Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience 1875-1928. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

A study of how policymakers sought to use the schoolhouse as an instrument for acculturating Indian youth to 'American' ways of thinking and living.

Bantin, Philip C. Guide to Catholic Indian Mission and School Records in Midwest Depositories. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University, 1984.

The guide includes Michigan missions and schools.

Burkey, Louis H. History of the Ottawas. Harbor Springs, MI: Michigan Indian Foundation, 1950.

Contains a history of the Holy Childhood School at Harbor Springs by Sister M. Cleomena.

Child, Brenda J. A Bitter Lesson: Native Americans and the Government Boarding School Experience, 1890-1940. Dissertation. University of Iowa, 1993.

Boarding school records and letters ultimately demonstrate the strengths of native family and tribal ties under duress. The strategy of policymakers and reformers in the United States to separate Indian children from the influences of home failed to elicit the kind of change they had imagined.

Connors, Paul G. Indian Tuition Waiver Program. Lansing, MI: Michigan Legislative Service Bureau, 2000.

Background of the program in Michigan as well as features of the program.

Erkins, Joseph D. Centennial of the Holy Childhood of Jesus Church and School, Harbor Springs, Michigan, 1829-1929. Harbor Springs, MI: 1929.

A history of the church and school.

Hagenbuch, Mark Odis. Richard Henry Pratt, the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, and United States Policies Related to American Indian Education 1879 to 1904. Dissertation. Pennsylvania State University, 1998.

Examines the influence of Richard Henry Pratt's assimilationist philosophies as they were practiced at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School toward federal government policies related to American Indian education.

Hamley, Jeffrey Louis. Cultural Genocide in the Classroom: A History of the Federal Boarding School Movement in American Indian Education. Dissertation. Harvard University, 1994.

Examines the history of federal boarding school education for American Indians from 1875 to 1920.

Information for the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomy Tribes Concerning the Education of Their Children. Ann Arbor, MI: Fort Meigs Treaty Committee, 1971.

University of Michigan tuition case includes the formal complaint filed in Washtenaw County Circuit Court.

A publication in honor of the 50th anniversary of Holy Childhood Indian School at Harbor Springs.

Kibble, John F. et al. "Examining Persistence in Native American College Students: Exit Interview Contributions." In Entering the 90's: The North American Experience: Proceedings of the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 27-28, 1989 edited by Thomas E. Schirer. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1991. 227-235.                                                            

This study examines the perspectives of 9 recent Lake Superior State University Native American completers concerning their undergraduate education.

Littlefield, Alice and Martha Knack. Native Americans and Wage Labor. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

Littlefield has written a chapter in this book on the Mt. Pleasant United States Industrial Indian school.

McDade, Jeffrey Robert. Social Control and the Native American: The Nineteenth Century Manual Labor Boarding School. Dissertation. Kansas State University, 1997.

McDade's research seeks to explain the establishment and diffusion of the manual labor boarding school in the early 19th century.

McLeod, Martha. "The Administration of Effective Educational Programs for Native American Students." In Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 16-17, 1987. edited by Thomas E. Shirer. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1988. 145-149.

McLeod is an administrator at Bay Mills Community College.

Martin, Larry and Jo Ann Morris. Indian Education Project. Mt. Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 1974.

An attempt was made to compile a large quantity of data relevant to Indian education in general, and the establishment of an all Indian controlled school in particular.

Miller, H.A. and Chas. J. Seeley, Compilers. Faces and Places Familiar. Mt. Pleasant, MI: Michigan Courier Press, 1906. This book includes a chapter on the United States Indian Industrial School in Mt. Pleasant.

Mt. Pleasant School for Indians. Mt. Pleasant, MI: 1913.

A history of the school with many photographs.

Nelson, Joseph R. Lady Unafraid. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1951.

Rebecca Jewel Francis, age 17, went as a missionary teacher to Keweenaw Bay in 1862. This is her story of her work there as she told it to her son.

Pingatore, Diana R. "Lessons My Students Have Taught Me: Teaching English in a Native American Classroom." Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 16-17, 1987 edited by Thomas E. Shirer. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1988. 137-144.                                                               

 Pingatore teaches at Bay Mills Community College.

Pingatore, Edith. History of the Mt. Pleasant Indian School, 1893-1934. n.p.,nd.         

A typed paper on the history of the school.

Pratt, Richard Henry. Battlefield and Classroom: Four Decades with the American Indian 1867-1904. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1964.

Memoirs of the man who played a major role in the founding of Indian boarding schools.

Pratt, Richard Henry. Indian Schools: Address Before the Ladies Missionary Society of Calvary M. E. Church, Washington, DC, April 6, [1915].

"My plan... is to civilize the Indian, get him into civilization."

