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Native American Bibliography

The work of various religious organizations to Christianize and 'civilize' the Native Americans began with the earliest visitors to the Great Lakes. Both Catholics and Protestants established and maintained missions to the Indians. Reports documenting the successes and failures of these missions were regularly forwarded to the superiors or oversight boards. These records, and other material documenting the work of the missions, often speak to the life of the Native Americans with whom the missionaries came into contact.



Alderson, Jo Bartels and J. Michael Alderson. The Man Mazzuchelli: Pioneer Priest. Madison, WI: Wisconsin House Ltd., 1974.
Mazzuchelli was a missionary in the Mid West in the 1820's.

American Baptist Home Mission Society. Baptist Home Missions in North America; Including a Full Report of the Proceedings and Addresses of the Jubilee Meeting, and a Historical Sketch of the American Baptist Home Mission Society 1832-1882. NY: Baptist Home Missions Rooms, 1883.
Includes brief information on the Michigan missions.

American Home Missionary Society. Report of the American Home Missionary Society. NY: The Society, 1827-1860. 6 volumes.
Reports include Michigan missions.

Anglicanus, Julius. Missionary Bishops: A Plea for Indians and Immigrants, Particularly in the Alcoma District. Being a Letter Addressed to the Right Reverend the Metropolitan of Canada, and the Bishops of Quebec, Toronto, Huron and Ontario. Toronto: Willing and Williamson, 1872.
Letter written "in hope that through their example and influence a more earnest missionary spirit may be enkindled in each Diocese, and the mission work of the Church more rapidly expanded."

Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, A Periodical Collection of Letters from the Bishops and Missionaries Employed in the Missions of the Old and New World: 1839-1867. London: 1839 - . 14 volumes.
Reports of Catholic missions throughout the world.

Annual Report of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. NY: Azur Hoyt, 1820.
Reports on the Grand River Mission, Upper Canada 1925; Pottawatomi Mission, and Huron Mission.

Bachman, Patricia Bensen. Carey Mission: Home of the Brave. Flint, MI: Graphic Press, 1972.
Written for the 150th anniversary of the founding of Carey Mission, near present day Niles, Michigan.

Baierlein, E. R. The German Lutheran Bethany Indian Mission. Compiled and edited by Harold W. Moll, 1989. 3 volumes
Volume 1: Letters and articles by Edward Johannes Raymund Baierlein, German missionary to the Michigan Indians 1848-1853 and related materials 1843-1855.
Volume 2: The letters of Ernest Gustav Herman Miessler, German missionary to the Michigan Indians 1851-1868 and related materials 1847-1871.
Volume 3: In the Wilderness with the Red Men by E.R. Baierlein ca 1893.

Baierlein, Eduard R. Im Urwalde; bei den Roten Indianeen. Leipzig: J. Naumann, 1888.
Story of the Bethany Indian Mission near St. Louis, Michigan. In German.

Bangs, Nathan. An Authentic History of the Missions under the Care of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. NY: J. Emory and B. Waugh, 1832.
Includes "The Potawatomy Mission," and "Aboriginal Missions in Upper Canada."

Baraga, Frederic. The Diary of Bishop Frederic Baraga: First Bishop of Marquette, Michigan. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1990.
Baraga was a Catholic missionary in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

Baroux, Louis. Correspondence of Rev. Louis Baroux, Missionary Apostolic of Michigan to Rev. M. J. DeNeve, Superior of the American College at Louvain. Translated by E.D. Kelly. Detroit, MI: Ann Arbor Press, 1913.
Christianity and civilization among the Potawatomies of Indiana and Michigan at a mission at Silver Creek, Michigan. The letter was written in 1862.

Beaver, James. Recreations of a Long Vacation; or A Visit to Indian Missions in Upper Canada. London: James Burns, 1846.
Beaver visited the mission at Sault Ste. Marie.

Bedford-Jones, Henry. L'Arbre Croche Mission: A Memorable Relation Briefly Setting Forth the Historical Facts and Eschewing all Fable and Legend, as Erected by Untutored Minds Touching Upon the Justly Famed Mission of the Crooked Tree. Santa Barbara, CA: The Author, 1917. Reprint: Harbor Springs, MI: 1973.
A history of the mission.

