The culture of the Native Americans is examined in these works.
Allen, Hayward. The Traveler's Guide to Native America: Great Lakes Region. Minocqua: WI: Northword Press, 1992.
As you travel through the Great Lakes states you'll arrive at a
profound understanding of Native America's role in American art,
culture, history and religion.
Always a People: Oral Histories of Contemporary Woodland Indians. Collected by Rita Kohn. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University
The central issue of the book deals with uncovering and making
public the vibrancy of the Woodland people as a distinctive, related,
cohesive Native American culture with not only an ancient and important
heritage but also an equally significant tenacity to endure.
Angel, Michael R. Discordant Voices, Conflicting Visions: Ojibwa and Euro-American Perspectives on the Midewiwin. Dissertation.
University of Manitoba, 1997.
This study demonstrates how the conflicting visions of
Anishinaabe practioners and Euro-American interpreters have resulted in
wildly divergent views of the same institution.
Armour, David A. The Women of Michilimackinac. Mackinac History Leaflet no. 10, 1967. (Fitting Mss Box 3)
An account of the various groups of women and domestic life at Mackinac in the eighteenth century.
Bachman, Ronet. Death and Violence on the Reservation: Homicide, Family Violence, and Suicide in American Indian Populations.
NY: Auburn House, 1992.
An overview of American Indians, with a focus on violence and its causes.
Beach, W.W. Editor. The Indian Miscellany; Containing Papers on the History, Antiquities, Arts, Languages, Religions, Traditions and Superstitions of the American Aborgines. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1877.
The purpose of this publication is to preserve interesting
fugitive papers concerning the aborigines of America. Papers include:
"Indian Affairs Around Detroit in 1706" by Charles Whittesey; "A
Fortnight Among the Chippewa of Lake Superior" by J.J. Ducatel; "The
Early Jesuit Missionaries of the Northwest Territory" by W.B.O. Peabody;
and "Indian Migrations" by Lewis H. Morgan.
Bieder, Robert. Science Encounters the Indian, 1820-1880: The Early Years of American Ethnology. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma
Includes: "Henry Rowe Schoolcraft and the Ethnologist as Historian and Moralist."
Bigony, Beatrice. Migrants to the Cities: A Study of the Socioeconomic Status of Native Americans in Detroit and Michigan.
Thesis. University of Michigan, 1974.
Investigation of the breadth and depth of the specific
socioeconomic conditions of Native American urban migrants to the
metropolitan area of Detroit.
Boatman, John F. My Elders Taught Me: Aspects of Western Great Lake American Indian Philosophy. Lanham, MD: University Press of
Boatman examines various aspects of a selection of Great Lakes American Indian philosophical traditions and beliefs.
Branstner, Susan Margaret. Decision-making Processes in a Culture Contact Context: The Case of the Tionontate Huron of the Upper Great Lakes. Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1991.
This study focuses on the problem of a complex eqalitarian culture group's decision making.
Branstner, Susan M. "Decision-making in a Culture Contact Context: An Historical and Archaeological Perspective of the Tionontate Huron of St. Ignace, Michigan." In Entering the 90's: The North American
Experience: Proceedings From the Native American Studies Conference at
Lake Superior State University, October 27-28, 1989. Sault Ste. Marie,
MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1991. 40-57.
The goal of this study is to develop a preliminary model
within which to examine decision making processes of complex egalitarian
culture systems, in a culture contact context.
Bushnell, David I. Ojibway Habitations and Other Structures.
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Annual Report, 1917. 609-617.
Bushnell concluded that dome shaped wigwams predominated.
Cantor, George. North American Indian Landmarks: A Traveler's Guide. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press, 1993.
Contains information about Michigan landmarks.
Catlin, George. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians. London: Tilt and Bogue,
In volume two of this work there is information about the Chippewa Indians.
Chamberlain, Alexander Francis. Wisdom of the North American Indian in Speech and Legend. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian
Cites and discusses 'wise words'of the Red race.
Chaput, Donald. Michigan Indians: A Way of Life Changes. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 1970.
