Teaching Feedback Framework

To provide transparency regarding what we look to observe in effective teaching practice, we provide you with the framework for our observations below. This framework is inspired by resources such as Tripod’s 7Cs Framework of Effective Teaching (2016, CC BY–NC–ND 4.0) and Charlotte Danielson’s Framework for Teaching (The Danielson Group LLC, 2014), which are informed by peer-reviewed research. Though developed initially for the K-12 context, they have been adapted for and applied within higher education contexts as well.  

Social Domain: Evidence of Welcoming, Open Cultures

  • Building & Maintaining Relationships with Learners  
  • Acknowledging & Inviting Diverse Learner & Cultural Perspectives  
  • Addressing Individual Learners’ Needs, Including Accessibility & Accommodations  
  • Remaining Present & Engaged as a Facilitator  
  • Leveraging Universal Design for Learning:  
    • Offering Multiple Means of Representation (The “What” or Learning Content)  
    • Offering Multiple Means of Engagement (The “Why” or Rationale for Learning)  
    • Offering Means of Expression (The “How” or Ways to Demonstrate Learning) 

Instructional Domain: Evidence of Coherent, Engaging Lessons 

  • Establishing Transparent Learning Outcomes & Evaluation Criteria  
  • Engaging Learners with Intriguing Design, Methods, and/or Strategies  
  • Inviting Active Participation from Learners  
  • Assessing Learner Understanding (Diagnostic, Formative, Summative)  
  • Aiding Learners in Connecting, Synthesizing, & Reflecting on Learning  
  • Providing Constructive Feedback to Learners 

Operational Domain: Evidence of Focus, Rigorous Experiences

  • Keeping Activities On-Time & On-Task  
  • Guiding Learner Behaviors & Responses as Necessary  
  • Fostering Quality & Rigor in Learner Efforts  
  • Nurturing Persistence in Learner Efforts  
  • Encouraging Learners to Think & Act as Practitioners  
  • Encouraging Learners to Produce Artifacts of Learning for Broader Dissemination


The Danielson Group LLC. (2014). The Framework. Retrieved from https://www.danielsongroup.org/framework/

Tripod (2016). Guide to Tripod's 7Cs(TM) Framework. Retrieved from http://tripoded.com/teacher-toolkit/.