Beckhofer, Robert F. Salvation and the Savage; An Analysis of Protestant Missions and American Indian Response, 1787-1862. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1965.
The pre-Civil War attempt of Protestant missionaries to Christianize the American Indian.

Bowden, Henry Warner. American Indians and Christian Missions: Studies in Cultural Conflict. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
Bowden gives both a broad overview of four centuries of cultural history and detailed instances of relations between Indians, Europeans, and Americans.

Boyton, James. Fishers of Men: The Jesuit Mission at Mackinac 1670-1765. Mackinac Island, MI: St. Anne's Church, 1996.
In 1670 Father Jacques Marquette brought his refugee band of Huron Indians to the secluded safety of Mackinac Island. For the next 95 years Jesuit missionaries exhibited an unrelenting zeal to take the word of God to the Native and European people of the Straits of Mackinac region.

Brown, Edward Osgood. Two Missionary Priests at Mackinac and The Parish Register of the Mission of Michilimackinac. Chicago, IL: Barnard and Ganthorp, 1889.
Two lectures delivered by Brown.

Brunger, Ronald A. The History of the Taymouth Methodist Indian Mission. Typed, 1974.
Written by the pastor of the Burt Church which is the successor of the Taymouth Mission.

Brunson, Alfred. A Western Pioneer: or, Incidents of the Life and Times of Rev. Alfred Brunson, Embracing a Period of Seventy Years. Cincinnati, OH: Hitchcock and Walden, 1879. 2 volumes.
Brunson worked in Michigan among other places. He includes much information about Native Americans and treaty conferences.

Callan, Louise. The Society of the Sacred Heart in North America. London: Longmans, Green, 1937.
Includes a chapter on the mission among the Potawatomi Indians 1841-1879.

Campbell, T. J. Pioneer Priests of North America 1642-1710. NY: Fordam University Press, 1908. 3 volumes.
The priests dealt with and recorded their impressions of the Native Americans.

Chopin, Walter. The Missionary Gazetteer, Comprising a View of the Inhabitants, and a Geographical Description of the Countries and Places, Where Protestant Missionaries have Labored. Woodstock: David Watson, 1825.
Contains information about Michigan missions.

Clark, James I. Father Claude Allouez Missionary. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1957.
Most of the information included here is from the Jesuit Relations about Allouez and his mission on Chequamegon Bay on the southern shore of Lake Superior.

Clark, Joseph B. Leavening the Nation; The Story of American Home Missions. NY: Baker and Taylor, 1903.
Includes a chapter about missions in Michgan.

Cole, Maurice F. Voices from the Wilderness. Ann Arbor, MI: Edward Brothers, 1961.
Letters from missionaries in Michigan reporting on their work.

Copway, George. The Life, History, and Travels of Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh (George Copway) A Young Indian Chief of the Ojebwa Nation…and a Missionary to his People for Twelve Years,…With a Sketch of the Present State of the Ojebwa Nation. Albany, NY: Weed and Parsons, 1847.
Copway's autobiography.

Copway, George. The Life, Letters and Speeches of Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh, or G. Copway. NY: S.W. Benedict, 1850.
Autobiography of Copway, a Chippewa Methodist missionary.

Craker, Ruth. First Protestant Mission in the Grand Traverse Region. n.p.: 1931. and reprint Mt. Pleasant, MI: Rivercrest House, 1979.
A collection of historical fact and Indian legend about Rev. Peter Dougherty's mission.

Crespel, Emmauel. Der Ehrwurdigan Pater Emanuel Crespels Merkwurdige Reisen Nach Canada, daselbat gehabte Begenbenheitin, und Earlittener Schifbruch bey Seiner Heimreise Nach. Frankfort: G.P. Monath, 1751.

Dallas, James M. Missions at Old Mackinac, Ancient and Modern, Including the Story of the Fort and Massacre A.D. 1763. Detroit, MI: Presbyterian Print, 1902.
History of the several missions at Mackinac.

