Allen, Hayward. The Traveler's Guide to Native America: Great Lakes Region. Minocqua: WI: Northword Press, 1992.

As you travel through the Great Lakes states you'll arrive at a profound understanding of Native America's role in American art, culture, history and religion.

Always a People: Oral Histories of Contemporary Woodland Indians. Collected by Rita Kohn. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997.

The central issue of the book deals with uncovering and making public the vibrancy of the Woodland people as a distinctive, related, cohesive Native American culture with not only an ancient and important heritage but also an equally significant tenacity to endure.

Angel, Michael R. Discordant Voices, Conflicting Visions: Ojibwa and Euro-American Perspectives on the Midewiwin. Dissertation. University of Manitoba, 1997.

This study demonstrates how the conflicting visions of Anishinaabe practitioners and Euro-American interpreters have resulted in wildly divergent views of the same institution.

Armour, David A. The Women of Michilimackinac. Mackinac History Leaflet no. 10, 1967. (Fitting Mss Box 3)

An account of the various groups of women and domestic life at Mackinac in the eighteenth century.

Bachman, Ronet. Death and Violence on the Reservation: Homicide, Family Violence, and Suicide in American Indian Populations. NY: Auburn House, 1992.

An overview of American Indians, with a focus on violence and its causes.

Beach, W.W. Editor. The Indian Miscellany; Containing Papers on the History, Antiquities, Arts, Languages, Religions, Traditions and Superstitions of the American Aborgines. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1877.

The purpose of this publication is to preserve interesting fugitive papers concerning the aborigines of America. Papers include: "Indian Affairs Around Detroit in 1706" by Charles Whittesey; "A Fortnight Among the Chippewa of Lake Superior" by J.J. Ducatel; "The Early Jesuit Missionaries of the Northwest Territory" by W.B.O. Peabody; and "Indian Migrations" by Lewis H. Morgan.

Bieder, Robert. Science Encounters the Indian, 1820-1880: The Early Years of American Ethnology. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

Includes: "Henry Rowe Schoolcraft and the Ethnologist as Historian and Moralist."

Bigony, Beatrice. Migrants to the Cities: A Study of the Socioeconomic Status of Native Americans in Detroit and Michigan. Thesis. University of Michigan, 1974.

Investigation of the breadth and depth of the specific socio-economic conditions of Native American urban migrants to the metropolitan area of Detroit.

Boatman, John F. My Elders Taught Me: Aspects of Western Great Lake American Indian Philosophy. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1992.

Boatman examines various aspects of a selection of Great Lakes American Indian philosophical traditions and beliefs.

Branstner, Susan Margaret. Decision-making Processes in a Culture Contact Context: The Case of the Tionontate Huron of the Upper Great Lakes. Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1991.

This study focuses on the problem of a complex equalitarian culture group's decision-making.

Branstner, Susan M. "Decision-making in a Culture Contact Context: An Historical and Archaeological Perspective of the Tionontate Huron of St. Ignace, Michigan." In Entering the 90's: The North American Experience: Proceedings From the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 27-28, 1989. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1991. 40-57.

The goal of this study is to develop a preliminary model within which to examine decision-making processes of complex egalitarian culture systems, in a culture contact context.

Bushnell, David I. Ojibway Habitations and Other Structures. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Annual Report, 1917. 609-617.

Bushnell concluded that dome-shaped wigwams predominated.

Cantor, George. North American Indian Landmarks: A Traveler's Guide. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press, 1993.

Contains information about Michigan landmarks.

Catlin, George. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians. London: Tilt and Bogue, 1842.

In volume two of this work, there is information about the Chippewa Indians.

Chamberlain, Alexander Francis. Wisdom of the North American Indian in Speech and Legend.​ Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 1913.

Cites and discusses 'wise words of the Red race.

Chaput, Donald. Michigan Indians: A Way of Life Changes. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 1970.

Chaput describes the gradual changes in the homes, games, clothes, transportation, weapons, handicrafts, foods, and religion of the Indians in Michigan after the arrival of the white man.

Chute, Janet E. "Ojibwa Leadership During the Fur Trade Era at Sault Ste. Marie." In New Faces of the Fur Trade, Selected Papers of the 7th North American Fur Trade Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1995 edited by Jo-Anne Fiske, Susan Sleeper-Smith and William Wicken. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State Unversity Press, 1995. 153-174.

