Books

Native American Bibliography

As Europeans entered the Great Lakes area they wrote about the people they met. Although there were differences in world views these narratives provide an important source of information about the life of the Native Americans they encountered and help document the changes that have occurred because of that contact. The explorers needed the help of the Native Americans to 'discover' the area.

 

Books

Adams, Arthur T. Editor. The Explorations of Pierre Esprit Radisson. Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1961.

Radisson came to Canada in 1651 as a fur trader. In 1659 he may have reached the upper Mississippi, the first European to do so.

 

Agassiz, Louis. Lake Superior: Its Physical Character, Vegetation, and Animals with a Narrative of the Tour by J. Eliot Cabot. Boston, MA: Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, 1850.

The tour left Boston in 1848 and went to Sault Ste. Marie. This account is mostly scientific but there is some mention of the Native Americans.

 

Atwater, Caleb. Remarks Made on a Tour to Prairie du Chein; Thence to Washington City in 1829. Columbus, OH: Jenkins and Glover, 1831.

Atwater was a commissioner appointed to arrange a treaty with the Wyandots in 1829. His descriptions of the Indians are valuable.

 

Atwater, Caleb. The Writings of Caleb Atwater. Columbus, OH: The Author, 1833.

"A description of the antiquities discovered in the western country," "Tour to Prairie du Chein," and "Tour to Washington City," are included here.

 

Bigsby, John J. The Shoe and Canoe, or, Pictures of Travel in the Canadas. London: Chapman and Hall, MDCCCI. 2 volumes

Bigsby traveled in the Great Lakes area and noted the Native Americans.

 

Blair, Emma Helen. Editor. The Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Region of the Great Lakes as Described by Nicolas Perrot. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1911-1912. 2 volumes

As a youth Perrot emigrated to New France and became a fur trader. He was in the region in the 1660's to the 1690's.

 

Bossu, Jean B. Nouveaux Voyages aux Indes Occidentales; Contenant Une Relation des Differens Peuples qui Habitent les Environs du Grand Fleuve Saint Louis, Appelle Vulgiarement le Mississippi; Leur Relgion; Leur Gouvernement; Leurs Moeurs; Leurs Querres & Leur Commerce. 2 nd ed. Paris: Le Jay, 1768.

The author's observations in 1757-1762. He spent most of his time in the South, but did get to the Mississippi Valley region.

 

Bryant, William Cullen. Letters of a Traveller: or, Notes of Things Seen in Europe and America. NY: G.P. Putnam, 1850.

Bryant describes his journey from Detroit to Mackinaw and to various other places in Michigan and the Midwest in 1846. His descriptions of the Indians are graphic.

 

Butterfield, Consul Willshire. History of Brule's Discoveries and Explorations, 1610-1626, Being a Narrative of Discovery by Stephen Brule, of lakes Huron, Ontario and Superior. Cleveland, OH: Helman-Taylor, 1898.

Brule spent much time with the Indians.

 

Butterfield, Consul Willshire. History of the Discovery of the Northwest by John Nicolet in 1634, With a Sketch of His Life. Cincinnati, OH: R. Clarke, 1891.

Nicolet was the first white explorer in the northwest. He visited a number of Indian nations never before heard of.

 

Cadillac, Antione de la Mothe. The Western Country in the 17 th Century: The Memoirs of la Mothe Cadillac and Pierre Liette. Edited by Milo Milton Quaife. Chicago, IL: Lakeside Press, 1947.

Liette's account covers his Midwestern experiences during 1687-1702.

 

Cartier, Jacques. Voyages de Decouverte at Canada entre les Annee 1534 et 1542. Quebec: William Cowan et fils, 1843.

Cartier was in the St. Lawrence Valley in 1535.

 

Carver, Jonathan. The Journals of Jonathan Carver and Related Documents 1766-1770. Edited by John Parker. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1976.

Carver was an explorer of the Upper Mississippi area during the British regime.

 

Carver, Jonathan. Voyage dans les Parties Interieures le l'Ameriqe Septentrionale, pendant les annee 1766, 1767, 1768. Verdon, France: 1784.

 

Carver, Jonathan. Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America in the Years 1766, 1767, and 1768. 2 nd ed. London: W. Richardson, 1779.

Carver included much information about the Indians in his account.

