With the United States

"Indian Council Held at Wakitunikee." May 18, 1785. Vol. 25, (1894): 691-693.

Shawnee, Mingo, Delaware, and Cherokee angry at US settlement in violation of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix.

"Indian Speech to the Congress of the United States." December 18, 1786. Vol. 11, (1888): 467-470.

Iroquois, Huron, Shawnee, Delaware, Odawa, Ojibwe, Potawatomi , Twichtweca, Cherokee, and Wabash nations complaining of unlawful white settlement on Indian lands and request a council to discuss ways of achieving peace.

St. Clair, Arthur. Speech to Seneca Nation. September 8, 1790. Vol. 24, (1894): 96-97.
St. Clair, Arthur. Speech to Wyandot Nation. September 19, 1790. Vol. 24, (1894): 98-99.
St. Clair, Arthur. Speech to Ottawa Nation. October 7, 1790. Vol. 24, (1894): 100-102.

St. Clair is the governor of the Northwest Territory. He reaffirms peace between the US and the Seneca, Wyandot, and Odawa, and vows to defeat the Shawnee conspiracy.

Pickering, Timothy. Speeches to Six Nations. November 22, 1790. Vol. 24, (1894): 145-158.

Pickering is the US Commissioner of Indian Affairs. He assures the Iroquois that the US will investigate murders committed by whites, and asks that the Iroquois law of blood be set aside. He explains the provisions of the Treaty of Ghent and various congressional acts which put the Federal government in charge of Indian affairs. Finally, he expresses US displeasure with the traditional way of negotiating treaties with the Indians.

Pickering, Timothy. Speech to Six Nations. April 17, 1791. Vol. 24, (1894): 237-239.

Pickering urges the Iroquois to stay away from the western Indian confederacy.

St. Clair, Arthur. Speech to Seneca. April 23, 1791. Vol. 24, (1894): 239-241.

St. Clair (defeated later by Blue Jacket) tells the Seneca that they must help the US fight against the western Indian confederacy.

Arthur St. Clair to Delaware Indians. April 20, 1791. Vol. 24, (1894): 209-211.

Expresses sadness over the murder of two Delawares by whites and promises an investigation. Also chides them for not reporting the activities of other nations.

St. Clair, Arthur, to Wyandot Indians. Vol. 24, (1894): 214-215.
St. Clair to Negushway, Principle Chief of the Ottawa. Vol. 24, (1894): 215-217.
St. Clair to Wyandot Indians. April 30, 1791. Vol. 24, (1894): 217-219.

Increasingly threatening letters promising US assistance to the Indians during peace but destruction in case of war.

Pickering, Timothy. Speech to Five Nations. December 19, 1791. Vol. 24, (1894): 370-372.

Pickering urges Iroquois chiefs on enclosed list to go to Philadelphia to meet with US Congress.

Wilkinson, James. Speech to the Indians, April 3, 1792. Vol. 24, (1894): 391-393.

Commander of the US Army's speech to Miami, Shawnee, Delaware, Tawa (Odawa?), Wyandot, Potawatomi , Huron, and Ojibwe Indians involved in the confederacy. He urges them to make peace, threatens destruction of their nations if they refuse, but promises to redress their grievances against the US if they agree.

Knox, Henry. Speech to the Indians. April 4, 1792. Vol. 24, (1894): 394-396.

Secretary of War Knox urges peace with the confederacy, but cautions that his entreaties have nothing to do with the ignoble defeat of Arthur St. Clair by the confederacy.

"Proceedings of a General Council of Indian Nations." September 30-October 9, 1792. Vol. 24, (1894): 483-498.

Delaware, Shawnee, Miami, Ojibwe, Odawa, Wyandot, Muncie, Connoy, Nantikoke, Mohican, Potawatomi , Cherokee, Creek, Iroquois, Mingo, Sauk and Fox, Ouiatenon, Seneca, and various Canadian Indian nations in council. They agree that whites have instigated trouble among the nations, that the British abandoned them in the Treaty of Paris, and that the Indian nations need to pursue peace with the US, but only on condition that the US remove their settlers and forts in Indian territories. Many of the nations distrust the Iroquois, and the Iroquois explain their dealings with the US. They then agree to join the confederacy.

