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Potawatomi Ethnography

Barber, Edward W. "Beginnings in Eaton County: Its Earliest Settlements and Settlers." Vol. 29, (1901): 337-397.

Pages 346-348 discuss Indian trails, maple sugar, hunting, burial grounds, and the process of Potawatomi Removal in 1840.

Barber, Edward. W. "The Vermontville Colony: Its Genesis and history, with Personal Sketches of the Colonists." Vol. 28, (1897): 197-265.

Pages 227-229 provide a sketch of the Potawatomi at Vermontville. Mostly flattering, including one interesting portrait of a Chief, Sauby, who wanted to marry a white woman.

Beeson, L. H. "Fort St. Joseph - The Mission, Trading Post and Fort, Located About One Mile south of Niles, Michigan." Vol. 28, (1897): 179-186.

Description of Indian hunting and gathering; Indian wars of the 18th century, the formation of Fort St. Joseph, and Potawatomi Indian residents.

Brevoort, Henry N. "The Indians, the Earlier Possessors of Grosse Ile." Vol. 35, (1907): 557-559.

Discusses the Potawatomi subsistence methods, gender roles, and alcohol drinking habits.

Caldwell, Helen Nichols. "Indian Reminiscences." Vol. 21, (1892): 297-313.

Discusses removal of Potawatomi from Eaton County in 1840; anecdotes about relations with Indians.

Chevallier to Haldimand. Feb. 28, 1778. Vol. 19, (1891): 375-376.

Chevallier's essay on the character of the Potawatomi nation.

Copley, A. B. "The Pottawattomies." Vol. 14, (1890): 256-267.

The author relates a brief history, including conflicts with other nations, participation in the Pontiac and Tecumseh revolts, and their treaties with the US government. Copley also discusses subsistence methods, hunting, trading, gender roles, clothing, etc. This essay also includes short biographies of Topinabee, Pokagon, and Shavehead.

Custard, Alexander, Mrs. "The French Settlement of St. Joseph County." Vol. 38, (1912): 401-405.

Explains that he Nottawaseepe reservation was the result of the 1821 Chicago Treaty. Also describes the relationship between the People of the Three Fires and Morrean, a Frenchman who taught the Indians to drink. Finally, this essay explains Sauqupquette's attempt to kill a signer of the 1833 Removal Treaty.

Dewey, F. A. "Address at the Farmers' Picnic, Devils Lake, August 22, 1883." Vol. 7, (1886): 536-542.

Explains several aspects of Potawatomi life in southern Michigan, including foods, lands, hospitality, participation in the War of 1812, removal, and the lives of Chiefs Mitteau and Bawbese.

Dodge, Mrs. Frank P. "Landmarks of Lenauee County." Vol. 38, (1912): 478-491.

Describes Potawatomi Indians as gentle and friendly. Mentions chiefs Bawbese and Maginaswot and condemns the government for Potawatomi removal.

"First Settlement of Sturgis Prairie," Vol. 18, (1891): 518-521.

Details the encounters of a Mr. Thurston with the Potawatomi people, the murder of an Indian girl by a drunken man, and the story of a young chief who died and was buried like a white man.

Foote, Edward A. "Historical Sketch of the early days of Eaton County." Vol. 3, (1881): 379-383.

This account describes many aspects of Ojibwe and Potawatomi life: territory, housing and locking methods, making maple sugar, trails, character, teachers, horses, clothing, crimes and punishments, whiskey, the Potawatomi removal of 1840 and resistance to removal.

"G. H. Escape from Five Pottawatomie Indians in 1814." Vol. 12, (1888): 436-455.

Unidentified author recounts his experiences with Indians in the Old Northwest Territory.

Goodyear, Henry A. "Indians od Barry County." Vol. 35, (1907): 637-643.

Explains Odawa and Potawatomi character, "pow-wows," clothing, naming of white people, wigwams, division of labor, gender roles, boats, childhood activities, experience with alcohol, and a short biography of chief "Pecitiac."

