Endnotes

[1]Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy in America (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 2003), 253.

[2]Michael Emery and Edwin Emery, with Nancy L. Roberts, The Press in America: An Interpretive History of the Mass Media, 8th ed.  (1954; repr., Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1996), 89-90.

[3]Louis W. Doll, A History of the Newspapers of Ann Arbor, 1829-1920 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1959), 3.

[4]Emery, Emery, and Roberts, Press in America, 2, uses the word “scrubby.” The number of issues published by the Essay is uncertain. Most sources claim that only one issue was ever printed, while a few others argue that as many as nine issues were published. For the high number, see Tom S. Applegate, “A History of the Press in Michigan,” Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections (Lansing: Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan, 1884), 6: 97.

[5]William E. Quinby, “Reminiscences of Michigan Journalism,” Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections (Lansing: Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, 1906), 30: 511. Reprinted in George Fuller and George B. Catlin, eds., Historic Michigan, vol. 2 (Dayton, Ohio: National Historical Association, 1928), 874. Also see Applegate, “History of the Press in Michigan,” 97.

[6]Douglas C. McMurtrie, Early Printing in Michigan (Chicago: John Calhoun Club, 1931), 82-100.

[7]Kendall James Wingrove, “How a Select Group of Michigan Frontier Newspapers Depicted Women in 1849-1850” (master’s thesis, Michigan State University, 1982), 20.

[8]Doll, Newspapers of Ann Arbor, 2.

[9]Gerald J. Baldasty, “The Nineteenth-Century Origins of Modern American Journalism,” in John B. Hench, ed., Three Hundred Years of the American Newspaper: Essays (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1991), 408-9.

[10]Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism; a History, 1690-1960, 3d ed.(New York: MacMillan, 1962), 216.

[11]McMurtrie, Early Printing, 87.

[12]Detroit Free Press, July 28, 1832; quoted in Frank Angelo, On Guard: A History of the Detroit Free Press (Detroit: Detroit Free Press, 1981), 33.

[13]John W. Fitzgerald, “Early Country Newspaper Publishers in Michigan,” Michigan History Magazine 9 (January 1925): 65.

[14]Winston Marsh Hamper, “The Story of the Free Press” (master’s thesis, Wayne University, Detroit, 1942), 21-22; McMurtrie, Early Printing, 7. Also see George N. Fuller, Economic and Social Beginnings of Michigan (Lansing: Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford, 1916), ix.

[15]Hamper, “Story of the Free Press,” 22. The thesis’s original title was “The Democratic Free Press and Michigan Intelligencer.”

[16]Lake Superior News and Miners’ Journal, July 11, 1846; quoted in Gilbert O. Maienknecht, “A History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan Journalism” (master’s thesis, University of Iowa, 1942), 68.

[17]Ibid.

[18]David Laurence Rogers, “The Lumberman’s Gazette, America’s First Lumber Journal” (master’s thesis, Michigan State University, 1973), 6-7. The North Star received its unusual name because of its unlikely claim that it was the northernmost paper in the United States.

[19]Fitzgerald, “Early Country Newspaper Publishers,” 65.

[20]Max A. Loomis, “History of Journalism and Printing in Lansing” (unpublished paper, 1950), 1-3.  The Clarke Historical Library has a copy of this paper.

[21]Doll, Newspapers of Ann Arbor, 11-12.

[22]Justin E. Walsh, To Print the News and Raise Hell! A Biography of Wilbur F. Storey (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), 133.

[23]Doll, Newspapers of Ann Arbor, 42-43.

[24]Douglas C. McMurtrie, “Pioneer Printing in Michigan,” National Printer Journalist  50, October 1932, unpaginated  (offprint, available in the Clarke Historical Library); idem, Early Printing, 16, states that the first printing press in Michigan was established in Detroit in 1777.

[25]Fitzgerald, “Early Country Newspaper Publishers,” 61.

[26]Ibid.

[27]S. B. McCracken, quoted in Doll, Newspapers of Ann Arbor, 6-17.

[28]Ibid.

[29]Fitzgerald, “Early Country Newspaper Publishers,” 67.

[30]S. B. McCracken, quoted in Doll, Newspapers of Ann Arbor, 38.

[31]Angelo, On Guard, 57-59. Storey’s youth is recorded in George B. Catlin, “Little Journeys in Journalism: Wilbur F. Storey,” Michigan History 10 (October 1926): 515.

[32]Angelo, On Guard, 69-70.

[33]Detroit Free Press, January 26, 1861.

[34]Quoted in Angelo, On Guard, 75. It should be noted that in the same editorial in which Storey warned that he “would not forget” how the Lincoln administration had led the nation into war, he also severely criticized Southern Democrats and secessionists, whom he denounced at greater length than the Lincoln administration. See Rodney Howard Joseph, “The Michigan Press and the Coming of the Civil War, 1859-1861: A Study of Editorial Opinion” (PhD diss., Michigan State University, 1972), 316.