DeJean, Pierre. Along the Huron River: The Letters of Father Pierre DeJean 1825-1826, Missionary Priest of Macomb County. Mount Clemens, MI: Macomb County Historical Society, 1986.
Not very much about the Indians.

Donnell, Joseph P. Jacques Marquette, S.J. 1637-1675. Chicago, IL: Loyola University, 1968.
From this biography emerges a Jacques Marquette who dearly loved and profoundly understood the Indians as few missionaries had.

Dougherty, Peter. Diaries. Journal of the Presbyterian Church, 1952. copy.
The diaries, 1838-1842, relate numerous incidents connected with his preaching and teaching work among the Chippewas in the Grand Traverse Bay region.

Doyle, Sherman H. Presbyterian Home Missions: An Account of the Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sabbath School Work, 1902.
An overview of the work of the missions.

Ducreux, Francois. The History of Canada or New France. Translated with an Introduction by Percy J. Robinson. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1951. 2 volumes.
From 1625 to 1658 Decreux was a Jesuit missionary.

Ederer, Roselynn. On the Banks of the Beautiful Saugenah. Saginaw, MI: Thomastown, 1999.
Includes a chapter, "The Four German Missionary Colonies."

Eliza, the Indian Sorceress. American Tract Society, no. 293.
Set in Mackinaw, a Chippewa woman who was an interpreter of dreams, became a Christian convert and died in the faith.

Ferry, William M. Notice of Chippeway Converts. Missionary Paper, no.13, 1826.
Ferry was a missionary at Mackinaw. This is the story of two women converts.

Finley, James B. Life Among the Indians: or, Personal Reminiscences and Historical Incidents Illustrative of Indian Life and Character. Cincinnati, OH: Methodist Book Concern, 1860.
Finley was a missionary in Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. He says, "No living man, probably, has seen and known more of the Indians in the north-west than myself. During almost seventy years I have been among them."

Florer, H.W. Early Michigan Settlements: The German Indian Missions in Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: W.W. Florer, 1953.
The mission at St. Louis and the mission at Sebewaing.

Frost, F. Sketches of Indian Life. Toronto: William Briggs, 1904.
Frost was for thirty years a missionary to the Ojibway Indians of Garden River and the Manitoulin Islands and the north shore of Lake Huron and Lake Superior.

Furlan, William P. In Charity Unfeigned: The Life of Father Xavier Pierz. St. Cloud, MN: Diocese of St. Cloud, 1952.
Every aspect of his career is explored: his religious and intellectual training of the Indians at Arbre Croche; his revival of the moribund mission at Sault Ste.Marie; his establishment of a new mission at Grand Portage; his indefatigable labors for the welfare of the Ottawas; and his notable success in converting the Chippewa.

Gammell, William. A History of American Baptist Missions in Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America, Under the Care of the American Baptist Missionary Union…with maps and an appendix. Boston, MA: Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, 1849.
Includes the Michigan missions.

Goodykoontz, Colin G. Home Missions on the American Frontier, with Particular Reference to the American Home Missionary Society. Caldwell, ID: Caxton, 1939.
Background on the movement with information on the Michigan missions.

Graebner, Theodore C. Church Bells in the Forest, A Story of Lutheran Pioneer Work on the Michigan Frontier, 1840-1850. St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 1944.
Includes the Indian missions established by the German Lutherans.

Greene, Howard. The Reverend Richard Fish Cadle; A Missionary of the Protestant Epsicopal Church in the Territories of Michigan and Wisconsin in the Early Nineteenth Century. Waukesha, WI: Davis-Greene, 1936.
A biography of Reverend Cadle which includes his work in Michigan.

Gregorich, Joseph. The Apostle of the Chippewas: The Life Story of the Most Rev. Frederich Baraga, the First Bishop of Marquette. Chicago, IL: Bishop Baraga Association, 1932.
The aim of this book is to treat the life of Bishop Baraga in a briefer and more popular form and to refer only to those more outstanding activities of his which possess a greater degree of interest to the general reader.

