Aboriginal Research Club. The Ancient Copper Mines of Northern Michigan . Detroit : Aboriginal Research Club, 1940.
A record of what was known of the ancient copper mines.
Archaic, Woodland, and Historic Period Occupations of the Liberty Bridge Locale, Bay City, Michigan. Lansing, MI : Michigan Department of Transportation, 1993.
Baird, Willard M .J. The Missaukee Mounds . Lake City, MI : Missauki County Bicentennial Committee, 1976.
Available evidence indicates these earthworks were constructed by a prehistoric people.
Bastian, Tyler. Prehistoric Copper Mining in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan. Thesis. University of Utah, 1963.
Recognition of the cumulative effect of very small scale mining over a few thousand years suggests that mines may be attributed to cultures no more developed than those known in the upper Great Lakes region.
Beld, Scott G. Two Terminal Archaic/Early Woodland Sites in Central Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI : University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, 1991.
Two sites in Gratiot County which were excavated as part of Alma College 's local archaeology program.
Betarel , Robert L. The Moccasin Bluff Site and the Woodland Cultures of Southwestern Michigan . Ann Arbor , MI : University of Michigan , 1973.
This site is in Berrien County , Michigan .
Brashler , Janet Gail. Early Late Woodland Boundaries and Interaction: Indian Ceramics of Southern Lower Michigan . East Lansing , MI : Michigan State University , 1981.
In this study ceramics were used to identify and describe change within ethnic groups during the Early Late Woodland period in southern Michigan .
Brashler , Janet G. Prehistoric Pottery in Michigan . Lansing, Mi : Michigan Department of State, 1980.
A six page pamphlet on the basics of the subject.
Briggs, Jeffrey P. An Archaeological Survey of the Pictured Rocks Lakeshore. Ann Arbor, MI : University of Michigan , 1968.
There is evidence of early occupation by Native Americans.
Brose, David S. et.al . Ancient Art of the American Woodland Indians. Photography by Dirk Bakker. NY: Abrams, 1985.
Leading archaeologists and art historians fill in the broad picture of Native American cultural development and art history tracing three periods, the Late Archaic, the Woodland , and the Mississippian. They discuss the imagery and symbolism of the works.
Brose, David S. The Archaeology of Summer Island : Changing Settlement Systems in Northern Lake Michigan . Ann Arbot, MI: University of Michigan, 1970
This work was done in Delta County , Michigan .
Brose, David S. Editor. Hopewell Archaeology; the Chillicothe Conference. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1979.
Papers presented at this conference.
Brose, David. The Late Prehistory of the Lake Erie Drainage Basin: A 1972 Symposium Revisited. Cleveland , OH : Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 1976.
A paper presented at this conference.
Brose, David S. The Summer Island Site; A Study of Prehistoric Cultural Ecology and Social Organization in the Northern Lake Michigan Area. Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University, 1970.
Prehistory in the northern Great Lakes area.
Caldwell, Joseph R. and Robert L. Hall. Editors. Hopewellian Studies. Springfield, IL: Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers, 1964.
Papers presented at the American Anthropological Association in 1961.
Carruthers , Peter J. The Mikado Earthwork: 20Aa5. Thesis. University of Calgary , 1969. (Fitting Mss Box 3 )
The Mikado Earthwork study area is sixteen miles west of Lake Huron in Alcona County . The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between aboriginal settlement patterns in Michigan and the pattern of biotic zones.
Carstens , Kenneth C. The Indians Mound Park Site (20 IB 1): An Early Late Woodland Burial Station in Central Michigan . Saginaw, MI: Michigan Archaeological Society, 1975.
A site in Isabella County, Michigan.
Charthoff , Joseph L. and Kerry K. Charthoff . Archaeological Resources of the West Upper Maple River Watershed Development Area. A Report to the Soil Conservation Service, the United States Department of Agriculture. East Lansing , MI : Michigan State University, 1974. (Fitting Mss Box 3 )
A study to determine the possible impact of development on archaeological resources along the Maple River in Gratiot County , Michigan.
Cleland, Charles E. Editor. The Lasanen Site; An Historic Burial Locality in Mackinac County , Michigan. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, 1971.
Reports on the salvage excavation at the Lasanen Site (20 MA 21).
Cleland, Charles E. A Preliminary Report on the Prehistoric Resources of North Manitou Island. n.p.,n.p., 1966.