Chaput describes the gradual changes in the homes, games,
clothes, transportation, weapons, handicrafts, foods, and religion of
the Indians in Michigan after the arrival of the white man.
Chute, Janet E. "Ojibwa Leadership During the Fur Trade Era at Sault Ste. Marie." In New Faces of the Fur Trade, Selected Papers of
the 7th North American Fur Trade Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1995
edited by Jo-Anne Fiske, Susan Sleeper-Smith and William Wicken. East
Lansing, MI: Michigan State Unversity Press, 1995. 153-174.
Copway,George. Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh. Running Sketches of Men and
Places, in England, France, Germany, Belgium, and Scotland. NY: J.C.
Account of a trip Copway took to Europe.
Copway, George. The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation. London: Charles Gilpin, 1850.
Indian history written by an Ojibway. Includes play and
exercise, wars, stories, language and writing, government, and religious
Culin, Stewart. "Games of the North American Indians." Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1903. Washington, DC: GPO, 1907. 3-846.
"Mr. Culin's studies not only afford an understanding of the
technology of the games and their distribution, as well as their bearing
on the history of the tribes, but they contribute to an appreciation of
native modes of thought and of the motives and impulses that underlie
the conduct of people generally."
Cyr, Kathy Ann S. Dress of the Chippewa (Ojibwa) Indians: An Analysis of Change from 1640-1940. Thesis. Michigan State University,
A survey of the articles of dress and ornament worn by
Chippewa Indians was undertaken to determine when changes occurred in
their dress and, if possible, to discover what those changes were and to
relate them to cultural influences.
Daniziger, Edmund J. Survival and Regeneration: Detroit's American Indian Community. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press,
Through hundreds of interviews and the examination of numerous
historical documents Danziger has captured the heritage of Detroit's
colorful Indian community.
Densmore, Francis. Chippewa Customs. Washington, DC: GPO, 1929.
Customs examined include dwellings, clothing, food, treatment
of the sick, health measures, life cycle, dreams, midewiwin, games, etc.
Densmore, Francis. A Study of Some Michigan Indians. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1949.
Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, Bay Mills Indian Community,
Hannahville, Isabella, and Beaver Island communities are included.
Densmore, Francis. Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians. Washington, DC: GPO, 1928.
The varied uses of plants by the Chippewas indicate the large
extent to which they understood and utilized the natural resources of
Devens, Carol. Countering Colonization: Native American Women
and Great Lakes Missions, 1630-1900. Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press, 1992.
Well documented missionary history of Native American women
from the time of the early Jesuit missionaries to the late nineteenth
century. The Ojibwa, Cree, and Montagnis-Naskapi women actively shaped
the encounter between Native American and white civilizations.
Dewdney, Selwyn H. The Sacred Scrolls of the Southern Ojibway. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1975.
Religion of the Ojibway Indians.
Diedrich, Mark. Compiler. Ojibway Oratory: Great Moments in the Recorded Speech of the Chippewa, 1695-1889. Rochester, MN: Coyote
Contents of speeches, speaker, date are included here.
Dobson, Pamela J. Editor. The Tree That Never Dies: Oral History of the Michigan Indians. Grand Rapids, MI: Grand Rapids Public
All materials used in compiling this book were taken from
taped interviews with Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Indians of
Dorson, Richard M. Bloodstoppers and Bearwalkers: Folk Traditions of the Upper Peninsula. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Chippewa and Potawatomi Indians tell their heroic versions of
the wars with the white men and the adventures of Winabijou.
Eagle/Walking Turtle. Indian America: A Traveler's Companion. Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Publications, 1991.
Tells the traveler how and where to find over 350 Indian
tribes in the United States, where visitors are encouraged, what
ceremonies, arts and crafts, and historical sites are available.
Edwards, Everett E. and Wayne D. Rasmussen. A Bibliography of the Agriculture of the American Indians. Washington, DC: GPO, 1942.
Bibliography of books and articles on the agriculture of the Native Americans.
Erdrich, Louise. Books and Islands in Ojibwe Country. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2003.