Halkett, John. Historical Notes Respecting the Indians of North America: With Remarks on the Attempts Made to Convert and Civilize Them. London: Archibald Constable, 1825.
"The Indians have lost more by imitating our vices, than they have gained by availing themselves of those arts which might have added comforts and conveniences to life."

Hall, B.M. The Life of Rev. John Clark. NY: Carlton and Porter, 1856.
Clark was a Methodist missionary in the Lake Superior area.

Harp, Maureen Anna. Indian Missions, Immigrant Migrations, and Regional Catholic Culture: Slovene Missionaries in the Upper Great Lakes, 1830-1892. Dissertation. University of Chicago, 1996.
Harp includes missions in Michigan.

Hayne, Coe. Baptist Trail-Makers of Michigan. Philadelphia, PA: Judah Press, 1936.
Contains a chapter on missions to the Indians.

Hele, Karl S. "By the Rapids": The Anishinabeg-Missionary Encounter at Bawating (Sault Ste. Marie) 1821-1871. Dissertation. McGill University, 2002.
Between 1821 and 1871, evangelical missionaries representing the dominant Protestant and Catholic churches, ventured to Sault Ste. Marie. They came to proselytize and 'civilize' the Anishinabeg communities living in the borderlands of British North America and the United States. Within the Sault region, the Anishinabeg, as well as Baptist, Anglican, Methodist, Catholic, and Presbyterian ministers, interacted in a multiplicity of ways which led to the development of different understandings concerning both conversions and Chrisitianity.

Hildreth, Samuel P. Contributions to the Early History of the North-West, Including Moravian Missions in Ohio. Cincinnati, OH: R.P. Thompson, 1864.
Includes the Moravians time near Detroit.

History of American Missions to the Heathen, From Their Commencement to the Present Time. Worcester, MA: Spooner and Howland, 1840.
Isaac McCoy of Carey Mission and Abel Bingham of Sault Ste. Marie are included. Also includes information about Potawatomie removal.

Hopkins, Gerald T. A Mission to the Indians, From the Indian Committee of Baltimore Yearly Meeting, to Fort Wayne, in 1804. Philadelphia, PA: T. Ellwood Zell, 1862.
Written in 1804 by Gerald T. Hopkins with an appendix compiled in 1862 by Martha E. Tyson.

Jacker, Edward. Life and Services of Bishop Frederick Baraga. Marquette, MI: Bishop Baraga Association, 1957.
A lecture delivered by Rev. Edward Jacker on January 31, 1868 in St. Peter's Cathedral, Marquette, Michigan.

Jamison, James K. By Cross and Anchor: The Story of Frederick Baraga on Lake Superior. Patterson, NJ: St. Anthony Guild Press, 1946.
Father Baraga felt the impact of those remarkable years when the mineral rush, elbowing out the fur trade, drove the Indians westerward and resulted in the establishment of reservations.

The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France 1610-1791; The Original French, Latin, and Italian Texts, with English Translations and Notes; Illustrated with Portraits, Maps, and Fascimiles. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Cleveland, OH: Burrow Brothers, 1896-1901. 71 volumes.
The Jesuit missionaries annually sent their superiors reports of their work. These reports of travel, exploration and adventure are rare source material. The religion, mythology, manners, and morals, even the speech and detailed daily living of the Indians were reported. There is an excellent two volume index for the set which enables the researcher to use the set efficiently.

Jezernik, Maksimilijan. Frederick Baraga: A Portrait of the First Bishop of Marquette Based on the Archives of the Congregatio de Propoganda File. NY: Studia Slovenica, 1968.
Considers Baraga from the viewpoint of Rome.

Jones, David. A Journal of Two Visits Made to Some Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio, in the Years 1772 and 1773. Burlington, NJ: Isaac Collins, 1774.
Jones was an early missionary to the Indians of the Ohio River valley.

Jones, Peter. History of the Ojebway Indians; With Special Reference to Their Conversion to Christianity. With a Brief Memoir of the Writer. London: Bennett, 1861.
"There is probably no one who can speak with more authority on the past state of the North American Indians…and of the amelioration of their condition consequent on their conversion to Christianity."