At least seven prehistoric sites were located in the area surveyed.
Dorothy, Lawrence G. The Ceramics of the Sand Point Site (20 BG 14) Baraga County , Michigan : A Preliminary Description. Thesis. Western Michigan University, 1978.
These prehistoric Woodland ceramics show influences from north, east and west.
Drier, Roy Ward and Octave Joseph Du Temple , Editors. Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region: A Collection of Reference Articles. Calumet, MI: 1961.
A variety of reports on the copper mines, with illustrations.
Dustin, Fred. Newspaper Articles Published in the Saginaw Courier-Herald, 1940-1960.” n.p ., n.p ., n.d .
Photocopied articles which Dustin published in the local newspaper.
Dustin, Fred. Report on Indian Earthworks in Ogemaw County , Michigan. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook, 1932.
Report of a 1931 survey of earthworks in Ogemaw County done for the Cranbrook Institute of Science.
Dustin, Fred. Saginaw History. Saginaw, MI: Saginaw Museum., n.d. 2 vols.
A typed history which covers the Prehistoric period.
Ellis, H. Holmes. Flint Working Techniques of the American Indians: An Experimental Study. Thesis. Ohio State University, 1940.
Examines and critically appraises the work which has been accomplished in the investigation of flint fracture and the specific methods used by the aborigines in the working of stone and records the experimental results achieved by the Lithic Laboratory.
Fairchild, Jerry D. The Schmidt Site: A Pre- Nipissing Village in the Saginaw Valley , Michigan . Thesis. Western Michigan University, 1977.
It was hoped that material recovered would yield evidence concerning the prehistoric environment within which the site was situated, an estimation of the population, an understanding of the subsistence patterns of the inhabitants, and reveal through radiocarbon dates an accurate temporal positioning of the prehistoric occupants of the site.
Fitting, James E. An Archaeological Survey of Beaver Island , Charlevoix County , Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of State, 1973.
Aboriginal occupation of the island started during the Archaic Period and lasted through historic times.
Fitting, James E. The Archaeology of Michigan ; A Guide to the Pre-History of the Great Lakes Region. Garden City, NJ: Natural History Press, 1970.
Chronicles the exciting archaeological excavation of the 60's in the Great Lakes region. An ecological approach to the study of prehistoric societies, it reconstructs the patterns of cultural development in this unique environmental setting.
Fitting, James E., John H. Halsey and H. Martin Wobst . Contributions to Michigan Archaeology. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1968.
Information about the Springwells Mound Group, the Butterfield Site, and the Spring Creek Site.
Fitting, James E. Late Woodland Cultures of Southeastern Michigan . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1965.
Results of a long period of archaeological investigation in southeastern Michigan.
Fitting, James E. The Paleo-Indian Occupation of the Holcombe Beach . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1966.
This site is in Macomb County .
Fitting, James E. Prehistoric Projectile Points of Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of State, 1984.
A 12 page pamphlet explaining the projectile points.
Fitting, James E. The Schultz Site at Green Point; A Stratified Occupation Area in the Saginaw Valley of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1972.
Papers of several archaeologists work at the site.
Fitting, James E. Selections from the Michigan Archaeologist volumes 1-10. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Archaeological Society, 1969.
Twenty eight articles by Fitting are reprinted.
Flanders , Richard Eugene. A Comparison of Some Middle Woodland Materials from Illinois and Michigan. Thesis. Univerisity of Michigan, 1965.
This thesis presents some unpublished material and some recently excavated material from Illinois and Michigan and re-examines available published material in an attempt to validate a ceramic sequence for the Hopewell period.
Fowke , Gerald. “Stone Art.” Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington , DC : GPO, 1892. 49-178.
This paper forms and illustrated descriptive catalogue of the stone art products collected in connection with the mound surveys.
Gillman, Henry. “The Mound Builders and Platycnemism in Michigan .” Smithsonian Institution Annual Report. Washington , DC : GPO, 1874. 364-390.
Platycrenism is the flattening of the tibia.
Greenman , Emerson F. Old Indian Burial at St. Ignace , Michigan. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Sault News, 1960.
A pamphlet explaining this site which is probably 250 to 300 years old.
Greenman , Emerson F . The Wolf and Furton Sites, Macomb County , Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1939.
Results of archaeological work in these areas.
Greenman , Emerson F. The Younge Site: An Archaeological Record from Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1937.
