Glossary

Please select the first letter of the term you wish to find.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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AM-

AM represents the Asset Management module in R/3. Capital assets are managed in this module, including depreciation, useful lives, and equipment location.

AR Contact Release-

Authorization to Release Information for FERPA purposes.

ASUG-

Americas' SAP Users' Group (ASUG), the world's largest, customer-driven community of SAP professionals and partners.

Academic Year & Session-

Terms will no longer be a year and then 1 for spring, 2 for summer I, 3 for summer II and 4 for fall. There will be both a term and academic year.

For example:
Fall 2006-2007 (term code = 300)
Spring 2006-2007 (term code = 500)
Summer 2006-2007 (term code = 700)

The last year listed may often appear in reports (just like what currently appears in FI – for example starting July 1, 2006 we will be in the 2007 fiscal year). Also it is important to note that starting in 2007 there will only be one summer term.

Acceptance Request-

Apply a debit (charge) to an account.

Account Assignment Model (FI)-

(FI) A template for journal entries used to save keystrokes for repetitive entries. Account assignment models can simplify journal entries that are created monthly by entering and saving multiple sets of identical data. The Account Assignment Model can be modified during posting to add/delete/modify line items. They can be created by any user.

Account Status on BP-

Indicates the AR staff member that is currently working the account and in what capacity, statuses are deleted from the tab as they are resolved.

Accounting Document (FI)-

(FI) The accounting document represents the original financial document in the system. An accounting document can also be generated from the creation of another type of document in R/3, such as an Invoice document. Accounting documents always consist of a document header with general information about the entire document and at least two line items for the debit and credit. The balance of the document must equal zero.

Accounting Period (FI)-

(FI) The period within a fiscal year during which transactions can be recorded. For CMU, the accounting period is the fiscal month, as defined in the Fiscal Calendar.

Accrual and Deferral (FI)-

(FI) Accrual and deferral provides a temporary allocation of revenues and expenses to determine the profit for the period. A distinction is made between accrued income and deferred income; accrued income includes expenses before the closing key date, insofar as they represent expenses for a particular time after that date.

Action by Collection Agent-

Action or comment from an AR staff member in regards to an account issue, actions remain on the tab permanently.

Appraisals-

Grades

Asset (AM)-

(AM) An asset is defined as any building, land, equipment, or furnishings that qualifies as a capital item and is owned by CMU. Every asset has an asset master record in R/3, which assigns an asset number and contains the company code, responsible cost center, location, and other information. An asset can be a simple asset or it can be represented by several asset master records (asset sub-numbers). In this case, the individual components (sub-numbers) are called assets.

Asset Class (AM)-

(AM) The asset class is the main criterion for grouping fixed assets according to operational and legal requirements. Examples of asset classes at CMU include land, buildings, equipment, and vehicles. The asset class defines control parameters and default values for the depreciation calculation and other master data. Each asset master record is assigned to one and only one asset class.

Authorizations-

In the SAP system each user has an authorization (or security) profile that is based on his/her role. Authorizations allow users to run transactions and view data.

 

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BAPI-

Stands for Business Application Programming Interface.

BASIS-

BASIS is a set of middleware programs and tools from SAP that provides the base (hence the name) that enables SAP applications to operate seamlessly across operating systems and databases. It is also the functional area responsible for the setup and ongoing maintenance of the client landscape within SAP.

Best Practices-

A term used to identify a set of standard practices or procedures that have proved to be highly effective in similar situations.

Book-

Register for classes.

Branch-

A location within the university that performs cashiering.

Business Intelligence (BI)-

A category of applications and technologies for gathering, storing, analyzing, and providing access to data to help users make better business decisions.

Business Partner-

A specific number assigned to a student for identification purposes.

Business Process-

A group or series of activities by which inputs are turned to outputs that provide a benefit.

Business Warehouse (BW)-

Business Information Warehouse. BW is a reporting database in SAP that enables business users to generate queries and reports.

 

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CO-

CO represents the Controlling module of R/3, which provides internal reporting of revenues and expenses by responsible entity or department. Budget information can be loaded into R/3, so that comparisons of budget to actuals can also be seen in this and other modules.

