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Native American Bibliography

The Native Americans of the Great Lakes have dealt with the French, British, and the United States governments. They have helped fight the wars between these powers, have worked to enrich them through the fur trade, and ceded much of their land through treaties with the government of the United States.



An Act of the Fourth Congress to Regulate Trade and Intercourse with the Indian Tribes and to Preserve Peace on the Frontier. Printed by John McCall in Detroit, 1796. Facsimile Edition Detroit, MI: Detroit Public Library, 1945.

This printing of the Act was occasioned by the interest of those early Detroiters who lived by trade with the Indians; it told them where the boundary between whites and Indians had been fixed, and specified definite procedures in case of infringement.

Allen, Robert S. The British Indian Department and the Frontier in North America 1755-1830. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1975.
Many illustrations and maps in this history of the British Indian Department.

Annual Report of the Acting Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Michigan, Made to the Bureau of Indian Affairs at Washington, at the Close of the Fiscal Year, 30th September 1840. Detroit, MI: Asahel S. Bagg, 1840.
Schoolcraft was the acting superintendent.​

Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners. Washington, DC, GPO.
Have: 1870, 1871, 1884, 1887.

Brophy, William S. and Sophie D. Aberle. Compilers The Indian: America's Unfinished Business. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966.
Report of the Commission on the Rights, Liberties and Responsibilities of the American Indian.

Campbell, James V. Outlines of the Political History of Michigan. Detriot, MI: Schober, 1876.
Includes Native American leaders.

Canada and Its Provinces: A History of the Canadian People and their Institutions. Toronto: Edinburgh University Press, 1914.
Volumes 1 and 2: New France
Volumes 3 and 4: British Dominion.

Carter, Clarence Edwin. Compiler and Editor. The Territorial Papers of the United States. Washington, DC: GPO.
Volumes 2 and 3: The Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, 1787-1803.
Volume 10: The Territory of Michigan 1805-1820.
Volume 11: The Territory of Michigan 1820-1829.
Volume 12: The Territory of Michigan 1829-1837.

Cleland, Charles. Cass, Sassaba and Ozhaw-quscoday-wa-quay: History, Ethnohistory and Historical Reality." In Entering the 90's: The North American Experience: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 27-28, 1989 edited by Thomas E. Schirera. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1991.
It is likely that Ozhaw-quscoday-wa-quah, a remarkable woman, quite literally saved her relations from annihilation through her supernatural gifts.

Gilpin, Alec R. The Territory of Michigan 1805-1937. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1970.
Gilpin tells of Indian problems and the legal, educational and economic problems of a pioneer area.

Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians. Compiled by Edward E. Hill. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Service, 1981.
Purposes of this guide are to describe and assist the researcher in locating within the National Archives of the United States materials that are concerned with American Indians and the relations of the Government and people of the United States with them.

Harmon, George Dewey. Sixty Years of Indian Affairs: Political, Economic, and Diplomatic 1789-1850. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1941.
Harmon's purpose is to examine the many phases of the federal Indian policy in their financial, political and diplomatic significance. A factor of chief importance was the legal title of the Indians to the soil and the transfer of this ownership to the white people and their government.

Havighurst, Walter. Wilderness for Sale: The Story of the First Western Land Rush. NY: Hastings House, 1956.
An attempt to picture the first huge western frontier in America, and the process of its acquisition from the Indians.

Horsman, Reginald. Expansion and American Indian Policy, 1783-1812. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1967.
From the time the first settlers arrived on the eastern seaboard of America, the fundamental struggle with the aboriginal inhabitants was over possession of the land.

Horsman, Reginald. Matthew Elliot, British Indian Agent. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1964.
From the Revolution through the War of 1812, Elliot was involved in carrying out British policies on the western edges of the American frontier.

Humins, John Harold. George Boyd: Indian Agent of the Upper Great Lakes, 1819-1842. Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1975.
Boyd served as federal Indian agent at Michilimackinac from 1819 to 1832.

Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook Compiled by the Confederation of American Indians. Jefferson, SC: McFarland, 1986.
A state by state listing.

Indian Tribes as Sovereign Governments: A Sourcebook on Federal-Tribal History, Law, and Policy. Oakland, CA: AIRI Press, 1988.
Designed to promote understanding about Indian tribal governments.

Inquiries Respecting the History, Present Condition and Future Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Unpublished.
Questions asked and organization of Schoolcraft's volumes.

The Inter-Agency Advisory Committee Statement for American Indians. Meeting the Health Needs of American Indians in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Public Health, 1978.
The major means of implementing their program is a cooperative communication system.

Jackson, Helen. A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the United States Government Dealings with Some of the Indian Tribes. Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1964.
Includes Michigan.

Janke, Ronald Arthur. The Development and Persistence of U.S. Indian Land Problems as Shown by a Detailed Study of the Chippewa Indian. Dissertation. University of Minnesota, 1975.
Purpose is to analyze the development and persistence of land problems among the Indians of the United States. The Turtle Mountain and Lac du Flambeau bands are closely studied.

Johnson, Steven L. Guide to American Indian Documents in the Congressional Serial Set: 1817-1899. NY: Clearwater, 1977.
Makes more accessible United States documents on American Indians.

Keller, Mark. The Chippewa Land of Keweenaw Bay: An Allotment History. Baraga, MI: Keweenaw Bay Tribal Council, 1982.
The purpose of this study is to outline a history of the Keweenaw Bay Indian community especially how the land was allotted to the tribe by the federal government, and how these lands were sold to non-Indian buyers by various means.

Kinney, J.P. A Continent Lost – A Civilization Won: Indian Land Tenure in America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1937.
Includes a chapter on Indian Removal.

Letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting information in relation to the Superintendency of Indian Affairs, in the Territory of Michigan during the year 1820, and part of the year 1821. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1822.
This is just after the Treaty of Saginaw.

McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham. The Influence of Governor Cass on the Development of the Northwest. A Paper Read Before the American Historical Association, 1888. NY: Knickerbocker Press, 1889.
From 1813 to 1831 Cass was Superintendent of Indian Affairs and came into contact with the Indians of the whole Northwest.

Manypenny, George W. Our Indian Wards. Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clarke, 1880.
Manypenny was Commissioner of Indian Affairs from 1853 to 1857. This book is an account of the relationships between the United States government and the American Indian, valuable for the insight it provides into the philosophies of a man who was active in Indian affairs.

Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs. Annual Report. Lansing, MI: The Commission, 1970 –1977.
The Commission on Indian Affairs has worked to provide the basis for a firm policy that will improve health, education, housing and economic development for the Indians of our State."

Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs. Commission Progress Report. Lansing, MI: The Commission, 1997.
Report on programs and personnel.

Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs. Michigan Indian Directory. Lansing, MI: The Commission, 2000 and 2002.
Directory of urban Indian organizations, federal and historical tribes, American Indian services and resources.

Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs. Resource Manual. Lansing, MI: The Commission, 1998.
Directory of cultural, education, youth and senior programs.

Michigan Department of the Treasury. Taxation of American Indians in Michigan. Lansing, MI: The Department, 1997.
Brief economic history of American Indians in Michigan; summary of major court decisions regarding state and tribal tax issues; socioeconomic description of Michigan's American Indians; State services received by Indians in Michigan; and estimates of the state taxes paid and cost to the State of exempting certain Indian activities from taxation.

Michigan Division of Health Care Systems. Meeting Health Needs of American Indians and Migrant Farm Workers in Michigan. Lansing, MI: The Division, 1978.
The purpose of the study was to provide background and develop a knowledge base in order to develop policy.

The Minutes of the Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs 1956-1977. Akron, OH: Hillman Publications, 1990.
The Commission is an important agency in the history of Indians in the State and a ‘must' in terms of getting a clear picture of what was happening in the world of Indians in the State. The minutes were collected and published by a former commissioner so they would not be lost.