In Lapeer County this area of about three acres contains the remains of two pre-Columbian occupations.
Griffin , James B. and Paul F. Titterington . The Burial Complexes of the Knight and Norton Mounds in Illinois and Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1970.
The Norton Mounds are in Kent County, Michigan.
Griffin , James B. Editor. Lake Superior Copper and the Indians: Miscellaneous Studies of Great Lakes Prehistory. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1961
A variety of papers on early copper mining.
Halsey, John R. Indian Mounds of Michigan and the Midwest . Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of State, 1981.
A six page pamphlet on the basics of the subject.
Halsey, John R. Editor. Retrieving Michigan 's Buried Past: The Archaeology of the Great Lakes State . Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1999.
Thirteen chapters on various aspects of Michigan archaeology.
Haltiner , Gerald. Compiler. Mysteries of Michigan 's Long-Ago People. Spruce, MI: Gerald Haltiner, n.d.
“For over half a century I have sifted the records of the past, sought the “Old Ones” for their stories and their legends and searched the sands and forests for anything pertaining to the “First Americans” and their works.”
Hinsdale, Wilbert B. Archaeological Atlas of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1931.
Maps showing trails, waterways and portages, mounds and other earthworks, villages and campsites, burying grounds, garden beds and mining of the Indians of Michigan.
Hinsdale , Wilbert and Emerson F. Greenman . Perforated Indian Crania in Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1936.
Preliminary archaeological survey in eastern Michigan .
Hinsdale , Wilbert. Primitive Man in Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: Univerisity of Michigan, 1925.
Intended as an introduction to Michigan archaeology for the general public.
Holman, Margaret. Excavations at Charlevoix: How an Archaeologists Works to Reconstruct Our Past. East Lansing , MI : Michigan State University Press, 1978.
This booklet describes the process of excavation and analysis of a prehistoric archaeological site and shows how the results can give us a picture of the lifeways of ancient peoples.
Holmes, W. H. “Prehistoric Textile Art of the Eastern United States .” Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1891-92. Washington , DC : GPO, 1896. 9-46.
In the excavation of mounds, traces of fabric textiles were frequently found. Holmes compared the fabrics from mounds, caves and wigwams as to processes of manufacture. Many illustrations.
Holmquist , Carl E. The Fort Wayne Mound. Detroit , MI : Aboriginal Research Club, n.d
This mound is in the Detroit area.
Hyde, George E. Indians of the Woodlands From Prehistoric Times to 1725. Norman , OK : University of Oklahoma Press, 1962.
This book deals with the mound builders and later Indians of the Woodlands between the Hudson and Mississippi Rivers .
Janzen , Donald. The Naomikong Point Site and the Dimensions of Laurel in the Lake Superior Region. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1968.
Site is in Chippewa County , Michigan .
Kroblock , Byron W. Banner-Stones of the North American Indian: A Specialized Illustrated Volume Prepared for the Primary Purpose of Putting Forth Conclusions Regarding the Distribution, Possible Uses, Methods of Manufacture, Evolution of Types, Adoption of Special Materials for Particular Types. La Grange, IL: The Author, 1939.
The subtitle says it all. Profusely illustrated.
Leach, M.L. "Ancient Mounds in Clinton County , Michigan and Ancient Forts in Ogemaw County , Michigan ." Smithsonian Institution Annual Report . Washington , DC : GPO, 1894. 839-851.A description of what has been found at these sites.
Leskinen , Lauri . 4000 Years of Copper Country History. Calumet , MI : Greenlee Printing, 1974.
Prehistoric copper mining.
Lovis , William A. Archaeological Investigations Within Fisherman's Island State Park : 1976 Season. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of State, 1976.
Site is in Charlevoix County , Michigan .
Lovis , William A., W. Thomas Langhorne and Sara Van Arsdale . A Cultural Resource Mangement Study of the Hiawatha National Forest, Michigan. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Museum, 1979. 2 vols.
Includes prehistory and archaeology of the area.
McPherron, Alan. The Juntonen Site and the Late Woodland Prehistory of the Upper Great Lakes Area. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1967.
The site consists of stratified deposits of habitation debris on a sandy ridge on Bois Blanc Island in the straits of Mackinac.
Martin, Patrick E. and Susan R. Martin. Cultural Resource Overview of the Ottawa National Forest . Houghton, MI: Michigan Technology University, 1979.
Compilation of known cultural resources in the Ottawa Forest including regional history and prehistory.