 

[35]Angelo, On Guard, 76.

[36]The Kalamazoo Gazette and the Michigan Argus, quoted and summarized in Joseph, “The Michigan Press and the Coming of the Civil War,” 234-35.

[37]Hillsdale Democratic Gazette, quoted in Walsh, To Print the News and Raise Hell! 91.

[38]Rufus Hosmer, quoted in Quinby, “Reminiscences of Michigan Journalism,” 511.

[39]Rufus Hosmer, quoted in Walsh, To Print the News and Raise Hell! 129.

[40]Ibid.

[41]Quinby, quoted in Fuller and Catlin, eds., Historic Michigan, 874.

[42]Ouinby, “Reminiscences of Michigan Journalism,” 510.

[43]Grand Rapids Enquirer; reprinted in the Detroit Free Press, June 14, 1853; quoted in Walsh, To Print the News and Raise Hell! 129.

[44]Arthur S. White, Reminiscences of Newspaper Men and Newspapers of Grand Rapids (Grand Rapids: White Printing, 1918), unpaginated.

[45]Ibid.

[46]Robert P. Lane, “Chase S. Osborn: A Personal Reminiscence,” Michigan History 33 (December 1949): 309-10.

[47]Escanaba Daily Press, May 10, 1936; quoted in Maienknecht, “History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan Journalism,” 33.

[48]Quinby, “Reminiscences of Michigan Journalism,” 516.

[49]Fred D. Keister, “The Michigan Press Association,” Michigan History 24 (Winter 1940): 5-6. The organization was originally founded as the Michigan Publisher’s Association, but it changed its name to the Michigan Press Association in 1873.  See Gary Piatek and Kendall J. Wingrove (Michigan State University, unpublished student paper, 1981), unpaginated. Copy supplied to author by the Michigan Press Association.

[50]Piatek and Wingrove, unpublished paper.

[51]Ibid.

[52]Ibid.

[53]Joseph George Duncan, “Content of a Pioneer Michigan Newspaper,” Michigan History 33 (September 1949): 197-98, 200, 208.

[54]McMurtrie, Early Printing, 65.

[55]Quoted in Angelo, On Guard, 57.

[56]Walsh, To Print the News and Raise Hell! 49-50, 134, 137 (headline quotes).

[57]Ibid., 50, 134.

[58]Storey, Detroit Free Press, March 12, 1859; quoted in Charles A. Lewis, “The Evolution of Modern News Story Form in the Detroit Free Press” (master’s thesis, Wayne University, Detroit, 1938), 83.

[59]Angelo, On Guard, 65.

[60]Detroit Free Press, May 7, 1868; quoted in Richard L. Kaplan, Politics and the American Press: The Rise of Objectivity, 1865-1920 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 23.

[61]Detroit Post, July 11, 1872; quoted in Kaplan, Politics and the American Press, 22.

[62]Kaplan, Politics and the American Press, 55-57.

[63]Quoted in ibid., 105.

[64]Emery, Emery, and Roberts, Press in America, 100-101.

[65]Detroit Daily Tribune, November 19, 1849; quoted in Lewis, “Evolution of Modern News Story Form,” 81.

[66]Emery, Emery and Roberts, Press in America, 166; Kaplan, Politics and the American Press, 105-10.

[67]Kaplan, Politics and the American Press, 105-10.  Comments about the News editorials are from George B. Catlin, “Little Journeys in Journalism: Michael J. Dee,” Michigan History 10 (January 1926): 29.

[68]Quotation from Lee A White, The Detroit News: 1873-1917 (Detroit: The Evening News Association, 1918), 13.

[69]Kaplan, Politics and the American Press, 105-10 (quotation).

[70]Ibid., 119-20.

[71]Ibid., 120.

[72]Ibid., 120-23.  Also see Arthur Pound, The Only Thing Worth Finding: The Life and Legacies of George Gough Booth (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1964), 122-28, which gives an alternate version of the conflict between James and Edward that is much more favorable to James and gives James’s son-in-law, George Booth, a critical role in resolving the conflict.

[73]Kenneth O’Reilly, “M. Quad’s Philosophy for the Common Man: The Life and Humor of Charles Bertrand Lewis” (master’s thesis, Central Michigan University, 1975), 20, 22-24.

[74]Ibid., 57 (Dunder quotation).

[75]Ibid., 74 (Gardner quotation).

[76]Ibid., 32, 40-41, 70-71.  Examples of book-length compilations of Lewis’s work include, T.J. Carey, comp., Brudder Gardner’s Stump Speeches and Comic Lectures (New York: Excelsior, 1884); and M. Quad, Brother Gardner’s Lime-kiln Club (Chicago: Conkey, 1894).

[77]Angelo, On Guard, 95, 97-101; Applegate, “History of the Press of Michigan,” 65.