Prucha, Francis Paul. Editor. Americanizing the American Indian: Writings of the 'Friends of the Indian' 1880-1900. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.

During the last two decades of the 19th century, American Indian policy was dominated by a small group of reformers, "Friends of the Indian," who wrote and spoke in favor of acculturating and assimilating the Indians. This is a sample of their writing. It includes their ideas on education.

Ratwik, Susan H. et al. "Sustaining Native American Achievement in Rural America." In Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 16-17, 1987 edited by Thomas E. Shirer. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1988. 113-120.

Study done in a rural northern Michigan school district.

Report of the Select Committee of the Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians and Others in North America. Boston, MA: John Wilson & Son, 1856.

Includes a chapter on 'Education of Indian Youth at Wesleyan Seminary, Albion, Michigan.'

School Days Remembered: The Mt. Pleasant Indian School Reunion. 1991.

Funded by the Michigan Humanities Counsel and the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe this video is a group interview with several graduates of the Mt. Pleasant Indian school about their school experiences.

Sobralske, Mary C. "Changing Attitudes of Native American Adolescents at a Health Promotion Camp." In Contemporary Native American Issues: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 16-17, 1987 edited by Thomas E. Schirer. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University, 1988.

Steel, Aldyth. "Andrew J. Blackbird: A Critique of Indian Education." In Entering the 90's: The North American Experience: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 27-28, 1989. edited by Thomas E. Shirer. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University, 1991. 197-206.

From his published work and private correspondence, one must conclude that Blackbird saw that "to be educated like the white man" was a defense against domination and a weapon of survival.

Stevenson, Sharon. Indian Education Project: An Abridgement. Mt. Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 1974.

A study of the feasibility of establishing an Indian Academy in Michigan.

United States Indian School. Annual Calendar 1917-1918. Mt. Pleasant, MI: 1917.

The calendar lists employees, the daily schedule, and special events at the school with many photographs.

Report of the Superintendent of Indian Schools, 1890. Washington, DC: GPO, 1891.

Annual report for the schools in the United States.

White, Elmer. Children of the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomie Tribes, Petitioners, vs Regents of the University of Michigan, Respondent: Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the Supreme Court of Michigan. 1982.

This is the case that decided there should be free tuition to Michigan colleges and universities for Native Americans because of past treaties.

Widder, Keith R. Battle for the Soul: Metis Children Encounter Evangelical Protestants at Mackinaw Mission 1823-1837.​ East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1999.

In 1823 William and Amanda Ferris operated a boarding school for Metis children on Mackinac Island, setting in motion an intense spiritual battle to win the souls and change the lives of the children, their parents, and all others living at Mackinac.


Carlisle Indian School Collection.

Records and photographs of Carlisle students who had some connection with the Mt. Pleasant Indian School. Sarah Williams Wausakaka, 1892, 1917; Frank Teeple 1900, 1907; Philip Gruet 1913; Mary Jane Silas, 1894; Henry Shawbush 1908, 1915; Julia Edwards 1894; Mary L. Jackson 1894, 1912; Daniel Jackson 1894, 1910; Veronica Holliday 1891, 1907; Minnie Yandall le Sieur 1894, 1911; Susie McDougall 1895, 1914; Samuel Gruet 1890, 1913; James Flannery 1895; Solomon Collins 1893, 1913; and Estelle (Stella) Bradley 1909, 1915.

Dain, Floyd.

Material relating to "Children of the Chippewa, Ottawa and Potawatomie vs the Regents of the University of Michigan. Trial 1971-1980, including briefs, transcripts, orders, exhibits, dispositions, Dain's sworn statement as an expert witness, and other legal documents and newspaper clippings relating to the case.

Erkins, Joseph.

Notes of Father Erkins concerning Harbor Springs, Michigan and the Holy Childhood Indian School there.

Friend, Margaret. Indian Mission; The History of the Holy Childhood School and Church, Harbor Springs, Michigan. CMU Term Paper. Undated. (Cannot be copied)

Isabella County Michigan Miscellaneous Collection. 2 boxes.

Contains documents of February 19 and May 28, 1934 covering the transfer of the former Mt. Pleasant Indian School to the State of Michigan.

Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 7 items.

Contains indentures on the sale of land in Isabella County, Michigan for an Indian School and boarding house.

Mount Pleasant Indian School Collection, 1865, 2003.

The collection consists mainly of photocopies of annual reports, newspaper clippings, journal articles, book excerpts, manuscripts and notes documenting various aspects of the history, buildings, grounds, staff and students of the school, the United States Indian school system, and Indian education in Mt. Pleasant.

Mount Pleasant Indian School Collection, 2002.

