Anson, Bert."Chief Francis Lafontaine and the Miami Emigration from
Indiana." Indiana Magazine of History LX (September 1964): 241-268.
Lafontaine was chief from 1841 to 1847 and his task was to salvage a few
economic benefits for a defeated and deteriorating tribe.
Bauman, Robert F. "Kansas, Canada, or Starvation." Michigan History 36 (September 1952): 287-299.
This article is about the Ottawa forced removal from Michigan as the result of the 1830 Removal Act.
Cass, Lewis. "Considerations on the Present State of the
Indians, and Their Removal to the West of the Mississippi." North American Review (January 1830).
Cass argues that removal would improve the lives of the Indians.
Edmunds, R. David. "The Prairie Potawatomi Removal of 1833." Indiana Magazine of History LXVIII (September 1972): 240-253.
The removal of the Prairie Potawatomi during 1833 was characteristic of various Indian removals during this period.
Gordon, Leon M. "The Red Man’s Retreat From Northern Indiana." Indiana Magazine of History 46 (March 1950): 39-60.
How the Native Americans were removed from the area.
Gray, Susan E. "Limits and Possibilities: White-Indian
Relations in Western Michigan in the Era of Removal." Michigan Historical Review 20 (Fall 1994): 71-91.
The settlers and Indians had a relationship based on mutual need and congruent values.
"Journal of an Emigrating Party of Pottawattomi Indians, 1838." Indiana Magazine of History 21 (December 1925): 315-336; 46 (December
A day by day record of the trip from Twin Lakes to the Osage River.
Klopfenstein, Carl G. "The Removal of the Wyandots from Ohio." Ohio Historical Quarterly 66 (April 1957): 119-136.
The history of the removal of woodland Indians of the Eastern
half of the United States to new homes in the West in the 1830’s and
1840’s was a significant phase of the westward movement of the white man
across the continent.
McClurken, James M. "Ottawa Adaptive Strategies to Indian Removal." Michigan Historical Review 12 (Spring 1986): 29-55.
McClurken examines how the Ottawa of Michigan successfully used
the natural and human resources at their disposal to avoid removal to
Kansas or Minnesota between 1836 and 1855.
McKee, Irving. "The Centennial of ‘The Trail of Death'." Indiana Magazine of History 35 (March 1939): 27-41.
A history of the Pottawatomi removal.
The plan for Indian removal from Michigan and the Indians fight to remain.
Neumeyer, Elizabeth. Editor."A Michigan ‘Trail of Tears'."
Heritage Battle Creek (Fall 1991): 54-59; (Spring 1992): 62-69; (Spring
Reprint of several original sources on the Potawatomie removal from Michigan.
"Potawatomie Trail of Death." News From Indian Country (Mid-September 1996): 11 B.
The Trail of Death was the forced removal of the Potawatomi from northern Indiana to eastern Kansas in the fall of 1838.
Prucha, Francis Paul. 'Indian Removal and the Great American Desert."Indiana Magazine of History LIX (December 1963): 298-322.
There is no doubt the removal policy brought hardship and
injustice to the Indians, but the removal plan was not a scheme to dump
the Indian into the Great American Desert.
Rofert, Stewart."Removal: An excerpt from The Miami Indians of Indiana." Traces 8 (Spring 1996): 16-19.
"The Removal of the Potawatomi to Kansas." News From Indian Country 9 (Late September 1995): 23.
Reprinted from People of the Fire.
Satz, Ronald N."Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era: The Old
Northwest as a Test Case." Michigan History 60 (Spring 1976): 71-93.
What can happen to a politically powerless minority in a democratic society.
Shriver, Phillip R. "Know Them No More Forever: The Miami Removal of 1846." Timeline 10 (November/December 1993): 30-41.
As land hungry whites demanded more and more, the Miami Nation finally agreed to abandon its ancient homeland.
Smith, Dwight L. Editor. "The Attempted Potawatomi Emigration of 1839." Indiana Magazine of History 45 (March 1945): 51-80.
Attempted Potawatomi emigration of 1839 told with journals and letters of the time.
Smith, Dwight L. "An Unsuccessful Negotiation for Removal of
the Wyandot Indians from Ohio, 1834." Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 58 (July 1949): 305-331.
An unsuccessful attempt to negotiate a treaty with the Wyandot is documented.
Smith, Dwight L. "Jacob Hull's Detachment of the Potawatomi
Emigration of 1838." Indiana Magazine of History 45 (March 1945):
Hull's journal from Logansport. His detachment left three weeks after the main removal group.
Spooner, A. L. "Trail of Death." Totem Pole 39 (March 4, 1957): 1-4.
Pottawatomi forced march.
Stuart, Benjamin F."The Deportation of Menominee and His Tribe
of the Pottawattomie Indians." Indiana Magazine of History 18 (September
The deportation of Chief Menominee and his tribe from their
reservation at Twin Lakes in 1838 covers one of the darkest pages in the
history of Indiana.
Trennert, Robert A. "The Business of Indian Removal: Deporting
the Potawatomi from Wisconsin." Wisconsin Magazine of History 63 (Autumn
The welfare of the Indian appears to have been the consideration
furthest from the mind of contractors, the government, or the white
residents of Wisconsin.
Trennert, Robert A. "A Trader’s Role in the Potawatomi Removal
from Indiana: The Case of George W. Ewing." The Old Northwest 4 (March
Removal was a national policy but government policy on the
frontier did not operate in a vacuum. The traders were a vital part of