Teaching Feedback Framework

To provide transparency regarding what we look to observe in effective teaching practice, we provide you with the framework for our observations below. Non-evaluative observations are conducting using Garrison, Anderson & Archer’s (2000) Community of Inquiry (COI) framework by observing three presences: social, teaching, and cognitive. The COI framework, designed as a lens through which to view teaching and learning effectiveness, and allows educators to leverage the power of communities in the online classroom.   

Social presence 

The ability to perceive others in an online environment as “real” and the projection of oneself as a real person. Social presence involves open communication, affective expression, and group cohesion.

Examples:
  • Projects a teaching persona through announcements, emails, videos
  • Offers optional virtual office hours for students
  • Creates weekly videos/announcements
  • Recaps learning content
  • Develops initial course activities (e.g., virtual breakouts sessions) to encourage development
  • Encourages students to share anecdotes, experiences, and beliefs in online discussions
  • Designs collaborative activities, small group discussions

Areas within an online course or synchronous session:

  • Announcement page
  • Email
  • Discussion board
  • Chat area of the session (e.g., WebEx, Microsoft Teams)

Cognitive presence

The extent to which learners construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse. 
  • Identifies big ideas the instructor wants students to take away from the course and develop major course activities around the assessment of those activities.
  • Provides frequent opportunities for assessment and feedback
  • Uses self-testing, practice assignments
  • Provides multiple representations of the knowledge the instructor wants students to learn
  • Encourage experimentation, divergent thinking, and multiple perspectives.

Areas within an online course or synchronous session:

  • Announcement page
  • Email
  • Discussion board
  • Facilitation during a live session (e.g., WebEx, Microsoft Teams)
  • Gradebook feedback
  • Assignment descriptions and directions
  • Instructional videos

Teaching presence

The design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the realization of meaningful learning. 

Examples:
  • Facilitates students’ learning activity within the discussion
  • Provides students with timely and supportive feedback
  • Provides students with explicit and redundant instructions for all course activities

Areas within an online course or synchronous session:

  • Announcement page
  • Email
  • Discussion board
  • Chat area of the session (e.g., WebEx, Microsoft Teams)
  • Facilitation during a live session (e.g., WebEx, Microsoft Teams)
  • Gradebook feedback
  • Instructional videos
  • Assignment descriptions and directions

Adapted from a work by Huang, W., Hurt, A., Richardson, J.C., Swan, K. & Caskurlu, S. (2018).  Community of Inquiry Framework. Purdue Repository for Online Teaching and Learning. Licensed Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 International License.

Reference

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T, & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2,87–105.