Copway,George. Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh. Running Sketches of Men and Places, in England, France, Germany, Belgium, and Scotland. NY: J.C. Riker, 1851.

Account of a trip Copway took to Europe.

Copway, George. The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation. London: Charles Gilpin, 1850.

Indian history written by an Ojibway. Includes play and exercise, wars, stories, language and writing, government, and religious belief.

Culin, Stewart. "Games of the North American Indians." Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1903. Washington, DC: GPO, 1907. 3-846.

"Mr. Culin's studies not only afford an understanding of the technology of the games and their distribution, as well as their bearing on the history of the tribes, but they contribute to an appreciation of native modes of thought and of the motives and impulses that underlie the conduct of people generally."

Cyr, Kathy Ann S. Dress of the Chippewa (Ojibwa) Indians: An Analysis of Change from 1640-1940. Thesis. Michigan State University, 1978.

A survey of the articles of dress and ornament worn by Chippewa Indians was undertaken to determine when changes occurred in their dress and, if possible, to discover what those changes were and to relate them to cultural influences.

Daniziger, Edmund J. Survival and Regeneration: Detroit's American Indian Community. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1991.

Through hundreds of interviews and the examination of numerous historical documents, Danziger has captured the heritage of Detroit's colorful Indian community.

Densmore, Francis. Chippewa Customs. Washington, DC: GPO, 1929.

Customs examined include dwellings, clothing, food, treatment of the sick, health measures, life cycle, dreams, Midewiwin, games, etc.

Densmore, Francis. A Study of Some Michigan Indians. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1949.

Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, Bay Mills Indian Community, Hannahville, Isabella, and Beaver Island communities are included.

Densmore, Francis. Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians. Washington, DC: GPO, 1928.

The varied uses of plants by the Chippewas indicate the large extent to which they understood and utilized the natural resources of their environment.

Devens, Carol. Countering Colonization: Native American Women and Great Lakes Missions, 1630-1900. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992.

Well-documented missionary history of Native American women from the time of the early Jesuit missionaries to the late nineteenth century. The Ojibwa, Cree, and Montagnis-Naskapi women actively shaped the encounter between Native American and white civilizations.

Dewdney, Selwyn H. The Sacred Scrolls of the Southern Ojibway. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1975.

Religion of the Ojibway Indians.

Diedrich, Mark. Compiler. Ojibway Oratory: Great Moments in the Recorded Speech of the Chippewa, 1695-1889. Rochester, MN: Coyote Books, 1990.

Contents of speeches, speaker, date are included here.

Dobson, Pamela J. Editor. The Tree That Never Dies: Oral History of the Michigan Indians. Grand Rapids, MI: Grand Rapids Public Library, 1978.

All materials used in compiling this book were taken from taped interviews with Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Indians of Michigan.

Dorson, Richard M. Bloodstoppers and Bearwalkers: Folk Traditions of the Upper Peninsula. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1952.

Chippewa and Potawatomi Indians tell their heroic versions of the wars with the white men and the adventures of Winabijou.

Eagle/Walking Turtle. Indian America: A Traveler's Companion. Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Publications, 1991.

Tells the traveler how and where to find over 350 Indian tribes in the United States, where visitors are encouraged, what ceremonies, arts and crafts, and historical sites are available.

Edwards, Everett E. and Wayne D. Rasmussen. A Bibliography of the Agriculture of the American Indians. Washington, DC: GPO, 1942.

Bibliography of books and articles on the agriculture of the Native Americans.

Erdrich, Louise. Books and Islands in Ojibwe Country. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2003.

Account of a trip through the lakes and islands of Southern Ontario and the Great Lakes area.

Fitting, James E. "Patterns of Acculturaltion at the Straits of Mackinac." In Cultural Change and Continuity. NY: Academic Press, 1976. 321-334. (Fitting Mss Box 4)

The artifacts taken from the ground in the Straits of Mackinac are not only a part of a regional story – they show how a small area was incorporated into a worldwide economic system on the eve of the industrial revolution.

Foreman, Carolyn Thomas. Indians Abroad 1493-1938. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1943.

Includes: "From Michigan to Rome" about William Blackbird and Peter Jones, and "Caitlin and the Ojibways" 6 men, 2 women, and 1 one girl of the Ojibway nation who toured Europe with Caitlin.