Campus ID - (HR/PR/SDLC)-

The Campus ID, is a unique number that identifies each employee/student at CMU and is used to replace the employee's Social Security Number in SAP and other systems. 

Cash Desk-

Component in which cashiering is performed.

Cash Journal-

Keeps track of all cashiering transactions performed at various cashier stations.

Chart of Accounts (FI)-

(FI) Equivalent to CMU's set of G/Ls (old terminology), the Chart of Accounts (COA) in R/3 contains a detailed list of G/L (general ledger) accounts within account categories. The COA includes G/L accounts for the categories of Assets, Liabilities, Fund Equity, Revenues, and Expenses. Only one COA, which is identified by the value "CMU", exists in R/3.

Clearing-

Automatic and/or manual act of applying credits to open line items.

Clearing lock-

A lock on an open line item that prevent clearing of that line.

Command Code-

A Command Code is a two or three-digit value, usually beginning with a forward slash ( / ), that when entered into the Command Field on an R/3 screen, performs functions in like opening or closing sessions and transactions. So, a Command Code is yet another way to navigate the R/3 system. Most Command Codes can be used alone or with a four-digit Transaction Code.

Command Field-

A field located on the Menu bar of the most R/3 screens. This field can be used to enter Transaction codes and/or Command codes to navigate the system instead of using lengthy menu paths.

Commitment (FI, CO, FM)-

(FI/CO) A commitment is an outstanding order that will lead to actual expenditures in the future. A commitment is created for both an electronic Purchase Requisition and a Purchase Order. The commitment amount will become an actual expense, when the goods are received or when the Invoice is paid against the Purchase Order. A commitment in R/3 is equivalent to an encumbrance (old terminology) in the legacy general ledger system.

Commitment Item (FM)-

(FM) A commitment item represents the functional aspects (expenditure and revenue structures) within the Financial Management module. In other words, a commitment item in FM is the equivalent of a cost element in CO. Each cost element in CO must be assigned to a commitment item in FM, to ensure that FM receives the transaction information occurring for that cost element (e.g., cost element 646000 is linked to commitment item 646000).

Company Code-

A company code is a code corresponding to an independent accounting or business unit within CMU. The company code is a division that maintains the accounting balances seperately (seperate set of books) and creates the legally required Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Statement.

Configuration-

The way a computer or network is set up, including both hardware and software. Process of customizing built-in SAP features, options, tables, edit rules, screen layouts and messages to meet the requirements of NKU.

Contract Account-

Number assigned to a particular BP that will have an account that can be posted in FI-CA.

Controlling Area-

Identifies the organization used for cost accounting purposes. All companies associated with CMU belong to the controlling area "CMU". It is possible to carry out common controlling for more than one company code in a controlling area. Having all company codes in the same controlling area allows various assessment and allocations across companies. All companies must have the same fiscal year to be in the same controlling area.

Correspondence-

Automated e-mails and letters that are sent to students monthly.

Correspondence Lock-

A lock that prevents billing statements from being sent to an account.

Cost Center (CO)-

(CO) Defines the owner of costs or general operating expenses. At CMU, cost centers are organized by areas of responsibility. All cost centers must exist somewhere on the Standard Hierarchy (like an organizational chart) for Cost Centers.

Cost Center Group (CO)-

(CO) A Cost Center Group is a grouping of one or more individual Cost Centers into areas of responsibility for reporting purposes. Each Cost Center Group is then grouped into other Cost Center Groups to ultimately create the Standard Hierarchy which includes all company codes for CMU.

Cost Center Standard Hierarchy (CO)-

(CO) Organizes groups of cost centers (Cost Center Groups) into areas of responsibility for reporting purposes and includes all company codes for CMU under the group value of "CMU". This hierarchy is like an organizational chart for reporting with numbers instead of names identifying each group or level.

Cost Element (CO)-

(CO) A six-digit code that defines and classifies revenue or expenses/costs (usually equals CMU's old four-digit G/LS + two zeroes). The term "Revenue element" is also seen in the CO module to refer to codes for revenue.

