General Ethnography

Barber, Edward W. "Beginnings in Eaton County: Its Earliest Settlements and Settlers." Vol. 29, (1901): 337-397.

Pages 346-348 discuss Indian trails, maple sugar, hunting, burial grounds, and the process of Potawatomi Removal in 1840.

Barley, John B. "The Province of Michilimackinac." Vol. 32, (1903): 395-404.

Discusses origins of Indians in Asia, Champlain's explorations, tribes around the Straits of Mackinac, and the origins of the word "mackinac."

Beeson, L. H. "Fort St. Joseph - The Mission, Trading Post and Fort, Located About One Mile south of Niles, Michigan." Vol. 28, (1897): 179-186.

Description of Indian hunting and gathering; Indian wars of the 18th Century, the formation of Fort St. Joseph, and Potawatomi Indian residents.

Brunson, Catherine Calkins. "A Sketch of Pioneer Life Among the Indians." Vol. 28, (1897): 161-163.

This essay presents an account of the beating of a trader by Indians of the Shave Head band over watered whiskey. Also, it tells of a Chief's attempts to take a toll on the Chicago road that passed through Indian land. Finally, it contains a description of burial customs.

Burton, Clarence M. "Amusements in Detroit in Colonial days." Vol. 38, (1912): 324-342.

Discusses Indian weapons, sieges of Detroit, Lacrosse, and Indian goods such as trumpets, drums, and beads. Also mentions the British prohibition against selling brandy to Indians and Pontiac's War.

Cannon, Geo H. "A Sketch of Grand Portage Indian Reservation." Vol. 28, (1897): 418-421.

Physical and historical description of the reservation on Pigeon River in the upper peninsula of Michigan.

Carpenter, C. K. "Squaw Island - How It Received its Name." Vol. 8, (1889): 486-488.

A man named Worden and a group of Indians were drinking whiskey when the Indians became angry. However, they were unable to kill him because the Indian women had taken all the weapons earlier in the night.

Chamberlain, Mary E. "The Legend of Indian Summer." Vol. 32, (1903): 392-394.

Explains how the Sun-god created winter, then fell asleep before implementing it. Also discusses the legend of the shooting star.

Coates, John. "Number of Indians Resorting to Michilimackinac." Vol. 10, (1888): 635-636.

Numerical breakdown of how many Indians from various tribes had journeyed to the fort. Coates, clerk to the Indian department, estimated the total at 4020 on September 10, 1782.

Coates, John. "Number of Indians Resorting to Michilimackinac." Vol. 13, (1889): 70.

Total number of Indian persons at Michilimackinac: 4020 on September 10, 1782. Includes breakdown by tribe.

Custard, Alexander, Mrs. "The French Settlement of St. Joseph County." Vol. 38, (1912): 401-405.

Explains that the Nottawaseepe reservation was the result of the 1821 Chicago Treaty. Also describes the relationship between the People of the Three Fires and Morrean, a Frenchman who taught the Indians to drink. Finally, this essay explains Sauqupquette's attempt to kill a signer of the 1833 Removal Treaty.

Day, E. H. "Sketches of the Northwest." Vol. 14, (1890): 205-256.

Reverend Day recounts his experiences as a missionary to the Indians of the extreme western part of Lake Superior, 1845. He discusses tobacco practices, his experiences teaching and preaching, Indian gender roles, religious beliefs, medicine, dances, feasts, totems, death/burial/mourning practices, naming practices, sports and games, justice, polygamy, gift giving, and levels of success in converting Indians to Christianity.

Day, John E. "Sketches and Incidents Concerning the settlement of Macomb County." Vol. 4, (1883): 307-315.

Day explains several instances of white settlers' children being taken and raised by Indians.

Dobie, Richard. "Memorandums." April 13, 1786. Vol. 11, (1888): 485-488.

This document gives information (population, territory, politics) on the Odawa, Ojibwe, Menominee, Winnebagoes, Sauks, Foxes, and Sioux Indians. Also, it explains that various tribes are at war with each other and how peace could be created via a dristibution of presents. Montreal.

Doyle, William. "Requests for Indian Presents." Vol. 12, (1888): 82-84.

Doyle sends a detailed request of the supplies he would like to have at Fort Michilimackinac for Indian gifts in 1794. He also notes an upcoming peace conference, the importance of tobacco, and the good conduct of the Indians engaged in trade.

Ferry, William M. "Ottawa's Old Settlers." Vol. 30, (1906): 572-582.