"Proceedings of an Indian Council." November 13-14, 1792. Vol. 24, (1894): 509-516.

US council with Iroquois. Iroquois explain what occurred at an October council with the Indian Confederacy, and urge the US not to continue hostilities against them. British Agent Butler and US Commissioner Chapin both agree to attend a council at Sandusky.

"Indians to General Washington." ND (probably February 1793). Vol. 20, (1892): 314-315.

Iroquois, Mohicans, Ouitanons, and unnamed nations complaining that the United States have not kept their word to remove their forts and settlers on Indian lands. They want a council to be held at Sandusky and will not accept any other place.

"Council Held at Fort Le Boeuf." June 26, 1793. Vol. 24, (1894): 671-674.

United States refuse to move settlers off land that the Iroquois requested in Pennsylvania that had been given to US by a treaty. The Iroquois believe their request is fair, and are willing to defend their rights.

"Reply of the Commissioners of the United States to the Indians." July 13, 1793. Vol. 24, (1894): 579-585.

The US commissioners declare that the Ohio River boundary line for US settlement proposed by the Indian Confederacy is unacceptable because of provisions of the Treaties of Ghent and Fort Stanwix that established a Great Lakes boundary line. They are willing to renegotiate this line, but they demand that the Indians make concessions.

"Council Held at the Foot of the Miamis Rapids." July 27, 1793. Vol. 24, (1894): 570-571.

The Indian Confederacy demands that all US troops and settlers be removed past the Ohio River and wants that river to be the permanent Western and Northern boundary of white settlement.

"Reply of the Indians to the Commissioners of the United States." August 13, 1793. Vol. 24, (1894): 587-592.

The confederacy argues that they had no part in the Treaty of Paris and did not give the British the right to give away Indian lands. They also argue that the US made treaties with Indians who had no right to give up land. Finally, they again demand the Ohio River as a permanent boundary for US expansion.

"Commissioners of the United States to the Chiefs of the Indian Nations." August 16, 1793. Vol. 24, (1894): 592-593.

The US makes its final refusal of the confederacy's demands that the Ohio River be the boundary between the US and Indian lands, and they believe that international law will support them.

"Proceedings of a Council Held at Buffaloe Creek." October 10, 1793. Vol. 24, (1894): 615-617.

Iroquois meeting with both British and American commissioners. They propose adhering to a Line of Demarcation at the Muskingum River, but are willing to give up land on which the US has made improvements.

Anthony Wayne to the Indians, January 14, 1794. Vol. 24, (1894): 629-631.

Wayne demands that US prisoners of war be returned by February 14 and suggests a treaty council.

"Proceedings of a Council of the Six Nations." February 7-9, 1794. Vol. 24, (1894): 633-642.

The Iroquois assure the US that they want peace, and the US representative thanks them. A May 15 council is proposed, but the Iroquois are upset that the US did not accept their compromise over the boundary line. A British agent present at the meeting assures the Iroquois that the British did not give away Iroquois land in the Treaty of Ghent.

"Proceedings of a Council Held at Buffaloe Creek." June 18, 1794. Vol. 24, (1894): 662-666.

The Iroquois argue again for their proposed boundary line in Pennsylvania and are angry about the deaths of their messengers at the hands of Americans.

"Council of the Six Nations." ND (probably October 1794). Vol. 25, (1894): 46-52, 53-61.

Council between Iroquois and the United States. US agent angry at the presence of a British advisor and orders him ejected from the meeting or the council will be cancelled. General Pickering then berates Iroquois about British violations of the Treaty of Paris.

Wayne, Anthony. Speech to Indians at Sandusky. January 1, 1795. Vol. 25, (1894): 81-83.