Cost elements fall into two categories:

  1. Primary Cost Elements = Used for initial postings of revenue and expense, and have corresponding G/L Accounts.
  2. Secondary Cost Elements = Used for allocations (movement of an initial posting to other "owners") of revenue and expense, and do not have corresponding G/L Accounts.

 

Cost Object-

The term Cost Object defines the "owner" of or responsible department for revenue, expense, or project related expense/revenue in financial modules.

Cost Objects are further defined by the following categories / terms:

  • Cost Center
    Defines the owner of general operating expenses, allocated, loan, endowment, and agency cost objects.
  • WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) Element
    Defines the owner of revenues and expenses for a project. Typically, projects have a limited duration of life, but can cross multiple fiscal years..

Cost Element Group (CO)-

(CO) A grouping of a set of similar or like Cost Elements used to select transactions for reporting.

For example, the Cost Element Group of "6XXXXX" contains all Cost Elements from 600000 to 699999. Selecting this group on the initial screen of a report will generate a report showing any activity posted to all expense Cost Elements.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)-

A term used to describe software, methodologies and Internet capabilities that help to manage customer relationships in an orgranzied way.

 

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Dates (FI, CO)-

(FI/CO) The master data for Cost Centers and Cost Elements are defined with validity dates that determine when the object can be used.

Day End Closing-

Key that is used to transfer postings to the appropriate general ledger account.

Data Warehouse-

A data collection or database that is created by integrating various datasets and data from external sources. Data warehouses provide users with a global view of the data that has many useful applications.

Delimited (HR/PR)-

The term delimited is related to the HR and Payroll information or Infotypes in the SAP system, and helps to track the history of the actions that have taken place regarding the HR and Payroll information or Infotypes (see Infotype in the Glossary). Information is never deleted from the system, rather the information is delimited when a new piece of information is added or a change to existing information occurs in SAP. Therefore, the history of the information is captured. For instance, if someone receives a yearly increase in salary, the current rate of pay is delimited and a new rate is activated in the system. The dates of the record indicate if that record is delimited or not, since the delimited record will have an end date in the past and the active record that is not delimited will have an end date with the year of 9999 in the date field.

Depreciation (AM)-

(AM) Amounts that are calculated to record the decline in value of the operating funds. CMU r ecords depreciation for capital assets, equipment, and buildings.

Document-

An electronic record of a transaction. For example, whenever a journal entry (journal voucher) is created and either parked or posted in R/3, a document is created in the system. In addition, several documents can be created from one single action in the R/3 system. For example, when an "Invoice" is entered into R/3, which references a Purchase Order document in R/3, an Accounting document is also automatically created. Each document is linked to the other and provides different pieces of information.

In R/3, each document has it's own unique document number that is Company Code and Fiscal Year dependent.

Document Date (FI)-

(FI) The Document Date is the date in which the business transaction for the Document (e.g., a transfer of posting or the issue date of an invoice or payment) took place.

Note: It is possible that an invoice was issued with a Document Date of 6/15/98, entered into R/3 on 7/15/98 (Entry Date) with a Posting Date of 6/30/98 (to post the Document in the previous fiscal year). Many times, all three of these dates are the same.

Document Type-

A Document Type is a two-digit alpha code that helps to identify the type of Document being created or displayed for a transaction in R/3. The Document Type can be found in the header of a Document and also in column on most line item reports.

A few common examples are listed below:
SA = A manually keyed journal entry (journal voucher)
KN = Net Vendor, an invoice entered into R/3 that DOES NOT reference to a Purchase Order document number, usually indicating a "standing order".
RN = Net Vendor Invoice, an invoice entered into R/3 that references to a Purchase Order document number.
WA = Goods Issue indicating that materials have been issued from Inventory.

Dunning-

Assessing late fees.

Dunning level-

The number of times the line items of an account have been assessed a late fee if necessary.

Dunning lock-

A lock that prevents late fees from assessing to an account.