 

Champlain, Samuel D. Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, 1604-1618. edited by W. L. Grant. NY: Barnes and Noble, 1959.

Champlain's observations about the manners and customs of the Indians is valuable as they were made before contact with the white invader.

 

Champlain, Samuel D. The Works of Samuel de Champlain. Edited by H.P. Biggar. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1922-1936. 6 volumes

Volume One includes, "Of Savages, 1603."

 

Charlevoix, Pierre F.X. Histoire et Description Generale de la Nouvelle France, Avec le Journal Historique d'un Voyage fait par Ordre du Roi dans l'Amerique Septentrionnale. Paris: Chez Rolin Fils, 1744. 3 volumes

 

Charlevoix, Pierre Francois Xavier. History and General Description of New France. Translated and edited with notes by John G. Shea. NY: F.P. Harper, 1900. 6 volumes

Charlevoix traveled in New France between 1720 and 1722. The history was very popular when it was published and is one of the best general accounts of the activities of the French in the New World. Charlevoix includes much information about the Indians he encountered.

 

Chesnel, Paul. History of Cavelier de la Salle 1643-1687 Explorations in the Valleys of the Ohio, Illinois and Mississippi. NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1932.

Based on the letters and reports he and his associates wrote to King Louis XIV and other contemporary documents.

 

Clark, Charles Upton. Compiler Voyageurs, Robes Noires, et Coureurs de Bois; Stories From the French Exploration of North America. NY: Columbia University Press, 1934.

Including stories of the Indians.

 

Colton, C. Tour of the American Lakes, and Among the Indians of the Northwest Territory, in 1830; Disclosing the Character and Prospects of the Indian Race. London: Frederick Westley and A.H. Davis, 1833. 2 volumes.

Report of his tour of the lakes. Includes samples of Indian speeches.

 

Cook, Darius B. Six Months Among the Indians, Wolves, and Other Wild Animals, in the Forests of Allegan County, Mich., in the Winter of 1839 and 1840. Niles, MI: Niles Mirror Office, 1889.

Cook was a newspaper reporter who went to Allegan County to recover his health.

 

Cox, Isaac J. The Journeys of Rene Robert Cavelier Sieur de la Salle, as Related by his Faithful Lieutenant Henri de Tonty; His Missionary Colleagues, Fathers Zenobius Membre, Louis Hennepin and Anastasius Douay. NY: Allerton, 1922. 2 volumes

LaSalle explored the Midwest in 1678. These are accounts of his explorations by others with him on the exploration journey.

 

DeHauranne, Ernest Duvergier. A Frenchman in Lincoln's America.​ Translated by Ralph H. Bowen. Chicago, IL: R.R. Donnelley and Sons, 1974.

De Hauranne traveled to the Great Lakes and included some Native American information.

 

Douglass, David Bates. American Voyageur: The Journal of David Bates Douglass. Marquette, MI: Northern Michigan University Press, 1969.

Douglass was a member of the Louis Cass expedition to explore the upper Great Lakes and Northern Mississippi region in 1820.

 

Ellet, Mrs. Summer Rambles in the West. NY: J.C. Riker, 1853.

The final chapter of this book includes Michigan and Native Americans.

 

Featherstonehaugh, G. W. A Canoe Voyage Up the Minnay Sotor: With an Account of the Lead and Copper Desposits in Wisconsin; The Gold Region in the Cherokee Country; and Sketches of Popular Manners, etc. London: Richard Bentley, 1847. 2 volumes

Featherstonehaugh was a British geologist. He traveled in America from 1835 to 1837. He commented on the manners and customs of the Native Americans.

 

Ferri-Pisani, Camille. Letres sur les Etats Unis d'Amerique. Paris: L. Hatchette, 1862.

Prince Napoleon traveled to Michigan in 1861. While in Detroit the French party visited Lewis Cass and then continued on their journey by ship to Sault Ste. Marie and Lake Superior. This account contains interesting observations on the habits and customs of the American people.

 

Flint, Timothy. Recollections of the Last Ten Years, Passed in Occasional Residences and Journeyings in the Valley of the Mississippi. Boston, MA: Cummings, Hilliard, 1826.

Flint traveled for his health in 1815. He viewed the mounds in Illinois and comments on Indians and settlements.

