, - having had a number of their friends killed by the white people, with the loss of their substance, of which they had plenty while in their peaceable habitations at Muskingum. They were now in the sixth place of their retreat, in the British government, and on good land. Our commisseration was excited by the above account, and we granted some relief to the amount of one hundred dollars, which they received thankfully.

27th. The Indians are every day here, on their way to the treaty. Twenty-eight are just arrived from Michillimackinac, some of whom I saw this morning; they were well dressed, curiously painted, and decorated with wampum, and ear and nose bobs; all young, and the handsomest I think I have as yet seen. They appeared good humoured and pleasant, having, as I was informed, brought no arms or warlike instruments with them, except their bows and arrows, with flutes for music, of their own making, which appeared simple, but pleasing to themselves. Some of the British officers asked them to play, which they readily did, by putting the instrument to the mouth, and sometimes to the nose; as handily to one as the other.

This evening had the company of capt. John Drake, a coaster between this and Mackinaw, distant one hundred and thirty leagues - sails in a sloop of seventy or eighty tons burthen. He gave us some account of the north-west fur trade, and the manner of its being carried on by the companies concerned, who employ many hundred men, that stay many years in the country, travelling and trading with the northern Indiands for peltry; an abundance of which, of the richest kind, is brought from the high northern latitudes, which netts the companies a very large profit. But among what people, or in what part of the world, except the Canadian French, could persons be found for their purpose, I know not. They are allowed a very small portion of provisions from this to the Grand Portage, at the head of Lake Superior, which is about eight hundred miles; there they are allowed about one bushel (forty-two quarts French measure) of Indian corn per man, for a year, and a little fat which they may use at their own discretion. The corn is prepared in a curious manner at Detroit, being first boiled in strong lye, which takes off the outside hull; afterwards it is spread out and dried, then packed up for use. With this they set out, and return not until the end of the year, when a fresh supply of goods is taken up with canoes, &c. by many hundred men to the Portage, where they exchange commodities to a very great amount. Thus goes on the trade from year to year. The men in the north live principally on fish, and the flesh of beasts of divers kinds, without bread or salt, and when they return appear as robust and healthy, and even more so than those who live on the greatest delicacies. The principal fish in Lake Superior are the white fish and salmon trout, which are fine and delicate; we have eat of them, brought fresh from the lake to this place in six days.

We understand one M'Kenzie is now out with ten men, exploring the North-west Territory: he once attempted it before; was out more than a year, and discovered large frozen waters in the north, but, whether lakes or ocean, he knew not - supposed the latter, the water being salt.

Captain Drake, by his own account, had been several voyages to Africa, in the horrid business of fetching slaves, which he now very much condemns. He told us many curious tales; - and is certainly a very temperate man with respect to drink, taking nothing but water - a rare instance in a seafaring man. Happy would it be for many thousands in the world, were his example followed in that respect; families would be preserved from ruin and distress, morality increase, the poor Indians would be saved from many acts of violence, and the end of our creation be more fully answered by honouring God, our Creator.

28th. We are frequently visited by the officers of this place, both civil and military, who appear friendly, and treat us with much respect, often wishing us success in our laudable undertaking; assuring us, that nothing should be wanting that lay in their power to rend us happy and comfortable. The commandant said, that if he apprehended danger at any time, he should lay his commands on us not to depart the place. But, although we sought not the protection of military power, we were not insensible of his great good will towards us, which we were not wanting to acknowledge.

Visits from the Indians are almost every day repeated, by different tribes constantly coming in, this being the thoroughfare for all the northern Indians. It would be difficult to describe the various appearances they make, and languages they speak. It is wonderful to find the vast expense of the British government is at with his people. Governor Simcoe said it cost them thirty thousand pounds per annum. Here are agents appointed, that are daily giving out large quantities of provision, &c.

29th. This day had a visit from a Wyandot chief, who appeared to have much concern respecting the approaching treaty, and mentioned the remembrance of some long and broad belts that were given out in former treaties, intended to bind us by the hands and arms, so that no small accident in future should be able to make a separation; and, notwithstanding all that had happened, they (the Wyandots) felt some of the old affection to remain, and he hoped we would find it so at the general council; but could not speak for none but themselves. We assured him we had the same love and friendship for them and all others, as our forefathers had, and that our principles had always restrained us from war; and when we believed the government was disposed to make peace with them on principles of justice, we were made willing to leave our homes and take this long journey to endeavour to promote it, and to be present at the concluding of so good a work. He said, he knew long ago, we did not fight, but were for peace, and that, as we had come a long journey, preserved in health, it was evident the Great Spirit was pleased with our coming, and he hoped some good would be done, and that the Great Spirit would bring us home in health and safety.