 

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End Users-

Those individuals who use SAP to carry out their duties and responsibilities.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System-

A category of software packages that are designed to integrate functions across an organization onto a single computer system.

Entry Date (FI)-

(FI) The Entry Date is the date the transaction was actually "permanently entered" into R/3.

Note: It is possible that an invoice was issued with a Document Date of 6/15/98, entered into R/3 on 7/15/98 (Entry Date) with a Posting Date of 6/30/98 (to post the Document in the previous fiscal year). Many times, all three of these dates are the same.

ERP-

ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning, which is an integrated, client-server based software solution for enterprise-wide business applications. The SAP R/3 system is an example of an ERP.

Event (E)-

Section of a course showing dates, times, days, room and instructor.

Event Package (SE)-

The event will be attached to the event package. Students will book by event package (former CRN in ISIS). On an event package you can also attach rules, special titles, special fees, etc. You can also attach more than one event to an event package (e.g. one lecture and one lab).

Event Type (D)-

Course Component (e.g. lab, web, classroom) and determines the template for creating an event.

Expiring Lock-

Lock that has a beginning and end date.

 

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FI-

FI stands for the Financial Accounting module of R/3, which supports the external accounting functions, such as the General Ledger, Accounts Receivable and Payable, Balance Sheet reports, etc., for CMU.

FM-

FM represents the Funds Management module, which supports the financial business information for CMU University, Company Code CMU. This module could provide balance sheet information by individual fund.

Fee Calculation-

The assessment of tuition and/or fees to an account.

Fund (FM)-

(FM) A Fund tracks balance sheet information by fund (fund code in old terminology), including expense and revenue balances. A Fund represents the basic unit that comprises the entire organizational and functional structure of CMU. FM is a receiver system, in other words, FM only receives transactions from other modules and NO transactions are created in FM. Therefore, a Fund must have a corresponding Cost Center, Profit Center, or WBS Element (Project) for transaction to be received.

Fund Center (FM)-

(FM) A set of similar funds used to represent organizational units in a hierarchy, such as areas of responsibility, departments, and projects. For CMU, Company Code CMU, the fund center is a FIVE-digit code.

 

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G/L Account (FI)-

(FI) A G/L Account defines the type of balance sheet (asset, fund equity, liability), expense, or revenue category of a posted amount in the FI module. Each G/L account represents one item in the entire Chart of Accounts of the FI module. A G/L Account consists of six digits and is equivalent to the four-digit G/L (old accounting terminology) plus two additional digits for further clarification. Usually the extra two digits are two zeros (for example, G/L Account 690200 is Office Supplies and has the same meaning as Object Code 6902).

A G/L Account is also known as a:

  1. Cost Element (or Revenue Element) for expenses and revenues in the CO and PS modules.
  2. Commitment Item for all assets, liabilities, expenses, and revenues in the FM module.

 

Goods Receipt (MM)-

A term from inventory management denoting a physical inward movement of goods or materials (e.g. goods are received by the University).

Grant (GM)-

Legal instrument used to establish a funding relationship in order to carry out a public purpose in which the sponsor does not expect to be substantially involved. A grant usually contains terms and conditions for the control, use, reporting and reimbursement of sponsor funding.

Grants Management (GM)-

A module designed to provide institutes of higher education with an integrated tool to plan, budget, identify, obtain, and record all funding related to sponsored projects. It allows for the differentiation between eligible and ineligible costs, the billing and recording of sponsor amounts, and for the recording and reporting of all related costs, revenues, and required statistical information.

GUI-

Stands for Graphical User Interface and refers to the display of software on a screen using graphics, symbols, and icons rather than text alone.

 

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HR-

HR stands for the Human Resources module of R/3, which supports not only Human resource functions such as benefits and wage/salary, but also the payroll and time management functions as well.

Hold-

Placed on an account to prevent a student from registering for courses, receiving a transcript, etc. typically as a result of an account being in arrears with the University.

 

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Implementation Partner-

A vendor who acts as a consultant and coach in the implementation of a large project.