 

Gilman, Chandler R. Life on the Lakes. NY: George Dearborn, 1836.

Gilman toured the lakes in 1834-35. He included some information about the Native Americans.

 

Harmon, Daniel Williams. A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of North America, Between the 47 th and 58 th Degrees of North Latitude, Extending From Montreal Nearly to the Pacific Ocean, A Distance of about 5,000 Miles, Including an Account of Principal Occurences During a Residence of Nineteen Years, In Different Parts of the Country. Andover, MA: Flagg and Gould, 1820.

Harmon was a partner in the Northwest Company. He traveled north and west in 1800, touching briefly Lake Huron, St. Joseph Island, Sault Ste. Marie and Lake Superior. Most of the book is about the far west.

 

Hennepin, Louis. Description de la Louisiane,: Nouvellement Decouverte au Sud Ouest de la Nouvelle France, par order du roy. Avec la Carte du pays: Les Moeurs & la Maniere de Vivre des Sauvages. Paris: Sebastien Hure, 1683.

 

Hennepin, Louis. A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Chicago, IL: A.C. McClurg, 1903. 2 volumes.

Hennepin's is the first account in print of La Salle's journey to the Illinois country in 1678 and 1679.

 

Henry, Alexander. Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories Between the Years 1760 and 1776. NY: I. Riley, 1809.

"The heads, under which, for the most part, they will be found to range themselves are three: firstly, the incidents and adventures in which the author was engaged; secondly, the observations, on the geography and natural history of the countries visited, and thirdly, the views of society and manners, among a part of the Indians of North America, which it has belonged to the course of this narrative to develop."

 

Heriot, George. Travels Through the Canadas, Containing a Description of the Picturesque Scenery on some of the Rivers and Lakes, With an Account of the Productions, Commerce and Inhabitants of Those Provinces. Philadelphia, PA: M. Carey, 1813.

Heriot's work is valuable for the rich detail it provides on the climate, soil, and productions of the country as well as the manners and character of its inhabitants. The first section is drawn from personal experience. The second part, containing detailed descriptions of American Indian cultures is from other published works.

 

Hoffman, Charles F. A Winter in the West by a New Yorker. NY: Harper and Brothers, 1835. 2 volumes.

Hoffman reports on the Indians in the Northwest. He also has an account of Tecumseh's death.

 

Hubbard, Bela. Lake Superior Journal: Bela Hubbard's Account of the 1840 Houghton Expedition. Edited by Bernard C. Peters. Marquette, MI: Northern Michigan University Press, 1983.

One of the features of the journal is its maps listing many Ojibway placements.

 

Imlay, G. A Description of the Western Territory of North American... and an Accurate Statement of the Various Tribes of Indians that Inhabit the Frontier Country. Dublin: William Jones, 1793.

Imlay has much to say about the Native Americans.

 

Imlay, Gilbert. A Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North America. London: J. Debrett, 1797.

Includes a chapter, "Observations on the Ancient Works, the Native Inhabitants of the Western Country."

 

Jameson, Mrs. Sketches in Canada, and Rambles Among the Red Men. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1852.

Mrs. Jameson was a well known British author. She was on the northern shore of Lake Huron.

 

Jameson, Mrs. Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada. NY: Wiley and Putnam, 1839.

Mrs. Jameson includes many essays on Indian topics in this book.

 

Jones, David. A Journal of Two Visits Made to Some Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio in the Years 1772 and 1773. Burlington, NJ: 1774.

The Reverend David Jones traveled on the Ohio River and preached to the Shawnees at Chillicothe and to the Delawares on the Muskingum from May 1772 to April 1773.

 

Journal of J.L., of Quebec, Merchant. Detroit, MI: Society of Colonial Wars of the State of Michigan, 1911.

John Lees' Journal in 1768 included his visit to Detroit. He included prices for furs, crew for a French canoe with wages and information about the Indians from the perspective of a merchant.

 

Joutel, Henry. Joutel's Journal of La Salle's Last Voyage, 1684-7. New edition with historical and biographical introduction, annotations and index by Henry Reed Stiles. Albany, NY: J. McDonaugh, 1906.

Concerned with La Salle's last voyage. He stayed in the Great Lakes area in 1687-1688. His account includes his journey via the Great Lakes to Canada. Joutel's book is considered the most trustworthy account of La Salle's expedition.