We had a visit also this morning from Abram, an Indian chief, Katharine his wife, and their daughters, richly clad, with plates of silver, &c.

The introduction of distilled spirits among the people appears to have been their ruin. The frauds, in consequence of it, imposed upon them, taking in the ravages and depredations of war made amongst themselves, with multiplied murders and thefts, seems to have prevented their being a wealthy people. The contrary with many is sorrowfully their situation, I fear to our condemnation; yet the history of Indian barbarity, and breach of faith to white people, and to one another, which we have heard related since we came here, would be shocking to recite, and is almost at times ready to stagger the faith of their best friends. One of the Moravian missionaries signified his sense that if peace should be concluded, it would not last lng, until they were further chastised. John Parrish asked, by what means? Did he mean the sword? He was answered, yes. This sentiment, from one of those who make profession of the peaceable principles of the gospel, was really discouraging.

We often hear many frightful things suggested; as, that we shall be either killed, or kept as hostages at the ensuing council. This, with the accounts of the Indian warriors in time past, frequently passing with numbers of scalps and their disconsolate prisoners, seemed dreadful; yet we are not discouraged from pursuing our first prospect; believing he that put us forth, will go before us, if we are not wanting on our part.

It must be said to the honour of British humanity, and in commendation of this government of Upper Canada, and its truly respectable and generous officers, that they have interfered to the relief of great numbers of persons, and obtained their redemption at a great price; divers of whom that we met with appeared as the outcasts of Europe; some of them, as colonel England and other officers told us, hardly had manners or gratitude to acknowledge the kindness, though in some instances it cost one hundred pounds. But in the case of a real American, they never grudged it.

30th. First of the week. This morning we were visited by a principal man of the Wyandots, called the Blind Chief, with his nephew, grand, and great grandson; with whom we had some friendly conversation. He told us eight of their principal men were gone on to the council. We held meetings fore and afternoon in the king's sail loft, to a good degree of satisfaction; being largely attended by the citizens, officers, and soldiers who behaved quietly.

7th mo. 1st. Took breakfast with captain Elliott, Indian commissioner. After which, went to the burial of Isidore Shone at the Roman chapel. He was an old Indian interpreter, supposed to have shortened his days by the immoderate use of strong drink. On this occasion there was a good deal of form and ceremony, in their way.

2d. Yesterday arrived the ship Ottoway, captain Cowan, from Fort Erie. He brought about eighty Indians - more than sixty were landed at the Miami rapids, with colonel Butler; eighteen of the Oneidas were on board here. It was said Butler was fearful thy might be hurt by some other Indians that were there, on account of some dislike they had to one of their chiefs, who had given his interest in favour of the Americans, in such a manner as to create jealousies amongst them. They, notwithstanding apprehend themselves quite safe in the British lines, where the tribes of all nations from east, west, north, and south, are daily supplied with provisions, &c. And we hear nothing but wishes for peace among the people every where.

This day we crossed the river in our landlord's boat, with himself, wife, &c. to his farm where we regaled ourselves with fine ripe cherries, and towards evening returned. The weather very warm, and for many days past it has been very wet - but through divine favour we are all preserved in good health.

3d. We had a visit from colonel England, who is constantly manifesting his regard in a very respectful manner. He invited us to walk with him to his garden, and some of our company went. We had also the company, at our lodgings, of a young Shawneese chief, neatly and richly dressed in Indian style; he stayed and dined with us, behaving with decency at table. But we sometimes find great difficulty in conversing with the Indians, in such manner as we wish, on account of our interpreter's sentiments and prospects differing in some respects so widely from ours.

4th. I was this day very poorly with fever. - We were visited by fourteen of the Indians that came in the Ottoway, with one Shawnee, who finding our doctor M'Caskey had been with St. Clair's army at the time of the defeat, told him, "you're my friend, though you ran away from me once."

The commissioners are not yet arrived - we are still in suspense and weary of our long detention here - though we are well supplied with provisions, &c., and decently treated by our respectable landlord and landlady, as well as by the inhabitants in general, being often invited to dine, &c. In the evening I felt better and slept pretty well.