Info Subtype (HR/PR)-

Some Infotypes (see Infotypes in the Glossary if needed) contain Info Subtypes as well, which further identify types of data related to an Infotype. For example, there are various Info Subtypes for the Address Infotype, to show the different addresses related to an employee, such as campus, permanent home, emergency contact, etc.

Infotype (HR/PR)-

An Infotype (Information Type) is a four digit number which identifies a screen of related data elements grouped according to content and effective date.

Some examples of Infotypes are (not a fully inclusive list):

  • Actions (0000)
    Contains a summary of all the actions (example – Hiring, Change Org Assignment, Leave of Absence, etc.) regarding HR and Payroll that have occurred for an employee, including dates, descriptions, etc.
  • Organizational Assignment (0001)
    Contains organizational information, including the position number, organizational unit (department), cost center, payroll area, for the employee.
  • Personal Data (0002)
    Contains personal data for an employee, such as date of birth and social security number.
  • Address (0006)
    Contains various screens with different types of addresses related to the employee, such as the permanent home address, the campus address, and the emergency contact address.
  • Basic Pay (0008)
    Contains the current rate of pay information, as well as a history of past rates of pays and effective dates.
  • Education (0022)
    Contains the most current education level available for the employee.
  • Date Specifications (0041)
    Contains the continuous service date for an employee, as well as other dates regarding leave accrual, employee group entrance date, etc.

Integration Testing-

Testing of all units or components of a software product to ensure they work together properly.

Interfaces-

Program connections between disparate databases.

Internal Order (CO)-

Program connections between disparate databases.

Invoice Verification (MM)-

The matching of documents created during the purchase order process, the goods receipt process, and the accounts payable process that are part of the internal controls system within an organization. SAP Example: Upon receipt of an invoice from a vendor, Accounts Payable audits the document and finalizes the three-way match process.

 

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Logistics Invoice Verification (MM)-

The matching of documents created during the purchase order process, the goods receipt process, and the accounts payable process that are part of the internal controls system within an organization. SAP Example: Upon receipt of an invoice from a vendor, Accounts Payable audits the document and finalizes the three-way match process.

Lots-

A collection of payment with the same characteristics, either created manually or automatically.

 

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Master Data-

Master Data form a pool of information stored on a long-term basis in the SAP system and can be incorporated into individual transactions. Master data are entered once and can be modified as needed. SAP Example: The master data of a cost center contains the name of the cost center, the person responsible for the cost center, and the corresponding hierarchy area. The master data of a vendor contains the name, address, and bank information for the vendor.

Matchcode Search-

A Matchcode Search in R/3, is a way to view a complete or partial list of all valid values for an Input Field and to select a value from that list for the field. A triangle symbol in the lower right corner of the Input Field usually indicates that a Matchcode Search is available. Searches can be done on numeric or text values, and allow the use of an asterisk (*) as a wildcard.

Material Group (MM)-

A grouping of materials and services according to their characteristics. SAP Example: Office supplies – 58080000.

Material Master Record (MM)-

A data record containing all the basic information required to manage a material stocked by University Stores.

Materials Management (MM)-

MM represents the Materials Management module of R/3, which supports procurement and inventory management functions at CMU.

Menu Bar-

The Menu Bar is the first bar located at the top of the SAP R/3 screen. While the Menu Bar contains menu paths for functions available from the current screen, this bar is no longer used as the primary tool for navigating to another screen in SAP. The User Menu displayed on the initial screen is a better way and more customized way to navigate for Duke. The Menu Bar options vary by the screen displayed or the task being performed in SAP. The Menu Bar also contains the buttons for managing the size and position of the window.

Module (SM)-

Course.

Module Group (CG)-

Components to be completed (e.g. major, minor, concentration, UP, Competencies, etc.)

Modules-

The R/3 system consists of many application modules, each one offering different functionality, yet all integrated into one enterprise package.

 

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Note Overview-

Located in the Student File, where note information regarding a student’s account, the information is stored permanently.

 

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Object-

An individual element of information that exists in the system. In the financial related modules, such as CO, an Object (or Object Number Structure) refers to the terms Cost Center or Profit Center, which represent the owner of a posted expense or revenue.