Frazer, Jean. Kah-Wam-Da-Meh = We See Each Other. Grand Ledge, MI: H.E. Cameron Memorial Foundation, 1989.

Presents a readable and factual, but not exhaustive, summary of the political, social, and cultures pressures with which Michigan Indians had to contend, and what happened to them in the process.

Furtaw, Julia C. Editor. Native American Information Directory. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1993.

A guide to organizations, agencies, institutions, programs, publications, services and other resources concerned with the Indigenous peoples of the United States and Canada.

Gattuso, John. Editor. Native American: Insight Guides. Singapore: APA Publications, 1992.

"This is a cultural journey, a passage of discovery into American Indian history, cultures and communities."

Genser, Wallace Vincent. 'A Rigid Government Over Ourselves': Transformation in Ethnic, Gender, and Race Consciousness on the Northern Borderlands, Michigan, 1805-1865. Dissertation. University of Michigan, 1998.

Includes a chapter, "This Country Belongs to Us: Native Americans'Quest for Cultural Survival."

Grim, John. The Shaman: Patterns of Siberian and Ojibway Healing. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983.

Grim's book explores the basic pattern of the relationship between the shaman's activity and the belief systems and social activities of the surrounding tribal peoples.

Haines, Elijah M. The American Indian: The Whole Subject Complete in One Volume. Chicago, IL: Mas-Sin-Na-Gan Company, 1888.

An encyclopedia on the subject of the American Indian. Included information about the secret society called Order of the Red Men.

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Ojibwa Ontology, Behavior, and World View." In Culture in History. NY: Columbia University Press, 1960. 19-52. (Fitting Mss Box 5)

Social relations between human beings and other than humans are of cardinal significance in understanding the Ojibwa world.

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Ojibwa Personality and Acculturation." In Beyond the Frontier, Social Processes and Cultural Change edited by Paul Bohannan and Fred Plog. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press, 1967. 227-237.

Harrison, Julia. " 'He Heard Something Laugh': Otter Imagery in the Medewiwin." In Great Lakes Indian Art edited by David W. Penney. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1989. 82-92.

"The otter as used in the Midewiwin was one attempt to structure and retain the ideology of the Ojibwa ancestors in order to confirm the continued existence of this Native American group."

Heckewelder, John G.E. History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations: Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States. New and Revised Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1876.

Heckewelder says, "What I have written, concerning their character, their customs, manners and usages, is from personal knowledge, and from such other information as may be relied on."

Hickerson, Harold. The Chippewa and Their Neighbors: A Study in Ethnohistory. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.

This book illustrates the use of ethnohistoric methods to describe cultural organization and to analyze factors of cultural change among the Chippewa at various periods in their history.

Hilger, Inez. Chippewa Child Life and Its Cultural Background. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1951.

The purpose of this study is to record the customs and beliefs of the primitive Chippewa Indians of the United States and evidenced in the development and training of the child.

Hinsdale, W.B. The First People of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: George Wahr, 1930.

This is an attempt to set forth some characteristic Indian social traits.

Hirschfelder, Arlene and Paulette Molin. The Encyclopedia of Native American Religions. NY: Facts on File, 1992.

Includes the Native Americans of the Great Lakes.

Hirschfelder, Arlene and Martha Kreipe de Montano. The Native American Almanac: A Portrait of Native America Today. NY: Prentice Hall, 1993.

This book aims to give the reader not only information, but a Native American perception of Indian country and the people who inhabit it today. Includes Treaty Fishing Rights in the Great Lakes among many other topics.

Holmes, W.H. Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1919.

This is meant as a reference work, the principal purpose of which is to assemble and present the antiquities of the continent in such a manner and order as to make them readily available to present a comprehensive view of the evolution of culture among men. It includes the Great Lakes region.

Ilko, John and Delores M. Bainbridge. The "Little People" of the Ojibwa Nation: An Historical Perspective. Grawn, MI: Roundsky Press, 1996.

The Anishinabeg have historically believed in an entity often called the Little People or Maymaygwayski. This research deals primarily with a historical perspective of oral traditions.

Jackson, Deborah Davis. Our Elders Lived It: American Indian Identity in the City. DeKalb, IL: Illinois University Press, 2002.

