Bibliography
There is no single, authoritative source that discusses the ways through which Indian reservation land passed from the control of tribes and tribal members to whites. However, various documents describe parts of this unhappy story. See, for example, Isaac A. Fancher, Past and Present of Isabella County Michigan (Indianapolis: B.F. Bowen & Co., 1911), John Cumming, This Place Mount Pleasant (Mount Pleasant, MI: np, 1989), and the United States Indian Claims Commission, Commission Findings on the Chippewa Indians (New York; Garland Publishing Inc., 1974). The quotations cited comes from Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan... v. United States of America, Docket no. 13-H, decided May 14, 1953. It should be noted that while the Commission found that "devious ways" were used to swindle Indians out of their timber rights, nevertheless the commission went on to find that "the record is devoid of any facts sufficient to determine whether the plaintiff [the Saginaw Chippewa tribe] has a right to recover therefor" and thus did not make any award to rectify this past wrong. See also the Ella V. Powers Collection, Box 2, "The Saginaw Chippewa Indians," housed in the Clarke Historical Library. The long quotation regarding the role of Saginaw lumbermen in the exploitation of the Isabella Reservation's timber resources comes from James Cooke Mills, History of Saginaw County... (Saginaw: Seemans & Peters, 1918), pp. 423-424.