Morse, Jedidiah. A Report to the Secretary of War of the United States, on Indian Affairs, Comprising a Narrative of a Tour Performed in the Summer of 1820, Under a Commission from the President of the United States, for the Purposes of Ascertaining, for the Use of the Government, the Actual State of the Indian Tribes in Our Country. New Haven, CN: S. Convene, 1822.
Morse was in the Great Lakes region as part of his tour.

The Papers of Sir William Johnson. Prepared for publication by Alexander C. Flick. Albany, NY: University of the State of New York, 1925. Have: Volumes 4-14.
Johnson was in charge of the northern branch of Indian affairs for the British.

Pevar, Stephen L. The Rights of American Indians and Their Tribes. NY: Puffin Books, 1997.
Prepared by the American Civil Liberties Union this guide set forth the rights of American Indians and their tribes under the present law and offers suggestions as to how these rights can be protected.

Pokagon, Simon. Indians Residing in Michigan and Indiana: Supplementary Memorial of Certain Indians Residing in Michigan and Indiana. 42nd Cong. 2nd Sess. Misc Doc 137. Washington, DC: GPO, 1872.
The Potawatomies remaining in Michigan and Indiana present to Congress the condition of the other annunities and funds heretofore granted by the government to them, and show the amounts of the same now remaining due and unpaid.

Pound, Arthur. Johnson of the Mohawks. NY: Macmillan, 1930.
Sir William Johnson who was in charge of Indian Affairs for the British. Includes his trip to Detroit in 1761 and treaty negotiations there.

Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Policy in the Formative Years. The Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts 1790-1834. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962.
This study of developing legislation shows, through congressional documents and records, how existing conditions governed and modified the enactments of Congress.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Lewis Cass and American Indian Policy. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1967.
Historical Society of Michigan Lecture, 1966.

Report of the Michigan Interim Action Committee on Indian Problems. Lansing, MI: 1971.
Part One presents recommendations to alter the structure and responsibilities of the Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs and Part Two focuses on the programs necessary to meet the urgent needs of the Indian citizens of Michigan.

Smith, E. B. Compiler. Indian Tribal Claims Decided in the Court of Claims of the United States briefed and compiled to June 30, 1947. Washington, DC: University Publications of America, 1976. 2 volumes.
Smith provides in a convenient form complete information regarding the judicial history of transactions between the government and various groups of aboriginal Indians.

Smith, William Henry. The Life and Public Services of Arthur St. Clair, Soldier of the Revolutionary War; President of the Continental Congress; and Governor of the North-Western Territory. Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clarke, 1882. 2 volumes.
Includes St. Clair's Native American policies.

Sosin, Jack M. Whitehall and the Wilderness: The Middle West in British Colonial Policy, 1760-1775. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1961.
Whitehall decided on an imperial program which included maintaining royal garrisons in the wilderness, Indian reservations and equitable trade with the natives.

Stone, William L. The Life and Times of Sir William Johnson, Bart. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1865. 2 volumes.
Johnson was in charge of British Indian policy. Stone includes Johnson's visit to Detroit.

Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. Compiler. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. Albuquerque, NM: Tiller Research, 1996.
A state by state guide.

Unger, Robert W. Lewis Cass: Indian Superintendent of the American Territory, 1813-1831: A Survey of Public Opinion as Reported in the Newspapers of the Old Northwest Territory. Dissertation. Ball State University, 1967.
Were Cass's activities as Indian Superintendent of the Michigan Territory as reported in the newspapers of the Old Northwest the basis for his future national political strength?

United States. Census Office. Report on Indians Taxed and Not Taxed in the United States (except Alaska) at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington, DC: GPO, 1894.
Lists state by state Condition of the Indians" and Vital Statistics.