This book is the result of extensive fieldwork in an Upper Great Lakes mid-sized city, where life has been complicated by economic misfortune and social deprivation. The Indian community speaks for itself through interviews and personal narration.

Jenks, Albert Ernest. The Wild Rice Gatherers of the Upper Lakes: A Study in American Primitive Economics. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1900. 1013-1160.

"Wild rice gathering is a well-developed industry, playing an important role in the ceremonial and ritualistic life of the tribes as well as in their domestic economy."

Johnston, Basil. The Manitous: The Spiritual World of the Ojibway. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2001.

Johnston explains some aspect of Ojibway religion.

Josephy, Alvin M. The Indian Heritage of America. NY: Knopf, 1968.

Josephy presents the history, the archeology and the ethnology – including origins and languages- of all the major Indian cultures from Alaska to Patagonia, including the Great Lakes area.

Kegg, Maude. Portage Lake: Memories of an Ojibwe Childhood. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1991.

A Minnesota woman's Ojibwe childhood. She was born in 1904.

Kelton, Dwight H. Indian Names of Places Near the Great Lakes. Detroit, MI: 1889.

Lists names and meanings.

Kubiak, William J. Great Lakes Indians; A Pictorial Guide. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1970.

The author has attempted to present the Great Lakes Indian as he actually dressed, hunted, ate, and fought.

Landes, Ruth. Ojibwa Religion and the Midewiwin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.

Describes the religious society known as the Midewiwin.

Landes, Ruth. The Ojibwa Woman. NY: Columbia University Press, 1938.

An ethnological field study of social behavior. It is the result of seven months work in the field with close observation of village and tribal life, and a large collection of life histories of women as told by a native woman.

Landes, Ruth. The Prairie Potawatomi: Tradition and Ritual in the Twentieth Century. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970.

Descended from a once numerous eastern woodlands tribe, the Prairie Potawatomi of 1935-36 inhabited a reservation in Kansas.

Lindquist, G.E.E. The Red Man in the United States: An Intimate Study of the Social, Economic, and Religious Life of the American Indian. NY: George H. Doran, 1928.

This survey has attempted to collect all the data available concerning social, economic, religious and educational conditions among the Indians scattered through the United States. Includes a section on the Great Lakes Indians.

McClurken, James M. Gah-Bach-Jhagwah-Buk: The Way it Happened: A Visual Culture History of the Little Traverse Band of Odawa. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Museum, 1991.

Many photographs, with text.

McClurken, James M. We Wish to be Civilized: Ottawa-American Political Contests on the Michigan Frontier. Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1988.

This ethnohistorical work examines the process of Ottawa adaption from a world system perspective.

Morris, Gwenyth E. Gifted Women Light Around You: Ojibwa Women and Their Stories.
Dissertation. University of Minnesota, 1992.

Part one is a reconstruction of aspects of Ojibwa family life at the end of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century, at a time when the Ojibwa were actively interacting with Europeans in the fur trade. Part two is a picture of Ojibwa life in Minnesota at a time when the women told their stories, 1986. Part three is the stories of their lives told by 9 Ojibwa women in 1986.

Morrison, Eliza. A Little History of My Forest Life: An Indian-White Autobiography. Edited by Victoria Brehm. Tustin, MI: Ladyslipper Press, 2002.

Written in 1894 this autobiography tells the story of a Chippewa-Scots-French woman from Madeline Island in Lake Superior. Metis culture comes alive as Native American lore blends with homesteading stories, giving a 19th century woman's view of the Wisconsin Death March, the Dream Dance, Indian marriage and burial customs, making maple sugar, and the Chippewa-Dakota war.

Murdock, George Peter. Ethnographic Bibliography of North America. 3rd ed. New Haven, CN: Human Relations Area Files, 1960.

Bibliographic references on primitive and historical cultures.

Nelson, George. "The Orders of the Dreamed": George Nelson on Cree and Northern Ojibwa Religion and Myth, 1823. Edited by Jennifer Sitt Brown and Robert Brightman. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1988.

In 1823 Nelson was serving as a Hudson's Bay Company clerk in charge of the post at Lac la Ronge in northeastern Kaskatchewan. During that time he kept a letter-journal in which he related his observations of Cree and northern Ojibwa religion and myth. That document is reproduced in this book.