Martin, Susan R. A Preliminary Cultural Resource Management Study of the Hiawatha National Forest , Michigan . East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Museum, 1977.
Study focuses on the extraction of tentative associations between the location of archaeological sites and their environmental settings.
Martin, Susan R. Wonderful Power: The Story of Ancient Copper Working in the Lake Superior Basin . Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1999.
An attempt to reach non archaeologists to tell them the story of the long human history of the Lake Superior basin and to enlist their help to protect its archaeological record for posterity. It is also an effort to collect scattered information about the use of ancient copper by prehistoric people and to gather and preserve extant data about this unique resource for a general readership.
Martin, Terrance J. A Faunal Anaylsis of Five Woodland Period Archaeological Sites in Southerwestern Michigan . Thesis. Western Michigan University , 1976. (Fitting Box 6 )
An analysis of the animal remains recovered from five Woodland period archaeological sites in southwestern Michigan is presented in order to delimit the economic adaption of the prehistoric occupants.
Martinez , Charles H. Hammering Out the Past: Prehistoric Stone Artifacts Found in Oakland County . Pontiac, MI: Oakland County Pioneer and Historical Society, 1991.
Martinez attempts to provide background settings for each period so the reader will have a better comprehension of the cultural forces at work when these artifacts were being produced. He identifies projectile points, tools and ornaments.
Mason, Ronald. Great Lakes Archaeology. NY: Academic Press, 1987.
An introduction to the archaeology of the Great Lakes for the general reader.
Mason, Ronald. Late Pleistocene Geochronology and the Paleo-Indian Penetration into the Lower Michigan Peninsula. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, 1969.
This study was undertaken to determine if the combined distributional, typological and geochronological data would support or refute the date of the earliest influx of Paleo-Indian into Michigan .
Mason, Ronald. Rock Island : Historical Indian Archaeology in the Northern Lake Michigan Basin . Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1986.
“It seems likely that what has been learned at Rock Island will do more than flesh out regional history, but will also prove useful in coming to a more informed understanding of American Indian adjustments to the demands of new cultural realities.
Mercer, H.C. The Lenape Stone, or, The Indian and the Mammoth. NY: G.P.Putnams , 1885.
Evidence that Indians and mammoths co-existed.
Morton, Ron and Carl Gawboy . Talking Rocks: Geology and 10,000 Years of Native Tradition in the Lake Superior Region. Duluth, MN: Pfeifer, Hamilton, 2000.
An earth scientist and a Native American elder explore the natural history of the Lake Superior region, examining both the science and the spirit of the land.
Munson, Patrick. Editor. Experiments and Observations on Aboriginal Wild Plant Food Utilization in Eastern North America. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1984.
Ten papers. In the papers an attempt is made to understand prehistoric subsistence activities.
Ossenberg , Nancy S. “Origins and Relationships of Woodland Peoples: The Evidence of Crarial Morphology.” In Aspects of Upper Great Lakes Anthropology: Papers in Honor of Lloyd A. Wilford edited by Elden Johnson. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1974. 8-14.
Ossenberg attempts to trace the lineages of historic Plains tribes back to Woodland times and to test the hypothesis that they were descended from prehistoric Hopewell groups.
Osker , Doreen B V. An Early Woodland Community at the Schultz Site 20 SA 2 in the Saginaw Valley and the Nature of the Early Woodland Adaption in the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1982.
Archaeology in the Saginaw Valley.
Phillips, W. A. “A New Group of Stone Implements from the Southern Shores of Lake Michigan .” Smithsonian Institution Annual Report. Washington , DC : GPO, 587-600 plus plates.
A study of how the stone implements were shaped.
Plant, Al.Petagwana to Pele : Pre-Contact and Contact Period Archaeological Sites and Their People. Windsor, Ontario: Standard Printing, 1983.
Native Americans of the contact period and those who preceded them did not live by hunting, fishing and gathering alone. Findings bear out the fact that no civilization has made greater strides in plant breeding than the North American Indian.
Popworth , Mark L. Cultural Traditions in the Lake Forest Region During the High-Water Stages of Post-Glacial Great Lakes. Thesis. University of Michigan, 1967.
Reports the results of archaeological field work in the upper Great Lakes relating to ancient high water stages of Lakes Superior, Michigan and Huron.
Prehistory of the Burnt Bluff Area. Ann Arbor , MI : University of Michigan , 1968.