Account of a trip through the lakes and islands of Southern Ontario and the Great Lakes area.
Fitting, James E. "Patterns of Acculturaltion at the Straits
of Mackinac." In Cultural Change and Continuity. NY: Academic Press,
1976. 321-334. (Fitting Mss Box 4)
The artifacts taken from the ground in the Straits of Mackinac
are not only a part of a regional story – they show how a small area
was incorporated into a worldwide economic system on the eve of the
Foreman, Carolyn Thomas. Indians Abroad 1493-1938. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1943.
Includes: "From Michigan to Rome" about William Blackbird and
Peter Jones, and "Caitlin and the Ojibways" 6 men, 2 women, and 1 one
girl of the Ojibway nation who toured Europe with Caitlin.
Frazer, Jean. Kah-Wam-Da-Meh = We See Each Other. Grand Ledge, MI: H.E. Cameron Memorial Foundation, 1989.
Presents a readable and factual, but not exhaustive, summary
of the political, social, and cultures pressures with which Michigan
Indians had to contend, and what happened to them in the process.
Furtaw, Julia C. Editor. Native American Information Directory. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1993.
A guide to organizations, agencies, institutions, programs,
publications, services and other resources concerned with the indigenous
peoples of the United States and Canada.
Gattuso, John. Editor. Native American: Insight Guides. Singapore: APA Publications, 1992.
"This is a cultural journey, a passage of discovery into American Indian history, cultures and communities."
Genser, Wallace Vincent. 'A Rigid Government Over Ourselves': Transformation in Ethnic, Gender, and Race Consciousness on the Northern Borderlands, Michigan, 1805-1865. Dissertation. University of
Includes a chapter, "This Country Belongs to Us: Native Americans'Quest for Cultural Survival."
Grim, John. The Shaman: Patterns of Siberian and Ojibway Healing. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983.
Grim's book explores the basic pattern of the relationship
between the shaman's activity and the belief systems and social
activities of the surrounding tribal peoples.
Haines, Elijah M. The American Indian: The Whole Subject Complete in One Volume. Chicago, IL: Mas-Sin-Na-Gan Company, 1888.
An encyclopedia on the subject of the American Indian.
Included information about the secret society called Order of the Red
Hallowell, A. Irving. "Ojibwa Ontology, Behavior, and World
View." In Culture in History. NY: Columbia University Press, 1960.
19-52. (Fitting Mss Box 5)
Social relations between human beings and other than humans
are of cardinal significance in understanding the Ojibwa world.
Hallowell, A. Irving. "Ojibwa Personality and Acculturation."
In Beyond the Frontier, Social Processes and Cultural Change edited by
Paul Bohannan and Fred Plog. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press,
Harrison, Julia. " 'He Heard Something Laugh': Otter Imagery in the Medewiwin." In Great Lakes Indian Art edited by David W. Penney.
Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1989. 82-92.
"The otter as used in the Midewiwin was one attempt to structure and
retain the ideology of the Ojibwa ancestors in order to confirm the
continued existence of this Native American group."
Heckewelder, John G.E. History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations: Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States. New and Revised Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Historical Society of
Heckewelder says, "What I have written, concerning their
character, their customs, manners and usages, is from personal
knowledge, and from such other information as may be relied on."
Hickerson, Harold. The Chippewa and Their Neighbors: A Study in Ethnohistory. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.
This book illustrates the use of ethnohistoric methods to
describe cultural organization and to analyze factors of cultural change
among the Chippewa at various periods in their history.
Hilger, Inez. Chippewa Child Life and Its Cultural Background. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1951.
The purpose of this study is to record the customs and beliefs
of the primitive Chippewa Indians of the United States and evidenced in
the development and training of the child.
Hinsdale, W.B. The First People of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: George Wahr, 1930.
This is an attempt to set forth some characteristic Indian social traits.
Hirschfelder, Arlene and Paulette Molin. The Encyclopedia of Native American Religions. NY: Facts on File, 1992.
Includes the Native Americans of the Great Lakes.