Relates an incident with Rev. Slater, an interpreter and writer of books in the Indian languages. Slater uses a feminine version of the language at a council meeting and is mocked by the men. Also, the essay discusses the Shiawasse attempts to form a confederacy.

Foote, Edward A. "Historical Sketch of the early days of Eaton County." Vol. 3, (1881): 379-383.

This account describes many aspects of Ojibwe and Potawatomi life: territory, housing and locking methods, making maple sugar, trails, character, teachers, horses, clothing, crimes and punishments, whiskey, the Potawatomi removal of 1840 and resistance to removal.

Goss, Dwight. "The Indians of Grand River Valley." Vol. 30, (1906): 172-190.

Discusses the settling of Michigan by the People of the Three Fires (Odawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi ); traders (including Langlade); missions; sketches of various Indian villages and chiefs; Indian names for towns and rivers; 1836 and 1855 treaties; annuities; social customs; houses; and a general character sketch.

Gould, Lucas E. "Four Papers on the Early History of Shiawassee County." Vol. 32, (1903): 247-304.

Pages 275-279 discuss Indian burial mounds and orchards, as well as missions.

Gray, Martha. "Reminiscences of Grand Traverse Region." Vol. 38, (1912): 285-318.

Discusses legends of Great Manitou and Manabooza.

Haines, Blanch M. "French and Indian Footprints at Three Rivers on the St. Joseph." Vol. 38, (1912): 386-397.

Mentions Cushaway / Cush-ee-wee, a Potawatomi chief; Indian burial grounds; excavations of graves and lists of contents, including pictures.

Hayes, A. M. "Reminiscences of Pioneer Days in Hastings." Vol. 26, (1895): 235-241.

Page 238 discusses experiences with Indian honey and maple syrup, the evils of alcohol and other typical description of "savage" Indians and their "heathenish" ways.

Hazelton, Geo. H. "Reminiscences of Seventeen Years Residence in Michigan, 1836-1853." Vol. 21, (1892): 370-418.

Pages 402 - 406 are an account of a trip up the Tittabawassee River to find a copper mine, and the resulting stay with the Indians.

Holmes, John C. "Poineer Society of Michigan. Annual Meeting, June 7, 1882. Address of President John C. Holmes." Vol. 5, (1884): 3-9.

Briefly discusses the gathering / trading places, courting customs, musical instruments, and personal ornamentation of Indians of the "western tribes."

Hoppin, Ruth. "Personal Recollections of Pioneer Days." Vol. 38, (1912): 410-417.

Racist accounts of encounters with intoxicated Indians. Also explains that an Indian named Joseph Sinbennim murdered a white man named Wisner.

Jerks, William L. "History and Meaning of the Names of Michigan." Vol. 38, (1912): 439-478.

Tells the history and possible meanings of Michigan county names and correlates names of specific Indians to the original names of several counties.

Johnson, Wm. W. "Indian Names in the County of Mackinac." Vol. 12, (1888): 375-381.

Translations of Indian names for rivers, islands, and areas of the upper and lower peninsulas near the straits of Mackinac.

Knaggs, May Stocking. "Memoir of James Knaggs, of Monroe." Vol. 17, (1890): 217-225.

Mentions an attempt made by the Indians to collect the bounty on Knaggs' father (220-221); general stories about Indian duplicity (221-222); and the death of Tecumseh (223).

"List, Location, and Number of Indians." Vol. 20, (1892): 305-307.

Contains information on the Tete de Boule, Huron, Missaguas, Ojibwe, Odawa, Potawatomi , Sauk, Fox, and other nations.

Little, Frank. "Early Recollections of the Indians about Bull Prairie." Vol. 27, (1896): 330-338.

Reminiscences of Indians at Detroit in 1831, the Black Hawk War, mound builders, and a sketch of Ojibwe Chief Maungwudaus, who had traveled with George Catlin to Europe and met Henry Clay and Zachary Taylor.

"Menominee County." Vol. 1, (1900): 263-264.

Presents a brief history of the Menominee people, their peaceful nature, and a brief conflict they had with some Ojibwe over sturgeon fishing near Grand Rapids.

"Numbers of the Savage Tribes Who are in Connection with the Government of Canada." n.d. (1712) Vol. 33, (1904): 552-553.

Potawatomi , Huron, Odawa, and Mississaguas. Includes a description of the coat of arms of each tribe.

Osband, Melvin D. "The Michigan Indians." Vol. 29, (1901): 697-709.

This account of the Native Americans of Michigan is deeply rooted in the manifest-destiny perspective of nineteenth century white Americans. It contains a lengthy essay about civilization and savagery, as well as discussion of treaties and of Pontiac's Conspiracy.