Organizational Unit (HR/PR)-

An organizational unit is an eight-digit number that represents the hierarchical organizational structure with regards to HR and Payroll in the SAP system. For example, these eight-digit numbers can represent a department within the Finance and Administrative Systems area or a department within the Provost area.

Organizational Unit (O)-

Colleges, Departments, etc..

Outgoing Payment (refund) Lock-

A lock to prevent a credit on an account from refunding.

 

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Payment Request-

Apply a credit to an account.

Performance Indicies-

Term totals (e.g. GPA).

Personnel Area (HR/PR)-

A value that represents an organizational entity or location within CMU for HR and Payoll purposes, such as ACAF for the Academic Personnel Area, PRES for the President Personnel Area, etc.

Personnel Subarea (HR/PR)-

A value that further defines an entity within the Personnel Area. Examples are PPOF for the Office of the President, ACBA for the College of Business Administration.

Plan (CO)-

(CO) In SAP, the word Plan is synonymous with the word budget and planning with budgeting for general operating funds, like Cost Centers and Profit Centers. SAP offers several types of planning for internal reporting purposes.

In the CO - Controlling module where Cost Center reports are generated, the Plan data is loaded by individual departments, if they want to plan at a line item level.

Plant (MM, AM)-

A Plant is an organizational unit within CMU where either materials are purchased or goods and services are provided. A key attribute in MM and AM modules, the Plant code corresponds to a Company Code (e.g. CMU).

Plant Maintenance (PM)-

A module that automates the processing of non-scheduled repair requests and scheduled preventative maintenance requests.

Portal-

A website that provides a gateway or single port of entry to other systems or sites.

Posting Date (FI)-

(FI) The Posting Date determines the posting period and defines in which fiscal period a document will post (regardless of the Document or Entry date). The periods that are permitted for posting are determined by Accounting Services. This is the date that G/L Account Balances are updated. The Posting Date will override the Fiscal Period entered on a document if they are different.

Posting Key (FI)-

(FI) A two-digit numeric key that controls the entry of document line items. The key specifies the following for example: account type, debit or credit posting, or layout of entry screens.

The most common examples are:
40 = Debit
50 = Credit

Posting Period (FI, CO)-

(FI, CO) The posting period is a period of time within a fiscal year during which transactions can be posted and transaction figures can be updated. CMU's posting periods are based on the Fiscal month periods per the Fiscal Calendar.

Power User-

An individual whose primary job responsibilities require ongoing use of SAP.

Process Flow-

A graphical or textual representation of the specific inputs, processing steps, options and outputs associated with business processes.

Program Registration-

e.g. signing of a major/minor (undergraduate students) or program of study (graduate students) or admittance into undergraduate programs in CBA or CEHS.

Program of Study (SC)-

Degree programs (e.g. BS, BSBA, MA etc.).

Project (PS)-

(PS) A Project outlines all the pieces or steps of a project, including the Project Definition and the WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) in both a graphic and spreadsheet type format

Project Definition (PS)-

(PS) The framework laid down for all of the objects created within a project. The Project Definition contains dates and other organizational information that is binding for the entire project.

Project Scope-

The sum of the products (deliverables) and services to be provided as a project.

Purchase Order (MM)-

Document used to purchase materials, consumable items, equipment and services from vendors.

Purchase Requisition (MM)-

Document used to request materials, consumable items, equipment and services; Purchase requisitions are converted to purchase orders so items etc. can be procured externally.

Purchasing Document Number (MM)-

Alphanumeric key uniquely identifying a purchasing document.

Purchasing Group (MM)-

(MM) A Purchasing Group is a grouping of departments or areas that purchase in R/3 used for assigning Purchase Requisition approval rules. The Purchasing Group field is a required field on a Purchase Requisition and is assigned to each authorized R/3 user that is part of that Purchasing Group. For example, several users from the same department or area may use the same Purchasing Group.

Purchasing Organization (MM)-

An organizational unit in Logistics, subdividing an enterprise according to the requirements of purchasing areas. A purchasing organization procures materials and services, negotiates conditions of purchase with vendors, and is responsible for such transactions (e.g. PUR for Purchasing Services & PEP for Plant Engineering & Planning).