Photocopies of three lists created by the National Archives from their records. The lists are: "Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial School Students, 1900-1946"(partial listing); "Register of Pupils from Leelanau County, Mount Pleasant Indian School, 1914-1931,"with a note that it is not a complete list; and "Index of Student Case Files, 1912-1946 and 1893-1941"from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Mount Pleasant Indian School Newspaper Excerpt Collection.

An ongoing project to document all reference to the Mount Pleasant Indian School in the Mt. Pleasant newspapers. Currently complete through the mid-1920's.

Padgett, Ora. Thirty-two Years in the United States Indian Service.

Pages 36-41 describe Padgett's years as Superintendent of the United States Indian School in Mt. Pleasant (1924-1926); the students, their curriculum, sports, language, costs, funding, and farms.

Palowoda, Joeyann. Transcription of Superintendents Notes/ Mount Pleasant Indian School, 1892-1934. CMU Term Paper, 2004.

Rivard, Barbara. Holy Childhood Catholic Church and School. CMU Term Paper, 1970. (Cannot be copied)

Holy Childhood is in Harbor Springs, Michigan.

Sugars, Rachel. Mt. Pleasant, Michigan. 1920.

Handwritten report about the Mt. Pleasant community including the United States Indian School.

United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Superintendents' Annual Narrative and Statistical Reports From Field Jurisdiction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1907-1938. Washington, DC: National Archives. 1 reel of microfilm

Reports of the Mt. Pleasant Indian School, 1910-1933.

White, Elmer E. Children of the Chippewa, Ottawa and Potawatomy Tribes,, Petitioners, vs Regents of the University of Michigan, Respondent: Express Trial Brief and Exhibits B and C, 1978. 1 folder

Wood, Jennifer. Crossing Cultures: Native American Employees at the Mt. Pleasant Indian Industrial School. CMU Term Paper, 2003.


Bald, F. Clever. "Scholarships for Indians in the University of Michigan." Michigan History 38 (1954): 410-411.

Bald makes note of these scholarships and the reasons for their existence.

Elizondo, Juan B. "House Panel Restores Indian Tuition Waiver for College, Lansing, Michigan." News From Indian Country 9 (Late April 1995): 3.

News from the Michigan Legislature about the Indian Tuition Program.

"Cree Who Opened Michigan Education Doors Largely Unknown." News From Indian Country 9 (Late January 1995): 8

Fred Boyd paved the way for students of American Indian descent to attend Michigan colleges and universities tuition free.

Edwards, Elizabeth. "To Educate the Indian." Traverse Northern Michigan's Magazine 21 (January 2002): 40-45.

The Mount Pleasant Indian school was a federal facility where thousands of Michigan's Native American children lived away from their families during the early decades of the 1900's.

"Education Priority for Michigan Indian Commission." News From Indian Country 4 (August 1989): 33.

Tom Topash, new chairman for the Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs, has identified education as one of the agency's top priorities.

Francis, Shirley. "Native American Conferences in Traverse City." Indian Talk 1 (March 1974): 10-15.

Report on the Native American Education conference.

Francis, Shirley. "Status Report: The Fort Meigs Treaty Lawsuit." Indian Talk 1 (February 1974): 1-5.

University of Michigan and Indian Educational Trust lands report.

The school at Rensselaer, Indiana was established in order to train older and better "scholars" in a five year program so they could be returned to reservations to teach others the way of the Catholic white man.

Ludlow, Helen W. "Indian Education at Hampton and Carlisle." Harpers New Monthly Magazine LXII (April 1881): 659-675.

This article includes pictures, information about the schools, their classes, and the theory behind the education they provide.

Molin, Paulette Fairbanks. " 'Training the Hand, the Head, and the Heart': Indian Education at Hampton Institute." Minnesota History 51 (Fall 1988): 82-98.

Molin concentrates on the Chippewa students at Hampton in this article.

"Northern Michigan U to offer Native American Studies Minor." News From Indian Country 6 (Late August 1992): 26.

Northern Michigan University, which has the largest Native American enrollment among state colleges and universities in Michigan, will be offering its first academic program in Native Studies this fall.

Parsons, Joseph A. Jr. "Civilizing the Indians of the Old Northwest 1800-1810." Indiana Magazine of History LVI (September 1960): 195-216.

A history of the effort to establish a program for educating and civilizing the Indians.

Rubenstein, Bruce. "To Destroy a Culture: Indian Education in Michigan, 1855-1900." Michigan History 60 (Summer 1976): 137-160.

Education of Indians from missionaries to boarding schools.

"School Seeks to Instill Pride Among Native Students." News From Indian Country​ 9 (Mid February 1995): 5.

Medicine Bear Academy in Detroit offers classes in Native American dance, legends and jewelry making in addition to a regular curriculum.