 

Kane, Paul. Wanderings of an Artist Among the Indians of North America from Canada to Vancouver's Island and Oregon Through the Hudson Bay Company's Territory and Back Again. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman, 1859.

Kane was a Canadian artist. He made an extensive study of Indian life in America from 1846 to 1848. He traveled from Montreal to Mackinaw, the Sault and Green Bay and further west.

 

Keating, William H. Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of St. Peter's River, Lake Winnepeck, Lake of the Woods, etc Performed in the Year 1823, under the Command of Stephen H. Long. Philadelphia, PA: H.C. Carey, 1824. 2 volumes; Reprint edition. Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1959.

Of particular interest is the lengthy description of the Pottawatomi Indians and the visit to Carey Mission.

 

Kellogg, Louise Phelps. Early Narratives of the Northwest, 1634 - 1699. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1919.

Thirteen narratives by early explorers with much on the Native Americans.

 

Kohl, J. G. Kitchi-Gami, Wanderings Around Lake Superior. London: Chapman and Hall, 1860; Reprint St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1985.

Supplements knowledge of the mid-western frontier life and provides corroborating data regarding the payment of annunties, the hardships and rewards of missionary life on the frontier, and an array of regional racial and ethnic attitudes from a German perspective.

 

Lahontan, Baaron de. Dialogues Curieux entre l'Auteur et un Sauvage de bon sens qui a Voyage et Memoires de l'Amerique Septentrionale, publies par Gilbert Chinard. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1931;

 

Lahontan, Louis Armand. New Voyages to North America. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Chicago, IL: A.C. McClurg, 1905. 2 vols.

Lahontan's work is devoted almost entirely to the description of Indian life in Canada, and is one of the best early works on the subject. In 1688 he reached Mackinac and from there went to explore the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers.

 

Lanman, Charles. Adventures in the Wilds of the United States and British American Provinces. Philadelphia, PA: John W. Moore, 1856. 2 volumes.

Lanman was a Michigan author who traveled in the Midwest. His accounts include Native Americans.

 

Lanman, Charles. A Summer in the Wilderness: Embracing a Canoe Voyage Up the Mississippi and Around Lake Superior. NY: Appleton, 1847.

Includes meeting with the Indians.

 

La Salle, Robert C. Relation of the Discoveries and Voyages of Cavelier de La Salle from 1679 to 1681, the Official Narrative. Translated by Melville B. Anderson. Chicago, IL: The Caxton Club, 1901.

Although La Salle himself wrote no full length book some of his letters, patents and documents contain sections which are narrative in nature.

 

Latrobe, Charles Joseph. A Rambler in North America. London: R.B. Seeley, 1835. 2 volumes.

Includes Tecumseh and Great Lakes travel.

 

Legler, Henry E. Chevalier Henry de Tonty; His Exploits in the Valley of the Mississippi. Milwaukee, WI: Parkman Club Publications, 1896.

Tonty was an Italian who accompanied La Salle expedition. When La Salle returned to Quebec in 1680 Tonty remained in the Illinois country. When La Salle explored the Mississippi to its mouth in 1682 Tonty was again with him.

 

Logan, James. Notes of Journey Through Canada, the United States of America, and The West Indies. Edinburgh: Fraser, 1837.

Logan was in Michigan and on the Great Lakes. He visited an Indian Mission.

 

Long, John. Voyages and Travels of an Indian Interpreter and Trader, Describing the Manners and Customs of the North American Indians; With an Account of the Posts Situated on the River St. Lawrence, Lake Ontario, etc. To Which is Added, a Vocubulary of the Chippeway Language. London: Printed for the Author, 1791.

An interesting record of the life and customs of the Indians with whom Long, as trapper, trader and traveler lived.

 

Long, John. John Long's Journal 1768-1782. In Early Western Travels, volume 2, edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1904.

Long lived his youth among Indians as an Indian, and acquired a knowledge of their language, customs and psychology.

 

Long, Stephen H. The Northern Expeditions of Stephen H. Long: The Journals of 1817 and 1823 and Related Documents. Edited by Lucile M. Kane, June D. Holmquist, and Carolyn Gilman. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1978.

These journals are valuable for their first hand observations of the Midwest and its people in the early 1800's.