5th. We are much confined within the narrow limits of this small garrison town, where, the streets being narrow, there is a want of air. A favourable opportunity presenting for a small tour on the water, we, except William Savery and William Hartshorne, went in a boat, provided by our friend William Baker, up the river, about nine miles, to Nathan Williams's, where we were kindly received, and dined. His place is situate at the entrance of Lake St. Clair. While here, Nathan gave us an account, that in digging a cave for a root house, they found, about six feet below the surface of the ground, large quantities of human bones, that must have been for a long time there: and at another place on the bank of the lake, it being washed away when the lake was high, there were seen great numbers of the same kind, which they gathered up and buried. The Indians said they must have been from people a great while ago that they knew nothing of. There is also near this lake, as we are informed, the appearance of old forts, curiously made in ancient time, where pieces of earthernware are often found, though large trees are now standing in the entrenchments, of which the present Indians can give no account. We seem pretty generally led to believe, from various circumstances, that the natives of this land must be the descendants of old Jacob, and are of the scattered tribes, who probably found their way here through Russis, and crossed over the narrow strait from Kamschatka to the west side of America. Be all this as it may, we find them here in great numbers, at present a savage, barbarous people when at war, and more particularly when intoxicated with strong drink, which has been introduced by the white people that supposed themselves by far their superiors in religious and natural understanding. Happy would it have been for them and us, had we used those superior talents, in mercy conferred upon us, more to the honour of God, by following the example of our holy leader, Jesus Christ, who said he came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them. May all Christendom more and more labour to experience a renovation of hear and mind submitting and conforming to the will of heaven in all our conduct consistent with the design of our creation. Then might we have reason to hope for a blessing on our labours, tending to stop the effusion of human blood, and the establishment of Christ's kingdom on the mountain of love and holiness, where the lion and the lamb might lie down together, there being nothing to make us afraid.

In the afternoon we re-embarked and returned to town. Wm. Savery and Wm. Hartshorne in our absence, were visited by a Shawnese warrior, who announced to them what had frequently been suggested to us before, by divers persons, that if the commissioners' did not immediately agree that all the land west of the Ohio should be given up by the United States, or even hinted anything to the contrary, by offering gifts or money as purchase, that not one of them or their company would go off the ground alive; for their fathers, who were all gone, had sold lands, for knives, rum, &c. till they were now driven almost to the sun setting, where they were determined to make a stand. He also pointed out very sensibly, the sad effect strong drink had on their fathers in general. He then appeared perfectly sober - informing that four days before he left the Miami Rapids, a deputation of two chiefs from a tribe, embarked for Niagara to meet the commissioners, and let them know the outlines of their conclusions; and that if the white people would settle to the banks of the Ohio on the east side, and agree that the river should be the line, they would be glad, and take them by the hand and call them brothers. But we apprehended no such power lay with the commissioners, nor of its being the design of government, - the cloud looked dark and heavy, and protended some dreadful scenes of desolation, except the Lord should be pleased, in his abundant mercy, to interpose and spare this wicked generation.

The aforesaid Indian, notwithstanding his sensibility and calmness, about two hours after, returned much intoxicated with rum - behaved very rudely, and drew a stroke of his tomahawk at one Sylvester Ash, an interpreter, who had long resided with the Shawnese, and now lives at Fort Pitt. We supposed he had a grudge against him for leaving them; but Ash prevented his doing him mischief. This, with another insolent behavior to our landlord, caused captain Munsey, who was thee, to send for some soldiers to turn him out of the garrison. These things look gloomy, and tend to confirm us that nothing short of wisdom from above will do for us to lean to.

6th. The weather is now dry and warm - the wheat is fast ripening, of which there is an appearance of very fine crops. Vegetables are plenty, such as new potatoes, peas, beans, &c. The sloop Felicity just arrived from the Miamies, confirms the account of the Indian deputation being gone to meet the commissioners at Niagara, accompanied by colonel Butler and Simon Girty. The schooner Nancy also just arrived from Machillimackinac, with peltry - made her passage to this place in seventeen days - distance three hundred and ninety miles.

7th. First of the week. We held a meeting in the forenoon in the old sail loft: it was to good satisfaction, being large and solid. In the afternoon we went about five miles to the river Rushe - held a meeting with the inhabitants there and several who went with us from the town. This also we thought was comfortable and edifying.