Jones, Peter. The Journal of Rev. Peter Jones. [missing title page]
Jones was an Ojibwa missionary in the Great Lakes area.

Jones, Peter. Life and Journals of Keh-Ke-Wa-Guo-Na-Ba: (Rev. Peter Jones) Wesleyan Missionary. Toronto: A. Green, 1860.

Keiser, Albert. Lutheran Mission Work Among the American Indians. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg, 1922.
Includes Lutheran work in Michigan, Craemer, and the Bethany Indian Church.

Kip, William Ingraham. The Early Jesuit Mission in North America: Compiled and Edited from the Letters of French Jesuits with Notes. NY: Wiley and Putnam, 1846.
Includes Father Marest's journeys through Illinois and Michigan, 1712.

Lambert, Bernard J. Shepherd of the Wilderness: A Biography of Bishop Frederic Baraga. L'Anse, MI: Bernard J. Lambert, 1967.
A biography of Baraga.

Lanheim, Albert. The Catholic Mission at Cross Village: The First 200 Years. Cross Village, MI: 1995.
The scope is limited to the Catholic mission which was documented at Cross Village in 1691.

Laverdiere, Charles H. Le Journal des Jesuites Publie d'apres le Manucrit Original Conserve aux Archives du Seminaire de Quebec, par MM les Abbes Laverdiere et Casgrain. Quebec: Leger Brousseau, 1871.

Lettres Edifiants Ecrites par Quelques Missionaires de la Compagnie de Jesus. Bruxelles: G. Pauwels, 1771.

Loskiel, George Henry. History of the United Brethern among the Indians of North America. London: Brethern Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel, 1794.
General history of Indians and missions. The mission at Detroit is included.

Luckhard, Charles F. Faith in the Forest; A True Story of Pioneer Lutheran Missionaries, Laboring Among the Chippewa Indians in Michigan, 1833-1868. Sebewaing, MI: 1952.
Begins with the arrival of Pastor Friedrich Schmid in Michigan.

McCoy, Isaac. The Annual Register of Indian Affairs within the Indian (or Western) Territory. Shawnoe Baptist Mission, Indian Territory, 1836, 1837.
Includes reports of Ottawa and Potawatomie removed to the area.

McCoy, Isaac. History of Baptist Indian Missions: Embracing Remarks on the Former and Present Conditions of the Aboriginal Tribes; Their Settlement Within the Indian Territory, and Their Future Prospects. Washington, DC: William M. Morrison, 1840. Reprint: NY: Johnson Reprint, 1970. Reprint: Springfield, MO: Particular Baptist Press, 2003.
McCoy was a missionary at Carey Mission and Thomas Mission in Michigan. He became convinced Indians should be removed from contact with whites and formed a plan to remove them west of the Mississippi to form an Indian state.

McGee, John W. The Catholic Church in the Grand River Valley, 1833-1950. Grand Rapids, MI: 1950.
The early years include missions to the Native Americans.

McGreal, Sister Mary Nona. Samuel Mazzuchelli, O.P.; A Kaleidoscope of Scenes From His Life. Mazzuchelli Guild, n.d.
A biography in the cause of his beautification.

Martin, R. P. Hurons et Iroquois. Le P. Jean de Brebeuf, Sa Vie, Sex Travaux, Son Martyre, par le R.P. Martin, de la Compagnie de Jesus. 2nd ed. Paris: G. Tequi, 1882.

Mazzuchelli, Samuel. Memoirs Historical and Edifying of a Missionary Apostolic, Father Samuel Mazzuchelli, O.P., of the Order of Saint Dominic Among the Various Indian Tribes and Among the Catholics and Protestants in the United States of America. Chicago, IL: W. F. Hall, 1915.
Mazzuchelli worked in Michigan at Mackinac and Sault Ste. Marie.

Memorial Volume of the First Fifty Years of the American Board of Foreign Missions. Boston, MA: the Board, 1861.
Includes missions in Michigan.