Osband, Melvin D. "The Pioneer and His Works." Vol. 29, (1901): 709-717.

This essay is characteristic of the manifest-destiny perspective of nineteenth century white Americans. It discusses the perceived conflict between civilization and savagery, and argues that the Indians were doomed to lose their lands, etc.

"Primitive Kalamazoo." Vol. 18, (1891): 595-597.

Account of first settlers in Kalamazoo area; Indian chief "King-Nose;" friendly relations with Indians; especially how generous and trustworthy they were.

"Reports on American Colonies." Vol. 19, (1891): 3-8.

A description of British holdings in North America, 1721-1762; includes information about Miami, Odawa, Illinois, Nokes, Sauk, and Puans.

"The Return of the Indians on the Grand river." October 16, 1816. Vol. 16, (1890): 541.

Claus, W. "Flour Provision Record." December 26, 1816. Vol. 16, (1890): 555.

"Return of the Indians on the Grand river." February 17, 1817. Vol. 16, (1890): 565-566.

List of numbers of Indians who returned to the Grand River; including Mohawks, Onandaga, Sececa, Onieda, Oghqwagas, Cayugas, Tuscaroras, Tutalies, Muntures, Nanticokes, and Deleware. Also contains information as to how much flour each of these tribes was to receive.

Roberts, R. E. "Arenda." Vol. 4, (1883): 111.

Mentions the Indian belief that "some of their number have the power to afflict as they may wish, with bodily ailments . . . and that they can exercise this power from a distance as well as when present." This document compares these Indian beliefs to the "Salem delusions."

Scott-Schettler, Eliza M. "Lights and Shadows from Pioneer Life." Vol. 35, (1907): 184-198.

The Scott family's negative and positive experiences with Indians while living near Detroit and on Mackinac Island in the first half of the 19th century.

Seymour, C. B. "Early Days in Old Washtenaw County." Vol. 28, (1897): 391-399.

Page 395 provides a typical account of drunken Indians, including infighting between Potawatomi and Odawa, and mentions the possibilities of Indian uprisings.

Smith, Harlan I. "Certain Shamanistic Ceremonies Among the Ojibwas." Vol. 32, (1903): 461-462.

Discusses syncretic religion, Methodist and Midewin healing ceremonies.

Sutton, George. "Battle of the Bee-Tree at Sutton's Corners." Vol. 18, (1891): 509-510.

This essay recounts a fight between the Allen family and an unnamed group of Indians over honey in 1826.

Ten Broeck, Joseph A. "Old Keweenaw." Vol. 30, (1906): 139-149.

A History of the Keweenaw area that discusses Indians (143-144) and their loyalty toward whites.

Thorpe, Calvin J. "Pioneer and Aborigine." Vol. 28, (1897): 467-478.

Unbiased, even favorable toward Indians, this essay is a history of Indian / White relations, treaties, Indian roads, bridges, tanning, and food preservation. Also includes an account of Shave-head, a rare "bad chief;" praise for the generosity of Indians; and the removal of the Potawatomi.

Towner, Julia Belle. "My Mother's Girlhood." Vol. 35, (1907): 180-183.

Discusses settler contact, mostly peaceful, with Oakland county, Michigan, Indians in the 1830s and 1840s. Special attention is given to translating various words of Native American languages.

Van Buren, A. D. P. "The First Settlers in the Township of Battle Creek." Vol. 5, (1884): 272-293.

The author quotes Erastus Hussey, a pioneer in Michigan who discussed, in 1836, the local legends of Indians in the Battle Creek area.

Van Buren, A. D. P. "Story of the Bau Beese Indians." Vol. 28, (1897): 530-533.

Story of a band of Indians near Hillsdale county ca 1828. Bau Besse was their chief, Meteah was their war chief. This account praises the Indians' reliability, trustworthiness, and hunting skills. The author also expresses anger at their removal westward in 1840.

Walker, C. I. "Early Detroit." Vol. 8, (1886): 415-443.

Includes information on Potawatomi , Fox, Iroquois, Miamis, Ojibwe, and Huron Indians. Also contains a detailed account of an attempt by the Foxes to destroy the fort in 1712.

Williams, Jeremiah D. "History of the Town of Webster." Vol. 13, (1889): 546-567.

Briefly discusses encounters that early white settlers had with Indians.

Withey, Marion L. H. "Personal Recollections of Early Days in Kent County." Vol. 39, (1915): 345-352.

Includes a description of large Indian camps along the Grand River in October of 1836, when the Native Americans were waiting for their government annuities payments.