8th. The weather hot and sultry - a heavy thunder shower. We have no account from the commissioners - hope they may come on with the Indian deputies, if anything is likely to be done. This is truly a trying scene to us, to be kept in this expensive place so long in suspense; yet hope it may not be altogether in vain. We think we have done the best we could in our present circumstances. Various reports are daily coming in, with respect to the Indians' disposition. We much desire an opportunity with them in council, if it could be come at properly, whether the commissioners come or not. The opinion of many is, there will be no general treaty. We received a letter from colonel M'Kee in answer to one written him some time ago; - says he will attend to our request, and gives us every intelligence he apprehends necessary; - and yesterday one from captain Hendricks, at the rapids of Miami, requesting some favours from us, - which we granted. And truly we have many requests, that in our present circumstances we are not able to comply with to the full. Hendicks' account is more favourable than some others we have had. He expresses a hope there will be a peace. The general cry among the gentlemen and more knowing inhabitants of this place is, "for God's sake, gentlemen, don't venture yourselves to Sandusky." This we believe is from motives of entire friendship and good will to us, and makes it at times very trying. And though we have not felt any slavish fears - yet hope to move cautiously, as wisdom, which is profitable to direct, may point out the way. One of the Indians, a Delaware, that brought captain Hendricks' letter, says the western Indians keep their runners constantly out to watch the motion of general Wayne's army, from whom they have some fearful apprehensions; which we hope are groundless.

9th. We had a visit from captain Blue Jacket, a principal warrior among the Shawnese. He was in command at the defeat of St. Clair's army. He was richly dressed. His appearance is lofty and masculine. He said he had heard of the Quakers - that they were a harmless people that did not fight; and was glad now to see us. We had also a visit from several others of the same tribe. One of the solid countenance said, he heartily desired we might succeed in the great work of peace; and appeared much pleased to see us. We have several capable interpreters with us; but our sentiments being peaceful, serious and religious, are so opposite to theirs, that when they do interpret, it is with such reluctance as puts it out of our power to relieve our minds so fully as we could wish. This day received a letter from the Moravian Indians and their minister, expressing their grateful sense of Friends' kindness to them.

10th. The sloop Detroit, bound to Mackinaw, arrived from Port Erie in eight days. We were in hopes of letters but were disappointed. However we understand the commissioners, with a number of Indians, are coming in the Dunmore which was nearly ready to sail, and may be soon expected, if not met with by the Chipaway, and detained by the chiefs who were to have a conference with them previous to their coming to the treaty.

11th. Had the company of several Indians - one of whom, David Canada, speaks good English, and interprets well. His father was a white man. He has been in Europe - appears friendly to the American interest, and says he will go with us to the treaty.

12th. We all went over the river to our landlord's farm, where we dined on provision we took with us. Spent most of the day there and in visiting some neighbours. Returned in the evening. The sloop Sagonay is just arrived from Fort Erie. The Dunmore was waiting for a wind when the deputation of Indians arrived - and the commissioners returned to Navy Hall to have a conference. This is an additional disappointment, and further trial of our faith and patience.

13th. The weather fair and pleasant - the people very busy in hay-making, and some beginning their wheat harvest. In the afternoon the sloop Speedwell arrived from Fort Erie, by which we had letters from our friends at home, and from the commissioners, informing of their return to Navy Hall; but that they expect to come forward in a few days.

14th. First of the week. For some days I have felt rather dull and heavy - my spirits low. I feel the importance of our embassy with much weight. - The dark conversation frequently heard respecting war, is truly distressing and discouraging. I am frequently led to recur back to the first principles from whence the concern took its rise; and have, as yet, no cause to doubt of its propriety, although many discouraging prospects are frequently thrown in our way. We are comfortably preserved in unity one with another in the main cause we are engaged in, hoping we shall not be shaken from the right ground by the enemies of peace, - of which there are many.

This day we had another meeting in the usual place, which was large and solid.

15th. Had an interview with captain Elliott, who had just returned from the rapids where the Indians are collected; but nothing further has transpired. He appears somewhat reserved; and our anxious state of suspense still continues. We are apprehensive the Indian embassy to the commissioners may prevent the proposed treaty. We wrote a letter to colonel McKee, and an epistle to the Indians, to be forwarded the first opportunity.

Here we observe a species of Indian slaves called Pawnees, or Punins, - who are captives taken by the Chipaways from the Suse; or Pawnee nations. It is sorrowful to think that a nation so famed for liberty, should hold them, and a number of the African race, in a state of bondage during life. The government here, we understand, had made some essay towards their enlargment, which, it is hoped, will in time, amount to a total abolition.

16th. Had a solid opportunity with capt. Elliott, deputy agent for Indian affairs, and again expressed our anxious desires to him, that a solid peace might take place; we also queried if it would be proper for us, or any of our company, to visit the Indians in their present council at the Rapids, where he was now about to return. He told us, he thought in the present state of things, it would not be eligible to move that way. He gave us to understand, that the Indians were generally acquainted with our being here, and our views towards them; and hoped on the return of the Indian embassy, some way would open for our relief. For the present, we concluded to forward the letters to M'Kee and the Indians, by Elliott, and as our having a personal interview with the Indians appeared doubtful, we forwarded Friends' Address to them, to be read by M'Kee in case we should fail of an opportunity ourselves.