 

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RSS-

A family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines or podcasts. An RSS document, which is called a "feed," "web feed," or "channel," contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text.

Real Time-

The "R" in R/3. Data is processed the moment it enters a system, as opposed to old-style "batch" processing where the information enters the system, is stored, and is processed at a later time.

Reconciliation Key-

Key under which summary records in FI-CA are stored for transfer to accounting systems.

R/3-

R/3 is an ERP system offered by the SAP company. The R/3 stands for real-time / three-tiered architecture, defined as follows:

The "R" in R/3 = real time. During real-time processing, data is processed immediately, the moment the data is entered into the system. This is different than a "batch mode", in which data is stored and all transactions are processed together, at a later time. The "3" in R/3 = A three-tier computer architecture comprised of three operational layers as outlined below. The SAP R/3 system uses a special type of client/server architecture consisting of three well-defined and separate processes, each running on a different platform:

 

  1. Presentation: the user interface, which runs on the end user's computer (the client) and is actually seen on the end user's desktop.
  2. Application: the functional modules that actually process data. This middle tier runs on a server and is often called the application server.
  3. Database: a database management system (DBMS) that contains master data that Duke owns and stores the data required by the middle tier. This tier runs on a second server called the database server.

 

The three-tier design has many advantages over traditional two-tier or single-tier designs, the chief ones being:

 

  1. The added modularity makes it easier to modify or replace one tier without affecting the other tiers.
  2. Separating the application functions from the database functions makes it easier to implement load balancing.

 

Roles-

A set of activities for employees. Roles focus on an individual’s tasks and responsibilities in an enterprise and answer the question, “How do I complete the work for which I am responsible?”

 

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SAP-

SAP (pronounced as spelled out) stands for Systems, Applications, and Products which is a translation from the German language of "Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung". SAP is the German company that produces many different enterprise solution products, such as the R/3 product that Duke purchased.

SAP HERUG-

Systems Applications and Products Higher Education and Research User Group. Membership is open to all degree-granting Higher Education and Research Institutes who are SAP customers with signed contracts.

SAP Netweaver-

The technical foundation for SAP solutions. Netweaver is a comprehensive integration and application platform built to work with existing information technology infrastructures.

Sandbox-

A work area within the SAP system landscape that provides the Business and Technical team members with a place to explore SAP capabilities and experiment with software configuration. Here at CMU also referred to as Research or RS3.

Self-service-

An electronic, on-line system that puts employees and students in control of managing certain kinds of information (such as address changes or employee benefits selections).

Settlement -

Currently, CMU is using Settlement in R/3 to "settle" the expense of a major construction Project, such as a building, from a Project to an Asset (capital acquisition) once complete. Also, Settlement is being used for minor construction Projects (under $100,000) in R/3, to "settle" the expense of the Project to departments/divisions who are funding the Project. This Settlement is done monthly and replaces a manual Journal Voucher done monthly in the past.

Settlement works as follows: the costs incurred in a Project on one or more receivers is automatically accompanied by corresponding credit postings to the Project itself. The costs settled are recorded on the relevant receiver. Debit postings assigned to the Project remain on display even after Settlement. Settlement can be performed as a simulation or an update.

Specialization-

Students area of study (e.g. major/minor).

Sponsor (GM)-

An organization or other source that finances a grant. The sponsor may agree to fund the grant in total or in part based upon an application or proposal provided in response to a request for proposal. The sponsor may be a government agency; company, foundation, or individual interested in furthering study or interest in a particular area and is entitled to receive some consideration or benefits. The agreement from the sponsor represents a contractual obligation for performance of the specific activity by the University.

Sponsored Class (GM)-

The sponsored class represents the sponsor's expense and revenue classification. The sponsored class is used to group expenses and revenues in order to satisfy the sponsor's view and reporting needs. It is also used to specify in detail which expenses are relevant for billing and for indirect cost calculation. Examples: Personnel, Supplies, Travel.