This site adds new dimension to the understanding of prehistory in the upper Great Lakes.
Quimby , George I. The Goodall Focus: An Analysis of Ten Hopewellian Components in Michigan and Indiana. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1941.
Pottery has been generally recognized as the best single criterion to use in the classification of prehistoric cultures therefore in this study emphasis has been placed on pottery.
Quimby , George I. Indian Culture and European Trade Goods: An Archaeology of the Historic Period in the Western Great Lakes Region. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.
Quimby recounts the results of many years' careful study of archaeological sites in the Great Lakes region.
Quimby , George I. Indian Life in the Upper Great Lakes , 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1800. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1960.
Story of Indian life in the upper Great Lakes from the earliest inhabitants who followed the retreating glaciers through the ancient boreal hunters and the Indians of Old Copper culture to those tribes originating in the Late Woodland period.
Ritchie, William A. Recent Discoveries Suggesting an Early Woodland Burial Cult in the Northeast. Albany, NY: University of the State of New York, 1955.
What has been discovered to suggest a northeast and Great Lakes burial cult.
Roberts, Norene A. Cultural Resources Overview and National Register Evaluation of Historic Structures, Grand Island National Recreation Area, Michigan . Escanaba, MI: Hiawatha National Forest, 1991.
Grand Island has been used for thousands of years by Native American groups, European explorers, fur traders and others.
Seeman , Mark. The Hopewell Interaction Sphere: The Evidence for Interregional Trade and Structural Complexity. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1979.
The study should contribute to a better understanding of the location and quantities of particular Hopewell materials and will provide a clearer picture of the structural system in which interregional trade took place.
Smith, Beverley Ann. Systems of Subsistence and Networks of Exchange in the Terminal Woodland and Early Historic Periods in the Upper Great Lakes. Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1996.
This research examines the nature of the regional exchange network and reveals that the network was a vital, economically based, system of regional balanced reciprocity.
Smith, Harlan. An Archaeological Survey of Michigan and Other Papers on Michigan Indian Mounds. n.p., n.p., n.d.
Ten pamphlets from a variety of sources.
Sodders, Betty. Michigan Prehistory Mysteries. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1990.
“As you sojourn down a path into Michigan 's prehistory, speculate with the author and examine baffling cultures, stone slab ruins, statues, and unusual rock pits and walls.”
Stone, Lyle M. Archaeological Site Survey in the Mackinac Straits. Mackinac Island , MI : Mackinac Island State Park Commission, 1975.
Details of what was discovered in the site survey.
Thomas, Cyrus. Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains . Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1891.
The catalogue includes Michigan works.
Townsend, Earl C. Birdstones of the North American Indian; A Study of These Most Interesting Stone Forms, The Area of their Distribution, Their Cultural Provenience, Possible Uses, and Antiquity. Indianapolis, IN. n.p., 1959.
This book is written for collectors who see beauty in Birdstones , for those who speculate on the uses to which Birdstones were put, and for students of archaeology. There are many illustrations of Birdstones which include sites where they were collected, many of the sites are in Michigan .
Wahla, Edward J. Indian Projectile Points Found in Michigan. Clinton Valley Chapter of the Michigan Archaeological Society, 1967.
This book is intended as an aid in identifying some of the points found in Michigan.
Walthall, John A. and Thomas E. Emerson. Calumet and Fleur-de- lys : Archaeology of Indian and French Contact in the Midcontinent. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Istitution Press, 1992.
Focuses on historic Native American sites and archaeological evidence of native interaction with the French from the landing of Jean Nicollet in 1634 to the surrender of French America to the British in 1765.
Weston, Donald E. The Draper Park Site 20 SC 40 Port Huron, Michigan, 1974-1977 Excavations. Paper presented at the 55th Annual Meeting of the Central States Antrhopological Society, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March 29, 1975.
Draper Park Site is a small but intensively occupied Late Woodland fishing station located at the head of the St. Clair River in Michigan.
Whittlesey, Charles. Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1863.
Describes the mines with many illustrations of mines and tools.
Wright, H. E. "The Environment of Early Man in the Great Lakes Region." In Aspects of Upper Great Lakes Anthropology: Papers in Honor of Lloyd A. Wilford edited by Elden Johnson. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1974. 8-14.
The natural landscape provided the resources for early man and the climatic regime dictated his way of life. By developing various patterns of social organization, he gradually manipulated his environment.