17th. The people are very busy in their harvest, having good crops: but in some places the grain is injured by a kind of smut, supposed to be occasioned by much wet and rapid growth.

We have lately heard of the arrival of a number of Creeks and Cherokee Indians, in the neighbourhood of the Indian council - we fear, with views not friendly to a peaceable accomodation of matters with the western Indians - as we hear hostilities between them and the whites have been renewed to the southward. These accounts are alarming and discouraging. The commissioners are not yet come. We wait as patiently as we can, until we hear further from them.

18th. This morning had an interview with captain Wellbank, who came with the detachment of Cherokee and Creek Indians from the southern territory, he says, more than a thousand miles, and that they were ninety days on their journey. His principal business seemed to be with colonel England, who gave immediate orders for the sloop Felicity to sail with him on board, to Fort Erie, on his way to governor Simcoe. We suppose they have some matters of importance, as colonel England a few days assured us the Felicity was detained on purpose to take us to Sandusky, or Fort Erie, as was most eligible, on the shortest notice, which looked kind and friendly to our purpose.

19th. The weather fair and pleasant, and through Divine favour, we are all in health; but are still in great suspense, with respect to the event of this intended treaty, which every day looks more and more discouraging. Yet we think we have been in the line of our duty in coming forward and labouring thus far; and hope our being here may be of some use on divers accounts. Some of our company walked yesterday to the spring about three miles below the town, where they had a satisfactory opportunity with some Oneida Indians that were encamped there. They seem jointly concerned with us for the accomplishment of peace. This day we were all together in the arbour in the colonel's garden, looking over some writings on Indian affairs. To this place we frequently resort, as it is retired and pleasant - being indulged with this privilege by invitation from the colonel soon after our arrival here.

20th. The harbour is now clear of shipping. - We are anxiously waiting the arrival of the Dunmore, by which we expect the commissioners, or to hear from them, hoping our detention here will be shortly closed by our going on to Sandusky, or returning to Fort Erie on our way home: till which we desire humbly to submit to the wise Disposer of events.

21st. First of the week. We held a meeting in the sail loft at the tenth hour, which was a favoured time, it being large and solid. Soon after our return, we heard of the arrival of the Dunmore at the mouth of the river, by a passenger who came in her, and that the commissioners are on board, expecting to go forward soon to Sandusky. In the afternoon we had another comfortable meeting, crowned as we thought, with the Master's good presence. And now it looks likely to be a parting one, - the people behaved with remarkable quietness - manifesting much respect to us. I believe there are a few tender-hearted ones in this place that will remember us, and I hope we shall not forget them; - though it is sorrowful to behold the power and influence that satan has too generally amongst the inhabitants of these parts. Captain Gibbons, who came passenger in the Dunmore, gave us the above intelligence respecting the commissioners, and further says, the Indian deputies and they held a very friendly conference together at Navy Hall, and things appeared in a favourable way respecting the treaty. This account is more pleasant than any we have had for many days past. In this fluuctuating state of things we find great need to keep on the right bottom, so that we may not be shaken from that foundation, and a humble confidence in the Divine power, which I trust we felt in our embarkation.

22d. John Parrish, John Elliott, and myself, paid a visit to the Roman Catholic priest, who appeared to take it kind. We also had a short interview with the commandant, who has manifested much respect to us during our long stay here, and now told us, that nothing should be wanting that lay in his power to make our way easy.

23rd and 24th. We now began to prepare for leaving Detroit. The commandant visited us at our quarters, and informed us he proposed going with us in the Dunmore to see the commissioners. It seemed very pleasant to find that respect which it is hoped may tend to strengthen the unity between them. - We should have been glad tosee the commissioners here, but understanding neither they nor any others from a foreign state under military characters, are admitted within the limits of this garrison, which includes the town that consists of about one hundred houses; under which consideration we think it cause of thankfulness for the indulgence, remarkable attention, and kind treatment we have met with during our six weeks stay in this place. This evening, paid a short visit at commissary Rinold's, who, with his wife and sensible daughter, appear to have as much solidity, uprightness, and vital religion, as any in the place. There are a few others we highly esteem, and towards whom we now feel a near affection on taking our solemn farewell.