Wayne promises cessation of hostilities and looks forward to treaty council at Greenville. This is shortly after the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

"Address of the Chiefs of the Chippewa Nation." September 1797. Vol. 8: 506.

A request made by the Ojibwe that the US government honor its agreement to furnish them with goods and supplies in exchange for allowing whites to use the land near Detroit.

"Speech of the Indians at Sandusky." September 4, 1805. Vol. 40, (1929): 68-69.
Hull, William. "Answer to the Sandusky Indians." September 11, 1805. Vol. 40, (1929): 70-72.


dots, represented by Tarhee (The Crane), Roneniarah (The Crow), Harronenu (The Cherokee), and Rasharah (Stooky), are upset that an American named Isaac Williams is trying to defraud them of their land. Hull promises to deal with Williams.

Indians at Saginaw to Hull. June 5, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 144-145.

Chiefs remind Hull that he told them to never sell their land to anyone, but now Hull wants them to sell to him. They tell him never to return to Saginaw.

"Address of Ottawa Chiefs to Governor Hull." August 18, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 193-194.
Kauachawan. Speech to William Hull. August 24, 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 194-196.

Odawa chiefs ask Hull whether they should go to Malden to meet with the British, and inform him that they sent Kauachawan to find out what the British wanted. Kauachawan refused their entreaties to conspire against the US. He also denounces Tenskwatawa (the Shawnee Prophet) and vows his friendship to the US.

Hull, William. "Proclamation Prohibiting Sending of Wampum to and the Holding of Councils with the Indians." August 20, 1807. Vol. 36, (1908): 198.

Hull's failed attempt to stop the British from interfering with the Indians on US-controlled lands.

Hull to Dearborn. November 1807. Vol. 40, (1929): 247-252.

Includes Hull's speech to the Indians around Detroit, and the response by Nanaume, a Potawatomi chief, and Poaqueboa, an Ojibwe chief. Both told him that the British were attempting to get the Indians to attack Detroit.

Claus, William. "Diary of Colonel William Claus." May 7-August 10, 1808. Vol. 23, (1893): 47-60.

Claus discusses various topics including: a council with the Odawa, the delivery of gifts to Saginaw, the murder of two Delaware by whites at Detroit, the death of Tenskwatawa (The Shawnee Prophet), a council with Tecumseh, and several speeches by chiefs of the Odawa, Ojibwe, Huron, and Mohawk nations.

Hull, William. Speech to Chiefs of Chippewa. October 11, 1808. Vol. 36, (1908): 357.

Hull is sending two blacksmiths along with a US flag, and asks the Indians not to trade with unlicensed traders.

Jefferson, Thomas. Speech to the Indians. January 31, 1809. Vol. 40, (1929): 274-276.

Jefferson says that the Wyandot have no right to the land they gave up in the Treaty of Detroit, and advises them to complain to the Indian Agent if whites settle on the land they retained. Also advises them on the US right to build roads through their reservations.

Wyandot Chiefs to William Hull. September 30, 1809. Vol. 40, (1929): 304-307.

Wyandot complain that the reservation set aside for them in the Treaty of Detroit is too small and that their fifty-year ownership as prescribed in the treaty is not acceptable. With totems (pictographs used as signatures) from Showhanwit (Black Chief), Maera (Walkinthewater), Sindaeweno, Hannacsaw (Split Log), Hayanemadac (Isedore), Yuckshawwawno, Noneyaeta, and Tahanone


Lafrombois. Speech to Judge B. Parke. May 17, 1815. Vol. 16, (1890): 112.


ief of Weas/Ouitanon regarding Kickapoo and Potawatomi nations' trips to Mackinac to accept goods from the British. Also, the Kickapoo have lied to the US about some unnamed thin


Lambossier. Speech to Judge B. Parke. May 18, 1815. Vol. 16, (1890): 113.


ief of Weas/Ouitanon regarding Odawa and Potawatomi nations' trips to Mackinac to accept goods from the British, and warning of a planned attack by the British.