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General Relations with the Americans

Entries are listed chronologically.

Ancrum, W., to ?. October 13, 1786. Vol. 24, (1894): 35-39.

Report on a US attack on Shawnee towns.

"Additional News from Detroit." December 11, 1790. Vol. 24, (1894): 159-162.

Recounts Indian attack on US militia near Detroit in October.

Henry Knox to Thomas Proctor. March 11, 1791. Vol. 24, (1894): 180-186.

Secretary of War's instructions to head of the mission to the Miami and Wabash Indians. Proctor is to convince them to attend a treaty council at Fort Washington. Includes a speech from Knox addressed to the Indians.

Knox to ?. March 21, 1791. Vol. 24, (1894): 186-197.

Knox's instructions for the protection of frontier settlements in case of a war with the Indians. Includes plans for building forts that Knox acknowledges will anger the British.

"Letters of Col. John Frances Hamtramck." Vol. 34, (1905): 734-740.

This series of letters charts the diplomatic relations between Indians and American government officials in the months which preceeded the signing of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.

Reverend Joseph Badger to William Hull. July 30, 1805. Vol. 40, (1929): 63-65.
Hull to Badger. August 7, 1805. Vol. 40, (1929): 65-66.
Badger to Hull. August 20, 1805. Vol. 40, (1929): 66-68.

Badger is a missionary to Wyandots, and is helping The Crane deal with attempts by Isaac Williams to defraud the Wyandots out of their land. He encourages them to teach their children English and to abstain from alcohol. He reports several incidents of whites attacking Indians, and wants the offenders driven away.


ta (Isaac Williams) to Walk In The Water. August 6, 1805. Vol. 40, (1929): 75-76.

Williams is American who is attempting to convince the Wyandots that the Treaty of Swan Creek was fraudulent. In reality, Williams is trying to defraud the Indians of their land.

Wilkinson, J. "Proclamation in Regard to Trade." August 26, 1805. Vol. 25: 217.

Wilkinson is the Superintendant of Indian Affairs for the Territory of Louisiana. He is trying to prohibit the citizens of foreign countries from trading with Indians on the Missouri River.

Hull to Henry Dearborn. September 19, 1805. Vol. 40, (1929): 58-62.

Hull has convinced the chiefs of the Wyandots to stay friendly with the United States. Includes speeches from the Wyandots who are angry at Isaac Williams' attempts to defraud them of their land. They also ask for a blacksmith per the terms of the Treaty of Greenville.

Hull to Henry Dearborn. October 28, 1805. Vol. 40, (1929): 77-78.

Concerning Western Indians' entreaties to the Ojibwe, Potawatomi , Odawa, and Shawnee to join in a confederacy against the US. Also, more information on Isaac Williams.

Griswold, Stanley. "General Orders 15." November 15, 1805. Vol. 36, (1908): 159-161.

Griswold urges a defensive stance against the local Indians who seem tranquil but might be induced to revolt by the western Indian confederacy.

J. Dunham to Hull. May 20, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 123-127.

Dunham is fearful of Indian activities and councils around Michilimackinac. He fears that they may be due to the efforts of Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet, whom Dunham refers to as "Second Adam." Dunham's efforts to arrest the Prophet failed.

Dunham to Hull. June 18, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 142-143.

The Ojibwe and Odawa at Michilimackinac refuse to attend a treaty council on the advice of the Shawnee Prophet, but still want their annuities.

Hull to Dearborn. June 22, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 139-142.

Recounts a council with the Ojibwe and the influence of Tenskwatawa, who Hull thinks is a British agent.

Hull to Dearborn. July 4, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 151-153.

Reports the refusal of the Saginaw Indians to attend a council. Includes a description of Machonse, a chief who receives more annuity money than others in his nation and may have murdered someone.

Hull to Dearborn. July 25, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 159-162.

Fearful of an attack by the northwestern Indian confederacy as a result of Tenskwatawa's influence. Hull thinks the Prophet is a British agent. He also believes that the Odawa, Ojibwe, Wyandots, and Potawatomi are friendly to the US.

Hull to Dearborn. August 4, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 169-171.

Hull says he will not pursue a new treaty because the Native Americans are angry with the US, are going to the British for presents, and the Potawatomi may be preparing to strike against the US.

Woodward, Augustus. "Reports of Indian Alarms." August 14, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 174-177.

List of seven reports by settlers of Indian activities at Lake Erie, Michilimackinac, and Chicago. Includes a report that Detroit is to be taken and all Americans are to be killed.

Hull to Dearborn. August 16, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 182-187.

Local Indians have vowed not to help the Confederacy or the British, but Hull has plans in case of an attack.

Hull to Dearborn. September 9, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 197-203.