Hirschfelder, Arlene and Martha Kreipe de Montano. The Native American Almanac: A Portrait of Native America Today. NY: Prentice
This book aims to give the reader not only information, but a
Native American perception of Indian country and the people who inhabit
it today. Includes Treaty Fishing Rights in the Great Lakes among many
Holmes, W.H. Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1919.
This is meant as a reference work, the principal purpose of
which is to assemble and present the antiquities of the continent in
such a manner and order as to make them readily available to present a
comprehensive view of the evolution of culture among men. It includes
the Great Lakes region.
Ilko, John and Delores M. Bainbridge. The "Little People" of the Ojibwa Nation: An Historical Perspective. Grawn, MI: Roundsky Press,
The Anishinabeg have historically believed in an entity often
called the Little People or Maymaygwayski. This research deals primarily
with a historical perspective of the oral traditions.
Jackson, Deborah Davis. Our Elders Lived It: American Indian Identity in the City. DeKalb, IL: Illinois University Press, 2002.
This book is the result of extensive fieldwork in an Upper
Great Lakes mid-sized city, where life has been complicated by economic
misfortune and social deprivation. The Indian community speaks for
itself through interviews and personal narration.
Jenks, Albert Ernest. The Wild Rice Gatherers of the Upper Lakes: A Study in American Primitive Economics. Washington, DC:
Smithsonian Institution, 1900. 1013-1160.
"Wild rice gathering is a well developed industry, playing an
important role in the ceremonial and ritualistic life of the tribes as
well as in their domestic economy."
Johnston, Basil. The Manitous: The Spiritual World of the Ojibway. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2001.
Johnston explains some aspect of Ojibway religion.
Josephy, Alvin M. The Indian Heritage of America. NY: Knopf, 1968.
Josephy presents the history, the archeology and the ethnology
– including origins and languages- of all the major Indian cultures
from Alaska to Patagonia, including the Great Lakes area.
Kegg, Maude. Portage Lake: Memories of an Ojibwe Childhood. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1991.
A Minnesota woman's Ojibwe childhood. She was born in 1904.
Kelton, Dwight H. Indian Names of Places Near the Great Lakes. Detroit, MI: 1889.
Lists names and meanings.
Kubiak, William J. Great Lakes Indians; A Pictorial Guide. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1970.
The author has attempted to present the Great Lakes Indian as he actually dressed, hunted, ate, and fought.
Landes, Ruth. Ojibwa Religion and the Midewiwin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.
Describes the religious society known as the Midewiwin.
Landes, Ruth. The Ojibwa Woman. NY: Columbia University Press, 1938.
An ethnological field study of social behavior. It is the
result of seven months work in the field with close observation of
village and tribal life, and a large collection of life histories of
women as told by a native woman.
Landes, Ruth. The Prairie Potawatomi: Tradition and Ritual in the Twentieth Century. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press,
Descended from a once numerous eastern woodlands tribe, the
Prairie Potawatomi of 1935-36 inhabited a reservation in Kansas.
Lindquist, G.E.E. The Red Man in the United States: An Intimate Study of the Social, Economic, and Religious Life of the American Indian. NY: George H. Doran, 1928.
This survey has attempted to collect all the data available
concerning social, economic, religious and educational conditions among
the Indians scattered through the United States. Includes a section on
the Great Lakes Indians.
McClurken, James M. Gah-Bach-Jhagwah-Buk: The Way it Happened: A Visual Culture History of the Little Traverse Band of Odawa.
East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Museum, 1991.
Many photographs, with text.
McClurken, James M. We Wish to be Civilized: Ottawa-American Political Contests on the Michigan Frontier. Dissertation. Michigan
State University, 1988.
This ethnohistorical work examines the process of Ottawa adaption from a world system perspective.
Morris, Gwenyth E. Gifted Women Light Around You: Ojibwa Women and Their Stories.
Dissertation. University of Minnesota, 1992.
Part one is a reconstruction of aspects of Ojibwa family life
at the end of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century,
at a time when the Ojibwa were actively interacting with Europeans in
the fur trade. Part two is a picture of Ojibwa life in Minnesota at a
time when the women told their stories, 1986. Part three is the stories
of their lives told by 9 Ojibwa women in 1986.