McClung, John A. Sketches of Western Adventure: Containing an Account of the Most Interesting Incidents Connected With the Settlement of the West, From 1755-1794. Mayville, KY: L. Collin's, 1832.

Includes several episodes about the Indians of the Old Northwest.

 

McKenney, Thomas L. Memoirs, Official and Personal; With Sketches of Travels Among the Northern and Southern Indians; Embracing a War Excursion, and Descriptions of Scenes Along the Western Borders. NY: Paine and Burgess, 1846.

McKenney was United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

 

McKenney, Thomas L. Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes, of the Character and Customs of the Chippeway Indians, and of Incidents Connected with the Treaty of Fond du Lac. Baltimore, MD: Fielding Lucas, 1827.

A day by day account of the events that led to the signing in August 1926 of the Treaty of Fond du Lac by which the powerful Chippewa nation acknowledged the sovereignty of the United States.

 

Margry, Pierre. Decouvertes et Etablissements des Francais dans l"Ouest et dans Le Sud de l"Amerique Septentrionale 1614-1754: Memoires et Documents Originaux. Paris: D. Jouasust, 1876-1886. 6 volumes

This six volume set contains the original accounts of the early French explorers who penetrated the North American continent.

 

Marquette, Jacques. Voyage et Decouverte de Quelques Pays et de L'Amerique Septentrionale, par le P. Marquette et sr. Joliet. Paris: E. Michallet, 1681.

Marquette was chaplain of the Joliet expedition which began in 1673. They were looking for a great river beyond Lake Michigan.

 

Mastin, R. P. Hurons et Iroquois: Le P. Jean de Brebeuf, sa vie, ses Travaux, son Martyre, Par le R.P. Martin, de la Compagnie de Jesus. 2nd edition. Paris: G. Tequi, 1882.

 

Monette, John W. History of the Discovery and Settlement of the Valley of the Mississippi, by the Three Great European Powers, Spain, France, and Great Britain, and the Subsequent Occupation, Settlement, and Extension of Civil Government by the United States until the Year 1846. NY: Harper and Brothers, 1846. 2 volumes.

In addition to the history of the discovery this book includes Pontiac's War.

 

Nicollet, Joseph N. The Journals of Joseph N. Nicollet: A Scientist on the Mississippi Headwaters, with Notes on Indian Life, 1836-37. Translated by Andre Fertey. Edited by Martha Coleman Bray. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1970.

Nicollet was the first scientific observer to systematically study Chippewa customs, and he did so at a far earlier period than other scholars.

 

Ogden, John C. A Tour Through Upper and Lower Canada. Litchfield: 1799.

Containing a view of the present state of religion, learning, commerce, agriculture, colonization, customs and manners, among the English, French and Indian settlements.

 

Parkman, Francis. La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1879.

Includes Great Lakes and missions.

 

Penny, Charles W. North to Lake Superior: The Journal of Charles W. Penny, 1840. Edited by James L. Carter and Earnest H. Rankin. Marquette, MI: John M. Longyear Research Library, 1970.

Penny accompanied Douglas Houghton on this expedition.

 

Perrot, Nicolas. Memoire Sur les Moeurs, Coustumes et Religion des Sauvages de l'Amerique Septerntrionale. Liepzig: Librairie A. Franck, 1864.

Perrot was a fur trader. He took possession of the upper Mississippi region in the name of France in 1689 and for several more years served France by preserving the friendship of the western Indian tribes.

 

Peyton, John Lewis. Over the Alleghanies and Across the Prairies. Personal Recollections of the Far West One and Twenty Years Ago. NY: AMS Press, 1971.

Travels in Detroit and Mackinac among other places. Biographical sketch of the Chippewa chief Pogoneshik or Hole-in-the-Day.

 

Relation Historique de Expedition contre les Indiens de l'Ohio en MDCCLXIV. Commandee par le Henry Bouquet. Amsterdam: M.M. Rey, 1769.

An account of the English campaign against the hostile tribes in the Ohio valley.

 

Relation of Henri de Tonty Concerning the Exploration of La Salle from 1678 to 1683. Translated by Melville B. Anderson. Chicago, IL: Caxton Club, 1898.

Includes meeting Indians in the Great Lakes area.

 

Rochefoucault- Liancourt, Francois Alexandre-Frederic. Travels Through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797; With an Authentic Account of Lower Canada. London: R. Phillips, 1799.