Sponsored Program (GM)-

This master data element is maintained within the Grants Management (GM) Module. It is used to classify revenues and expenditures of a grant by mission. Sponsored program is equivalent to functional area in FM.

Standard Toolbar-

The Standard Toolbar is the second bar located directly under the Menu Bar at the top of the SAP R/3 screen. This Toolbar contains standard buttons (icons) for performing common functions, depending on the screen or task. Some functions include moving back to the previous screen, exiting a screen, canceling a transaction, and printing.

Statistical Internal Order (CO)-

An internal order created and maintained to accumulate costs and revenues for internal reporting purposes. These orders are created using master data functionality and may be short- or long-term in nature. The user may enter the statistical internal order number on a posting transaction to make a real posting to a cost center and simultaneously make a statistical posting to the internal order to track department specific activity. SAP Example: A department may want to accumulate costs and revenues associated with a conference. A statistical internal order may be created to track these costs for a fiscal year or across fiscal years as needed. Each transaction for the conference will contain an entry in the cost center and the internal order field when posted. Once entries are posted, the statistical internal order may be used for reporting as needed

Status Bar-

The Status Bar is located at the bottom of each R/3 window and displays messages and system information, such as the session number and Insert / Overwrite status for text in fields.

Storage Location (MM)-

(MM) A Storage Location is a place where inventory items are stored.

Student Number-

The key identifier in CM (will no longer be the SSN). It will be system assigned.

 

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Title Bar-

The Title bar is the third bar from the top of each SAP R/3 screen and located directly below the Standard Toolbar. The Title Bar contains the name of the current screen displayed for the task or transaction being performed in SAP.

Transaction Code-

A Transaction Code is an alpha-numeric value that can be entered in the Command Field and used as quicker way to navigate to a transaction screen in R/3, as opposed to using lengthy menu paths. The Transaction Code identifies a "transaction" in R/3 and links all the screens related to that one transaction (e.g., ME51 = Create a Purchase Requisition, F-02 = Create/Post a Journal Entry, and PO03 = Maintain Job). Transaction Codes must be used in conjunction with Command Codes from any screen other than the initial SAP R/3 System screen.

The Transaction Code for a particular screen can easily be found once on that screen, by following the menu path: System > Status.

For more information, see the related terms of Command Field and Command Code in the On-Line Glossary.

 

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Unit Testing-

The testing of a unit in isolation from all components called from other programs or modules.

 

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Validations, Substitutions and Rules (VSR)-

Internal system logic used to verify universal business processes and policies.

Vendor (FI)-

Unique number that identifies a vendor.

Vendor Master Record (FI)-

A data record containing all of the information necessary for any contact with a certain vendor, in particular for conducting business transactions. SAP Example: Address, Tax-id number

 

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WBS - Work Breakdown Structure (PS)-

(PS) The Work Breakdown Structure (known as WBS) is the hierarchical representation of activities and actions to be carried out on a Project. The activities and actions that make up the Work Breakdown Structure are known as the WBS Elements. Revenue and expense transactions are posted to each WBS element (node) of the Project. Reporting can be done on each WBS Element or the WBS for the Project as a whole.

WBS Element (PS)-

(PS) The activities and actions that make up the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for a Project are individually known as WBS Elements for that Project. WBS Elements are attached to a grant & are the CO cost object associated with a grant. WBS Elements are also known as a "Node" of a Project hierarchical structure. Revenue and expense transactions are posted to WBS Elements and reporting can be done on each WBS Element or the WBS for the Project as a whole. Typically, WBS elements have a limited duration of life, but can cross multiple fiscal years since they are attached to a grant number.

Workflow-

The sequence and evaluation of conditions needed to complete a business process. This is an electronic function monitored by the workflow manager within SAP. Example: A possible workflow could be the electronic approval of requisitions based upon material group, dollar amount, and cost center. Based on the evaluation of these conditions, the requisition would be forwarded from the originator to the next appropriate user for approval. As the approvals occur, workflow will automatically route to the next level of required approval, and ultimately to the Purchasing Department.

 

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Phone: 989-774-4000

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