Morrison, Eliza. A Little History of My Forest Life: An Indian-White Autobiography. Edited by Victoria Brehm. Tustin, MI:
Ladyslipper Press, 2002.
Written in 1894 this autobiography tells the story of a
Chippewa-Scots-French woman from Madeline Island in Lake Superior. Metis
culture comes alive as Native American lore blends with homesteading
stories, giving a 19th century woman's view of the Wisconsin Death
March, the Dream Dance, Indian marriage and burial customs, making maple
sugar, and the Chippewa-Dakota war.
Murdock, George Peter. Ethnographic Bibliography of North America. 3rd ed. New Haven, CN: Human Relations Area Files, 1960.
Bibliographic references on primitive and historical cultures.
Nelson, George. "The Orders of the Dreamed": George Nelson on Cree and Northern Ojibwa Religion and Myth, 1823. Edited by Jennifer
Sitt Brown and Robert Brightman. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical
Society Press, 1988.
In 1823 Nelson was serving as a Hudson's Bay Company clerk in
charge of the post at Lac la Ronge in northeastern Kaskatchewan. During
that time he kept a letter-journal in which he related his observations
of Cree and northern Ojibwa religion and myth. That document is
reproduced in this book.
Non-Medicinal Uses of Plants by the Great Lakes Ojibwe.
Odanah, WI: Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Commission, 200? Computer
Consists of a database of native Great Lakes region plants and
their non-medicinal traditional uses by the Ojibwa people. Also
includes image file, bibliography, magazine articles, transcripts of
relevant discussions with elders, and other supplemental material.
Otto, Simon. Grandmother Moon Speaks. Lansing, MI: Thunder Bay Press, 1995.
Illustrated by James McCann. This book combines essays about
the author's personal experience, Indian history, wise discussions about
the important elements of life as a Native American in modern America,
and beautiful tales of Indian legends about the very beginning of time.
Paquin, Ron and Robert Doherty. Not First in Nobody's Heart: The Life Story of a Contemporary Chippewa. Ames, IA: Iowa State
University Press, 1992.
Paquin is a Chippewa who lives in St. Ignace, Michigan. His
book is a self portrait of how he overcame the curses of a horror-filled
childhood and cruel institutions to break from his past and struggle
toward a better life.
Paredes, J. Anthony. Editor. Anishinabe: Six Studies of Modern Chippewa. Tallahassee, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1980.
Studies of Minnesota Chippewa present a balanced view of both
the distinctive and nondescriptive characteristics of modern Chippewa
Pflug, Melissa Ann. Contemporary Revitalization Movements Among the Northern Great Lakes Ottawa (Odawa) Indian: Motives and Accomplishments. Dissertation. Wayne State University, 1990.
The primary research objective has been to illustrate the
context of two current socio-religious movements among the Odawa Indians
in Emmet County, Michigan.
Pflug, Melissa A. Ritual and Myth in Odawa Revitalization: Reclaiming a Sovereign Place. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press,
This interdisciplinary account of a contemporary Great Lakes
Algonkian community explores how the ethical system underlying Odawa
myth and ritual sustains traditionalists efforts to confront the legal
and social issues relating to tribal identity.
Preserving Our Past: The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: The Tribe, 1988.
Five videotapes. 1) Natural Healing, 2) The Stories, 3) Family, 4) Tribal Unity, and 5) Finding Our Way.
Quier, E. G. Historical and Mythological Traditions of the Algonquins; With a Translation of the "Walum-Olun," or Bark Record of the Lini-Lenape. Paper read before the New York Historical Society.
Quier collected from all available sources information as
seemed authentic relating to the religious ceremonies and conceptions,
mythological and historical traditions of the aborigines in all parts of
Ritterbush, Lauren Walker. Cultural Change and Continuity: Ethnohistoric Anaysis of Ojibwa and Ottawa Adjustment to the Prairies.
Dissertation. University of Kansas, 1990.