United States. Congress. Condition of the Indian Tribes. Report of the Joint Special Committee, with an Appendix. 38th Cong. 2nd sess. Washington, DC: GPO, 1867.
Appendix is reports from all over the country.

United States. Congress. L'Anse and Vieux de Sert Bands of Chippewa Indians. 43 Cong. 1st sess. Report # 396. Washington, GPO, 1874.
A bill for the relief of the L'Anse and Vieux de Sert band of Chippewa Indians in the State of Michigan.

United States. Congress. Letter from the Secretary of War Transmitting a List of Names of Persons Charged with the Disbursement of Money, Goods, or Effects, For the Benefit of the Indians. 23rd Cong. 2nd sess. House # 150. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1835.
Includes Michigan.

United States. Congress. Licenses to Trade with Indians, 1831 and 1832. US 22nd Cong. House Doc no. 121. Washington, DC: 1832.
Includes Michigan.

United States. Congress. A List of the Names of the Several Agents of Indian Affairs, and of Agents of Indian Trading Houses, with the Pay and Emoluments of the Agents Respectively. Washington, DC: DeKraft, 1818.
The President is reporting this information to the Senate.

United States. Congress. Report of the Committee on Public Lands, of the House of Representatives of the United States, in Relation to Claims to Land in the Territory of Michigan. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1828.
People claiming land and their reasons.

United States. Congress. Report of the Secretary of War Relative to the Number and Situation of the Indians on the Frontiers of the United States, and a Plan for an Increase of the Army. US 24th Cong. 1st Sess. Washington, DC: 1836.

United States. Department of Commerce. Federal and State Indian Reservations and Indian Trust Areas. Washington, DC: GPO, 1974.
A listing by state.

United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Annual Report from the Office of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC.
Holdings: 1837, 1847, 1851, 1864, 1865, 1868, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1894, 1895, 1911.
These reports include information on Michigan groups.

United States. Secretary of the Interior. Communicating a Report Made by R.H. Schoolcraft, on the State of Indian Statistics. Washington, DC: 1854.
Difficulties of getting accurate statistics.

United States. Secretary of the Interior. Report Relative to the Necessities of the Chippewa Indians of Lake Superior, and Recommending an Appropriation for Relief. 40th Cong. 2nd sess. Ex Doc 246. Washington, DC: 1868.

United States. Secretary of War. The Indian Department. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1822.
Number of persons employed in the Indian Department, as superintendents, factors, agents, subagents, interpreters, missionaries, teachers, mechanics, agriculturists, explorers, surveyors, and messengers, with their names.

United States. Secretary of War. Information in Relation to the Superintendency of Indian Affairs, in the Territory of Michigan During the Year 1820, and Part of the Year 1821. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1822.
Amount of presents to the Indians in 1820 was considerably increased by the Treaty of Saginaw.

Viola, Herman J. Thomas L. McKenney, Architect of America's Early Indian Policy, 1816-1830. Chicago, IL: Swallow Press, 1974.
Story of McKenney's life and work with his Indian projects. It is also a study in public policy making and administration, and a glimpse into the religious and humanitarian programs so fashionable in the early 19th century.

Wallin, Helen. The United States Indian Agency and Its Employees in Michigan 1814-1851 with Special Emphasis on Walter Drake, U.S. Farmer in the Grand Traverse Area." Report of the Historical Society of Greater Lansing, May 20, 1964.
Information taken from government reports.

Woehrmann, Paul. At the Headwaters of the Maumee: A History of the Forts of Fort Wayne. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1971.
Mainly concerned with the heyday of Fort Wayne when it served as a military post, Indian agency, trading house, and diplomatic headquarters.

Woodford, Frank B. Lewis Cass: The Last Jeffersonian. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1950.
Includes his work with the Indians.

Young, Willliam T. Sketch of the Life and Public Services of General Lewis Cass. Detroit, MI: Alexander McFarren, 1852.
Includes his work with the Indians.​

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