Rochefoucault, a Frenchman, traveled extensively in the United States. He was in the Detroit and Great Lakes area.

 

Rogers, Robert. A Concise Account of North America; Containing a Description of the Several British Colonies on that Continent...Also of the Interior, or Westerly Parts of the Country, upon the Rivers St. Laurence, the Mississippi, Christino, and the Great Lakes. To Which is Subjoined, An Account of the Several Nations and Tribes of Indians Residing in Those Parts, as to Their Customs, Manners, Government, Numbers, Etc. London: Printed for the Author, 1765.

This has been called one of the most accurate contemporary accounts of the interior of North America as it was when England took if from France.

 

Sagard-Theodat, Gabriel. Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons Situe en l’Amerique vers la mer Douce, es Derniers Confins de la Nouvell France dite Canada; avec un dictionaire de la Lanque Huronne. Paris: Librarie Tross, 1865. 2 volumes.

 

Sagard, Garbiel. The Long Journey to the Country of the Hurons.Edited by George M. Wrong. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1939.

Sagard was a Recollect priest who came to the Great Lakes region in 1615.

 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. A Map and Report of Lieut. Allen and H.R. Schoolcraft's Visit to the Northwest Indians in 1832. U.S. 23 rd Congress. Doc. No. 323. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1834.

Official report of the expedition.

 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Narrative Journal of Travels, Through the Northwestern Regions of the United States Extending from Detroit Through the Great Chain of American Lakes to the Sources of the Mississippi River...in the Year 1820. Albany, NY: E.E. Hosford, 1821.

An important source of information about the character, products and extent of the country.

 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Narrative of an Expedition Through the Upper Mississippi to Itasca Lake. NY: Harper and Brothers, 1834.

Semi-official report of the 1832 expedition.

 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Summary Narrative of an Exploratory Expedition to the Sources of the Mississippi River in 1820: Resumed and Completed by the Discovery of its Origin in Itasca Lake in 1832. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Grambo, 1855.

 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Travels in the Central Portions of the Mississippi Valley. NY: Collins and Hannay, 1825.

Includes much information on the Indian wars in the area.

 

Shea, John Dawson G. Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley: With Original Narratives of Marquette, Allouez, Membre, Hennepin, and Anastase Douay. NY: Redfield, 1853.

Reprint of the source material.

 

Silvey, Antoine. Letters From North America. Translated by Ivy Alice Dickson. Belleville, ONT: Mika, 1980.

Chapters on Lake Huron, the Saulteax Indians, Lake Superior, Copper mines, Fort Michilimackinac, and the Ottawas.

 

Steck, Francis Borgia. The Jolliet-Marquette Expedition 1673. revised and enriched with maps and documents. Quincy, IL: Franciscan Fathers, 1928.

The expedition started from Michilimackinac in 1673 to explore the Mississippi.

 

Titus, Charles H. Into the Old Northwest: Journeys with Charles H. Titus, 1841-1846. George P. Clark, editor. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1994.

Titus records accounts of Native American groups he encountered in the new state of Michigan.

 

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Journey to America. Translated by George Lawrence. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1959.

Pocket Notebook #2 describes a trip to Saginaw in 1831.

 

Vandiveer, Clarence A. The Fur Trade and Early Western Exploration. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1929.

Vandiveer discusses discovery as part of the fur trade.

 

Vigne, Godfred. Six Months in America. London: Whittaker, Treacher, 1832. 2 volumes.

Vigne was in the Michigan and on the Great Lakes.

 

Wallace, A.W. Editor. Thirty Thousand Miles with John Heckwelder. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1958.

Heckwelder was a Moravian missionary in Ohio. He was captured by the Indians and British and brought to Detroit.

 

Weld, Isaac. Travels Through the States of North America, and the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, During the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797. London: John Stockdale, 1799.

Weld was in the Great Lakes and discusses the Indians.

 

Winsor, Justin. Cartier to Frontenac: Geographical Discovery in the Interior of North American in its Historical Relations 1534 - 1700. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1894.

Indians were part of the discoveries.

 

Winsor, Justin. The Mississippi Basin: The Struggle in America between England and France 1697-1763.​ Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1895.

Explorers with maps of their routes and discoveries.