Odawa, Ojibwe, Potawatomi , and Wyandots vow their friendship to the US and denounce Tenskwatawa. Blue Jacket assures Hull that the Prophet is actually friendly to the US, and that he merely wants the Indians to refrain from drinking. Hull requests more money to spend keeping the Indians happy.

Hull to Dearborn. November 24, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 253-254.

Aubayway, chief of unnamed tribe, assures Hull that he rejected British entreaties to rise against the US.

Hull to Dearborn. December 5, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 255-257.

Again, the local Indians assure Hull that they will support the US. Also, reports of British attempts to get them to attack Detroit.

Hull to William Eustis. January 25, 1810. Vol. 40, (1929): 310-311.

Hull asks for more money for Indian annuities and department expenses. Describes the threat of the Indians going to the British or attacking the US if they are not given enough food and gifts.

"Regulations for the Indian Department." September 15, 1814. Vol. 32, (1903): 553-555.

From the Governor of Michigan, regulating presents, annuities, agents, interpreters, and other matters.

"A List of Indian Agents and Interpreters." February 16, 1815. Vol. 32, (1903): 567.

A list of 23 names including their residences.

Woodbridge Papers. May 6-July 9, 1815. Vol. 32, (1903): 567-573.

This section contains letter to and from Governor Woodbridge relating to Indians after the Treaty of Ghent, the sale of liquor, and general trade with the Indians.

Lewis Cass to Major Burwick. July 28, 1815. Vol. 16, (1890): 186-187.

Cass demands that Canadian Indians stop attacking US boats and settlers on Hickory Island.

R. James to William Henry Harrison. August 29, 1815. Vol. 16, (1890): 229-231.

Resolves the question of whether the various Native American tribes were aware of all the articles of the Treaty of Ghent, but neither side (US or British) is sure that the Indians will abide by the terms for long.

William Henry Puthoff to Daniel Mitchell. September 9-October 5, 1815. Vol. 16, (1890): 252-255.

This exchange of letters regards Puthoff's banning of Elizabeth Mitchell from interacting with the Indians at Mackinac because she has no ties to either the British or the US. She was selling liquor to the Indians in violation of US law.

Cass to the President. August 8, 1825. Vol. 36, (1908): 502-504.

Cass angry that British newspapers are attacking US Indian policies. He also opposes the removal of the Indians to the west of the Mississippi, a position which he later reversed.

Cass to Secretary of War. November 26, 1828. Vol. 36, (1908): 567-569.

Cass wants extra pay for serving as acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs and doing extra duty per instructions of the War Department.

"Petitions Regarding Depredations by Chippewas, 1831." October 9, 1831. Vol. 37, (1910): 225-228.

The citizens of the township of Hamtramck petition Governor Porter to remove a group of Ojibwe from their land. Also, the citizens request to be compensated for their losses.

"Chippewa Chiefs Request Government Sanction." October 18, 1831. Vol. 37, (1910): 229-230.

Chiefs of the Sault Ste. Marie Ojibwe want the President to sanction their decision to give a portion of their land to the Ojibwe of Grape Island in Lake Ontario. Also, the chiefs ask for funds to help them become agriculturalists.

Little, Henry. "A History of the Black Hawk War of 1832." Vol. 5, (1884): 152-178.

Explains the Indian participation in the war. Also, Little's essay gives physical descriptions of Indian leaders like Chief Noonday as well as explanations of the alliances between different nations.

Buckner, E. "A Brief History of the War with the Sac and Fox Indians in Illinois and Michigan, in 1832, with Twenty-One Letters and Orders." Vol. 12, (1888): 424-436.

The title is self-explanatory.

"The Black Hawk War." Vol. 31, (1902): 313-471.

A history of the Black Hawk War of 1832. Composed of the papers of General J. R. Williamson and a few newspaper articles


Gosa and L. Slater. "Complaint of Grand River Indians to Gov. Porter." February 1, 1833. Vol. 37, (1910): 256-257.

Includes a first person narrative from Gosa, who was beaten by several whites near Grand Rapids, asking for government protection.

Tremble, B. "Shiawassee Chiefs Refuse to Have their Lands Ploughed. Saginaw, May 21, 1833." Vol. 37, (1910): 262-263.

The title is self-explanatory.

"Complaint of Indians at Grand Rapids to Gov. Porter. May 17, 1833." Vol. 37, (1910): 260-261.

Indians, including Gosa, again petition Porter for government protection against Louis Campeau, a local trader.

"Journal of a Council Held at Green Bay, Michigan Territory, by George B. Porter, Commissioner on the Part of the United States, with the Menomonee Nation of Indians, 1833." Vol. 37, (1910): 263-277.

Discusses treaties, alchohol, and general relations with the United States.