Miessler, Ernst Gustav H. Autobiography of E.G.H. Miessler, M.D., January 12, 1826 – March 1, 1916. Missionary among the Chippewa Indians, Gratiot and Isabella Counties, Michigan 1851-1869. typed.
Translated by his grandson.

The Missionary Jubilee: An Account of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the American Baptist Missionary Union. NY: Sheldon, 1865.
Includes the Carey Mission and Pottawatomi removal.

Missions to the Heathen: India and America. Volume 2. London: Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 1848.
Includes: Second Report of a Mission to the Ottawahs and Ojibwas of Lake Huron by Rev. F. O'Meara, 1847.

Nute, Grace Lee. Documents Relating to Northwest Missions 1815-1827. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1942.
Missionary letters and reports.

O'Brien, Frank A. Two Early Missionaries to the Indians. Lady Antoinette Van Hoffern and Father Frank Pierz. Lansing, MI: Michigan Historical Commission, 1916.
Lady Hoffern was mostly at Superior. Father Pierz was at Cross Village.

Pare, George. The Catholic Church in Detroit, 1701-1888. Detroit, MI: Gabriel Richard Press, 1951.
The early history of the church in Detroit includes Native Americans.

Parkman, Francis. The Jesuits in North America in the Seventeenth Century. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1890.
"Few passages of history are more striking than those which record the efforts of the earlier French Jesuits to convert the Indians."

Petition of the Catholic Church for the Agency of the Chippewas of Lake Superior. Washington, DC: H. Polkinhorn, 1873.
Various correspondence on this subject to the Secretary of the Interior.

Philip Everhard; or a History of the Baptist Indian Missions in North America, from the Formation of the American Baptist Board of Foreign Missions to the Present Time. Boston,MA: Massachusetts Sabbath School Union, 1831.
Includes Carey Mission and Gun Lake Mission.

Pitezel, John H. Life of Rev. Peter Marksman, an Ojibwa Missionary, Illustrating the Triumphs of the Gospel Among the Ojibwa Indians. Cincinnati: OH: Press of the Western Methodist Book Concern, 1901.
Marksman worked at Flint, L'Anse, Fond du Lac, Sault Ste. Marie, Saginaw, Grand River, Pentwater, and Bay Mills. He died in 1892.

Pitezel, John H. Lights and Shades of Missionary Life: Containing Travels, Sketches, Incidents, and Missionary Efforts, During Nine Years Spent in the Region of Lake Superior. Cincinnati, OH: Western Book Concern, 1859.
Pitezel was a missionary at Sault Ste. Marie.

Polack, William G. Bringing Christ to the Ojibways of Michigan. A Story of the Mission Work of E.R. Baierlein (1848-1853). NY: Ernst Kaufmann, 1930.
Bethany Mission near St. Louis in Gratiot County.

Presbyterian Church in the United States. Committee on Home Missions. Home Missions. Annual Report. Have: 1866, 1867.
Each report includes brief information about Michigan missions.

Presbyterian Church in the United States. Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. Historical Sketches of the Missions Under the Care of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. Philadelphia, PA: Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian Church, 1891.
There is a brief account of the Presbyterian mission work in Michigan.

Prindle, Cyrus. Memoir of Rev. Daniel Meeker Chandler; For Several Years Missionary Among the Indians, at Ke-Wa-We-Non, and Sault Ste. Marie, Lake Superior. Middlebury, CN: Ephrain Maxham, 1842.
Chandler was a missionary from 1834 to 1839. This is his journal edited after his death in 1839.

Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Policy in Crisis: Christian Reformers and the Indian, 1865-1900. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964.
Story of the development of the policy of the United States government toward the American Indians in the last third of the nineteenth century.

Rededication of the old Bethany Lutheran Indian Cemetery, 1848-1931, Near St. Louis, Michigan, Sunday, October 11, 1931 at 3 p.m. Sponsored by the Lutherans of the Missouri Synod in the Saginaw Valley. n.p.
Program of the rededication service and a brief history of the mission.