Haines, Blanch M. "French and Indian Footprints at Three Rivers on the St. Joseph." Vol. 38, (1912): 386-397.

Mentions Cushaway / Cush-ee-wee, a Potawatomi chief; Indian burial grounds; excavations of graves and lists of contents, including pictures.

Hobart, N. P. "Letter to hon. Charles Dickey, Marshall, Athens, December 23, 1878." Vol. 3, (1881): 368-369.

Mr. Hobart's letter describes the process of Potawatomi removal in Michigan, listing several Indians with whom he was acquainted that escaped to Canada.

"Indian Council." Vol. 10, (1888): 170-172.

Transcripts of a meeting between US Indian agent Isaac S. Ketchum and chiefs of the Potawatomi nation that took place in St. Joseph county, MI on August 20, 1839. Ketchum informed the Indians that the time had come for them to be removed west of the Mississippi. The Indians stated that they would never go.

McGee, Melville. "The Early days of Concord, jackson County, Michigan." Vol. 21, (1892): 418-431.

Pages 425-427 contain a prejudiced account that describes the character of the Potawatomi people.

"Our Forerunners," Vol. 18, (1891): 600-605.

This is a history of the Miami and Potawatomi settlement in the Kalamazoo area, 1600s - 1840.

Seymour, C. B. "Early Days in Old Washtenaw County." Vol. 28, (1897): 391-399.

Page 395 provides a typical account of drunken Indians, including infighting between Potawatomi and Odawa, and mentions the possibilities of Indian uprisings.

St. John, Mrs. "Daily Life, Manners, and Customs of the Indians in Kalamazoo County." Vol. 10, (1880): 166-170.

Describes Odawa and Potawatomi government; knives; crime/punishment regarding murder; construction of wigwams; food; cooking; clothing; teaching/discipline/care for children; roles and treatment of women; courtship and marriage; religion and morals; measurement of time; and personal hygiene.

Smith, Edwin S. "Pioneer Days in Kalamazoo and Van Buren." Vol. 14, (1890): 272-280.

Discusses Potawatomi peoples' general disposition toward white settlers. Also contains information on Potawatomi gender roles, clothing, weapons, horses, alcohol drinking habits, leadership, suffrage, and a few short biographies, including Shavehead.

Thorpe, Calvin J. "Pioneer and Aborigine." Vol. 28, (1897): 467-478.

Unbiased, even favorable toward Indians, this essay is a history of Indian / White relations, treaties, Indian roads, bridges, tanning, and food preservation. Also includes an account of Shave-head, a rare "bad chief;" praise for the generosity of Indians; and the removal of the Potawatomi.

Turner, Jesse. "Reminiscences of Kalamazoo." Vol. 18, (1891): 570-588.

Discusses the Potawatomi Indians' snakebite cure; games with bows and arrows; a trip to Malden in Canada for their last payment from the British in 1833; a fight and a dance between Turner's party and some Indians; the burial of an Indian woman near Bellvue; intermarriage among Ottawa and French; dances at Burdick; description of an Indian "Princess;" and muskrat hunting.


ssert, "The Indians and the Trading Posts in the Northwest of Barry County, Michigan." Vol. 38, (1912): 654-672.

Contains a description of Potawatomi villages and meeting places at Grand Rapids and Kalamazoo; history of the Indian settlements; Tecumseh; hunting and fishing; gardening; settlements; medicine; councils; trails; canoes; burial customs; removal; and Newequa Geezig or Chief Noonday.

Willard, George. "The Making of Michigan." Vol. 17, (1890): 295-310.

States that Odawa and Potawatomi people were peaceful, willing to welcome whites, and not warlike.

Van Buren, A. D. P. "Story of the Bau Beese Indians." Vol. 28, (1897): 530-533.

Story of a band of Indians near Hillsdale county ca 1828. Bau Besse was their chief, Meteah was their war chief. This account praises the Indians' reliability, trust worthiness, and hunting skills. The author also expresses anger at their removal westward in 1840.

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