[78]Edward Holden, quoted in Kaplan, Politics and the American Press, 61.

[79]Ibid., 61-64.

[80]Hazen Pingree, quoted in William W. Lutz, The News of Detroit: How a Newspaper and a City Grew Together (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), 22.

[81]Joseph L. Titus, quoted in William Stocking, “Prominent Newspaper Men in Michigan”; reprinted in Fuller and Catlin, eds., Historic Michigan, 886.

[82]Hamper, “Story of the Free Press,” 87.

[83]Angelo, On Guard, 127.

[84]William Clark Spragens, “Press Coverage of Congressional Campaigns: A Content Analysis of the 1960 Campaign in Michigan and Tennessee” (PhD diss., Michigan State University, 1966), 54-56.

[85]Escanaba Journal, May 10, 1936; quoted in Maienknecht, “History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan Journalism,” 29.

[86]Charles H. Olin, Journalism (Philadelphia: Penn Publishing, 1906), 14.

[87]Louis Brandeis and Charles Warren, “The Right of Privacy,” Harvard Law Review 4, no. 5 (1890): 193-211; quoted in Baldasty, “Nineteenth-Century Origins,” 418.

[88]Baldasty, “Nineteenth-Century Origins,” 410, 417.

[89]Pound, The Only Thing Worth Finding, 213.

[90]Ibid., 218-20.

[91]Ibid., 221.

[92]James Scripps, quoted in Kaplan, Politics and the American Press, 125.

[93]Ibid., 115, 125-27.

[94]Ibid., 127; Angelo, On Guard, 3-7.

[95]Bryan Gruley, Paper Losses: A Modern Epic of Greed and Betrayal at America’s Two Largest Newspaper Companies (New York: Grove, 1993), 3-8, 7-8 (Neuharth quotations).

[96]Ibid., 124-25, 129, 137, 139-40, 167.

[97]Ibid., 140-59, 141 (Time Magazine headline).

[98]“Detroit Newspapers to End Daily Home Deliver,” December 16, 2008, see http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/12/16/detroit.newspapers/; and “Detroit Papers Slash Home Delivery,” December 16, 2008, see http://www.clickondetroit.com/news/18288845/detail.html (accessed January 12, 2009).

[99]Pound, The Only Thing Worth Finding, 213.

[100]Doll, Newspapers of Ann Arbor, 88, 107-8.

[101]Frankenmuth News, quoted in Piatek and Wingrove, unpublished paper.

[102]Alpena News, July 30, 1999, anniversary supplement, 1.

[103]James H. Buckley, Bringing Home the News: A Case Study of the Community Press (Livonia, Mich.: Suburban Communications, 1991), 12- 13.

[104]Ibid., 20-26.

[105]Ibid., 18-26.

[106]Ibid., 28.

[107]Ibid., 28, 82-83.  Relying on classified ads was not a new strategy.  A 1938 study by the Michigan Press Association revealed that about 74 percent of the revenues of a weekly newspaper came from local display ads and legal and classified advertising.  Piatek and Wingrove, unpublished paper. 

[108]Buckley, Bringing Home the News, 83, 141.

[109]Applegate, “History of the Press of Michigan,” 87, 98.

[110]Rogers, “Lumberman’s Gazette,” 1, 16, 44-45, 88-90.

[111]Applegate, “History of the Press of Michigan,” 72, 97-98.

[112]Statistics about ethnic newspapers are taken from Richard Hathaway, ed., Ethnic Newspapers and Periodicals in Michigan: A Checklist (Ann Arbor: Michigan Archival Association, 1978), ix.

[113]Mark O. Kistler, “The German Language Press in Michigan,” Michigan History 44 (September 1960): 303-23.

[114]Ibid., 313, 316-19.  For a similar pattern of growth followed by decline, see John Ilmari Kolehmainen, “Finnish Newspapers and Periodicals in Michigan,” Michigan History 24, no. 1 (1940): 119-27.  Also see Georges J. Joyaux, “The French Press in Michigan,” Michigan History 37 (June 1953): 155-65, for a comparable story about newspapers established in the latter part of the nineteenth century to serve the needs of Michigan’s French Canadian immigrants.  Joyaux comments wistfully on what he sees as the “success” of the Germans in maintaining their ethnic press, a success he in part attributes to that “Teutonic sense of group organization,” which he found lacking among French Canadian immigrants.  Joyaux, “French Press,” 157-58.

[114]Harry Boonstra, “Dutch-American Newspapers and Periodicals in Michigan, 1850-1925” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 1967), 16, 21-22.

[115]Harry Boonstra, “Dutch-American Newspapers and Periodicals in Michigan, 1850-1925” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 1967), 16, 21-22.

[116]Ibid., 7, 16-17, 23-24.

[117]Ibid., 33-40.

[118]Quoted in Piatek and Wingrove, unpublished paper.