Report of the Directors of the Northern Missionary Society at Their Annual Meeting. Albany, NY: Websters and Skinners, 1821.
Report on the sending of John Hudson to Mackinaw to open an Indian school.

Report of the United Foreign Missionary Society. NY: J. and J. Harper, 1925, 1926.
Have 7th and 8th Annual Reports which report on the missions at Fort Gratiot and Mackinaw Missions.

Reppllier, Agnes. Pere Marquette: Priest, Pioneer and Adventurer. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, 1929.
Includes information about the Indians.

Reuter, Dorothy. Methodist Indian Ministries in Michigan, 1830-1990. D. Reuter, 1993.
Information about missions and missionaries who worked in Michigan.

Rezek, Antoine Ivan. History of the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette; Containing a Full and Accurate Account of the Development of the Catholic Church in Upper Michigan, With Portraits of Bishops, Priests and Illustrations of Churches Old and New. Houghton, MI: 1906-1907. 2 volumes.
Volume 1 contains biographical sketches of the four bishops and some contemporary missionaries. Volume 2 contains a history of individual parishes with an account of early Jesuit missions.

Ronda, James P. and James Axtell. Indian Missions: A Critical Bibliography. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1978.
Missions all over the United States.

Rosenstand, Holger. From the Land of the Great Lakes: Pioneer Days in Michigan. Translated by Willard R. Garrad. Des Moines, IA: Lutheran Church in America, 1981.
Rosenstand was the first Danish Lutheran pastor at Our Savior Lutheran Church in Manistee, 1873-1877. Includes a chapter on the Chippewa Indians.

Rossman, Laurence Alonzo. Christianizing the Chippewas. Grand Rapids, MI: 1949.
Story of the efforts to Christianize the Red Man of the north.

Rothensteiner, John. History of the Archdiocese of St. Louis in its Various Stages of Development from A.D. 1673 to A.D. 1928. St. Louis, MO: 1928. 2 volumes
There is much information on early missions. The Great Lakes area was part of this archdiocese.

Roustio, Edward R. Early Indian Missions as Reflected in the Unpublished Manuscripts of Isaac McCoy. Springfield, MO: Particular Baptist Press, 2000.
This is a thesis on Indian migration pulled from the letters and journals of Isaac McCoy.

Schauinger, J. Herman. Cathedrals in the Wilderness. Milwaukee, WI: Bruce, 1952.
Story of Benedict Joseph Flaget who administered a diocese which included Michigan from 1810-1850.

Schauinger, Joseph. Stephen T. Badin, Priest in the Wilderness. Milwaukee, WI: Bruce, 1956.
From 1828 to 1833 Badin was missionary to the Indians in Indiana and Michigan.

Schermerhorn, John Freeman. Report to the Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians. Boston, MA: The Society, 1814.
Includes information about the Great Lakes area tribes.

Schoenfuhs, Walter Paul. The Chippewa Indians in Michigan and the Missions of the Methodist, Presbyterian and Lutheran Churches, 1840 – 1855. Thesis. Washington University, 1963.
The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the work of these three churches.

Schoenfuhs, Walter P. The Story of the "German Lutheran Chippewa Indian Mission" in the Saginaw Valley. Reprinted from Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly, October 1964.
A reprint of the article plus a photograph of Edwin Thomas, a Mt. Pleasant Chippewa Indian.

Schweinitz, Edmund. The Life and Times of David Zeisberger, the Western Pioneer and Apostle of the Indians. Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott, 1870.
Includes time Zeisberger spent at Detroit.

Schwind, Mona. Period Pieces: An Account of the Grand Rapids Dominicans 1853-1966. Grand Rapids, MI: Sisters of St. Dominic, 1991.
Includes their work among the Indians.

Shea, John G. History of the Catholic Missions Among the Indian Tribes of the United States, 1529-1854. NY: T.W. Strong, 1854.
Includes Huron and Ottawa missions.

Shurtleff, Mary Belle. Old Arbre Croche. n.p.: 1940.
Booklet prepared to preserve some of the historic background of the mission.