Reconstruction and comparison of subsistence patterns between
traditional forest-lake Ojibwa and the prairie Ojibwa and Ottawa
indicate that major adaptive changes were not associated with their
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. and Pat Ritzenthaler. The Woodland Indians of the Western Great Lakes. Garden City, NY: Natural History
An overview of the Indians in the Great Lakes area.
Rosenstiel, Annette. Red and White: Indian Views of the White Man, 1492-1983. NY: Universe Books, 1983.
This book brings together American Indian statements, recorded
in documents, letters, books, and speeches of their view of the white
Teeple, Bucko. Kitchigamic Anishinabeg: The People of the Great Lakes. Photography by Alan R. Kamuda. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Sault
Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, 1994.
Tribal history and a 20th century look at the People of the
Great Lakes. There are 53 portraits of Native Americans in dance regalia
at the 1994 Sault Ste. Marie pow-wow.
Tooker, Elizabeth. An Ethnography of the Huron Indians, 1615-1649. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1964.
In the first half of the 17th century , the Iroquoian speaking
Huron lived in an area at the southern end of Georgian Bay in the
present province of Ontario, Canada. It was there the French visited
them, some recording what they saw and thus preserving much of what we
know of the Huron culture – for in 1649 the Huron were driven from their
homeland by the Iroquois and dispersed.
Trigger, Bruce G. The Children of Aataentsci I: A History of
the Huron People to 1660. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press,
1976. 2 volumes
A full scale ethnohistory of the Huron Indian Confederacy and a
study of the causes of its collapse under the impact of the Iroquois
attacks of 1649.
Vanderwerth, W.C. Indian Oratory: Famous Speeches by Noted Indian Chiefs. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.
Includes speeches by Pontiac and Tecumseh.
Vennum, Thomas J. American Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.
Native American history of the game with rules, equipment,
techniques, regional differences and legendary underpinnings. Many
Vennum, Thomas. Wild Rice and the Ojibwa People. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1988.
Examines in detail the place of wild rice in Ojibwa culture.
Vogel, Virgil J. American Indian Medicine. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.
Discusses Indian theories of disease and methods of combating disease. Includes Great Lakes area.
Vogel, Virgil J. Indian Names in Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1986.
Focus is on Native American place names in Michigan. The great
majority of these are the names of tribes and notable Indians.
Wahla, Ed. J. Everyday Life of the Protohistoric Michigan Indians. Detroit, MI: Aboriginal Research Club, 1961.
Compiled from original sources to provide a short and
condensed account of some former Indian ways and customs in the early
days of white contact.
Walker, Louise J. Woodland Wigwams. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale School Supply, 1963.
Walker has depicted the Indians'home life, their philosophical
and religious beliefs, their moral code, their feasts and festivals,
their burial customs, their contributions to our culture, and their
present status, plus fifteen legends.
White Wolf, Chief. Reminiscences by Chief White Wolf of the Chippewa. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Sault News, 1957.
This piece is copyrighted by Ralph E. McCarry. "To put before
you in my own way, the philosophy and culture pattern of the Ojibwa
tribe in the Great Lakes area."
Wilder, Keith. Together as Family: Metis Children's Response to Evangelical Protestants at the Mackinaw Mission, 1823-1837.
Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1989.
This story shows that the metis must not be viewed as tribal Indians, but as a distinct group of people.
Wilbur, C. Keith. The Woodland Indians: An Illustrated Account of the Life Styles of America's First Inhabitants. Old Saybrook,
CN: The Globe Pequot Press, 1995.
Focuses mainly on the period from 1000 B.C. to 1500 A.D. Text
and illustrations combine to tell of the Indians'leadership, religious
beliefs, seasonal celebrations, agriculture, and warfare.
Williams, Thomas Benton. The Soul of the Red Man. n.p.: Thomas Benton Williams, 1937.
Speeches of Great Indian orators of all tribes.
Wright, Robert C. Indian Masonry. Ann Arbor, MI: Tyler Publishing Co., 1907.
Includes Ojibwa Grand Medicine Lodge.