Smith, Donald. Sacred Feathers: The Reverend Peter Jones [Kahkewaquonaby] and the Mississauga Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.
A study of Peter Jones, a remarkable Ojibwa Indian leader and Methodist missionary who fought to secure equality for his people with the white settlers.

Smith, Timothy. Missionary Abominations Unmasked or a View of the Carey Mission, Containing an Unmasking of the Missionary Abominations Practiced Among the Indians of St. Joseph County. South Bend, IN: Beacon Office, 1833.
Smith was probably annoyed at McCoy's opposition to liquor being sold to the Indians by white traders. He makes many accusations against the missionaries.

Speer, Robert E. Presbyterian Foreign Missions; An Account of the Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1901.
Includes a brief account of work in Michigan.

The Story of Holy Childhood Church, Harbor Springs, Michigan and a History of Catholic America. Hackensack, NJ: Custombook, 1979.
The story of the apostolic work which has​ been done by Holy Childhood Parish of Harbor Springs from 1829 to 1979 among both the white and Indian settlements.

Talbot, Francis. Saint Among the Savages: The Life of Isaac Jagues. NY: Harper and Brothers, 1935.
He was a missionary to the Hurons.

Thornton, Neil. Along the Historic Riviere aux Sables. Tawas City, MI: Printers Devil, 1987.
Includes a chapter on Simon Greensky, an Indian converted to Christianity, who spent a lifetime ministering to his people in the Au Sable River District.

Thwaites, Reuben Gold. Father Marquette. NY: D. Appleton, 1902.
Missions and Indians are included in this biography of Marquette.

Tracts Relative to the Aborigines, Published by Direction of the Meeting for Sufferings from 1838 to 1842. London: Edward Marsh, 1843.
The Quaker Select Committee was "appointed to consider what measures ought to be adopted with regard to the native inhabitants of countries where British settlements are made, and to the neighboring tribes, in order to secure to them the due observance of justice and the protections of their rights; to promote the spread of civilization among them, and to lead them to the peaceful and voluntary reception of the Christian religion."

Trowbridge, M.E.D. History of Baptists in Michigan. Published under the Auspices of the Michigan Baptist State Convention, 1909.
Contains information on missionaries to the Indians.

Tuttle, Sarah. Conversations on the Mackinac and Green Bay Missions. Boston, MA: Sabbath School Society, 1833.
Information on these missions in the forms of letters and conversations.

Verwyst, P. Chrysostomus. Life and Labors of Rt. Rev. Frederick Baraga, First Bishop of Marquette, Michigan to which are added Short Sketches of the Lives and Labors of Other Indian Missionaries of the Northwest. Milwaukee, WI: M.H. Wiltzius, 1900.
There is a good deal of information about the Indians included in this biography.

Verwyst, P. Chrysostomus. Missionary Labors of Fathers Marquette, Menard, and Allouez, in the Lake Superior Region. Milwaukee, WI: Hoffmann Brothers, 1886.
Work of these missionaries among the Chippewa.

Wilson, Edward F. Missionary Work Among the Ojibway Indians. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1886.
Wilson was a missionary who came in 1868. These memoirs of his experiences contain valuable descriptions of travel, efforts at educating the Indians, and many accounts of Indian life and customs. While primarily concerned with the Ojibway in Canada, the account includes the names of a number of Indians from the Sault area.

Wyeth, Walter N. Poor Lo! Early Indian Missi​ons. Philadelphia, PA: W.N. Wyeth, 1896.
Includes missions to the Ottawas and Putawatomies.

Wynne, John J. The Jesuit Martyrs of North America. NY: Universal Knowledge Foundation, 1925.
Isaac Jagues, John de Brebeuf, Gabrial Lalemont, Noel Chaband, Anthony Daniel, Charles Garnier, Rene Goupil, John Lalande are the martyrs.

Zehnder, Herman F. "Teach My People the Truth!" The Story of Frankenmuth, Michigan.​ Frankenmuth, MI: Herman F. Zehnder, 1970.
Story of the Zion Lutheran Mission in the Frankenmuth area included.

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