Non-Medicinal Uses of Plants by the Great Lakes Ojibwe. Odanah, WI: Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Commission, 200? Computer optical disc

Consists of a database of native Great Lakes region plants and their non-medicinal traditional uses by the Ojibwa people. Also includes image file, bibliography, magazine articles, transcripts of relevant discussions with elders, and other supplemental material.

Otto, Simon. Grandmother Moon Speaks. Lansing, MI: Thunder Bay Press, 1995.

Illustrated by James McCann. This book combines essays about the author's personal experience, Indian history, wise discussions about the important elements of life as a Native American in modern America, and beautiful tales of Indian legends about the very beginning of time.

Paquin, Ron and Robert Doherty. Not First in Nobody's Heart: The Life Story of a Contemporary Chippewa. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1992.

Paquin is a Chippewa who lives in St. Ignace, Michigan. His book is a self portrait of how he overcame the curses of a horror-filled childhood and cruel institutions to break from his past and struggle toward a better life.

Paredes, J. Anthony. Editor. Anishinabe: Six Studies of Modern Chippewa. Tallahassee, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1980.

Studies of Minnesota Chippewa present a balanced view of both the distinctive and nondescriptive characteristics of modern Chippewa people.

Pflug, Melissa Ann. Contemporary Revitalization Movements Among the Northern Great Lakes Ottawa (Odawa) Indian: Motives and Accomplishments. Dissertation. Wayne State University, 1990.

The primary research objective has been to illustrate the context of two current socio-religious movements among the Odawa Indians in Emmet County, Michigan.

Pflug, Melissa A. Ritual and Myth in Odawa Revitalization: Reclaiming a Sovereign Place. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.

This interdisciplinary account of a contemporary Great Lakes Algonkian community explores how the ethical system underlying Odawa myth and ritual sustains traditionalists' efforts to confront the legal and social issues relating to tribal identity.

Preserving Our Past: The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: The Tribe, 1988.

Five videotapes. 1) Natural Healing, 2) The Stories, 3) Family, 4) Tribal Unity, and 5) Finding Our Way.

Quier, E. G. Historical and Mythological Traditions of the Algonquins; With a Translation of the "Walum-Olun," or Bark Record of the Lini-Lenape. Paper read before the New York Historical Society. n.p., n.d.

Quier collected from all available sources information as seemed authentic relating to the religious ceremonies and conceptions, mythological and historical traditions of the aborigines in all parts of the continent.

Ritterbush, Lauren Walker. Cultural Change and Continuity: Ethnohistoric Anaysis of Ojibwa and Ottawa Adjustment to the Prairies. Dissertation. University of Kansas, 1990.

Reconstruction and comparison of subsistence patterns between traditional forest-lake Ojibwa and the prairie Ojibwa and Ottawa indicate that major adaptive changes were not associated with their migration.

Ritzenthaler, Robert E. and Pat Ritzenthaler. The Woodland Indians of the Western Great Lakes. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press, 1970.
An overview of the Indians in the Great Lakes area.

Rosenstiel, Annette. Red and White: Indian Views of the White Man, 1492-1983. NY: Universe Books, 1983.

This book brings together American Indian statements, recorded in documents, letters, books, and speeches of their view of the white man.

Teeple, Bucko. Kitchigamic Anishinabeg: The People of the Great Lakes. Photography by Alan R. Kamuda. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, 1994.

Tribal history and a 20th century look at the People of the Great Lakes. There are 53 portraits of Native Americans in dance regalia at the 1994 Sault Ste. Marie pow-wow.

Tooker, Elizabeth. An Ethnography of the Huron Indians, 1615-1649. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1964.

In the first half of the 17th century, the Iroquoian speaking Huron lived in an area at the southern end of Georgian Bay in the present province of Ontario, Canada. It was there the French visited them, some recording what they saw and thus preserving much of what we know of the Huron culture – for in 1649 the Huron were driven from their homeland by the Iroquois and dispersed.

Trigger, Bruce G. The Children of Aataentsci I: A History of the Huron People to 1660. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1976. 2 volumes

A full scale ethnohistory of the Huron Indian Confederacy and a study of the causes of its collapse under the impact of the Iroquois attacks of 1649.

Vanderwerth, W.C. Indian Oratory: Famous Speeches by Noted Indian Chiefs. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.

Includes speeches by Pontiac and Tecumseh.

Vennum, Thomas J. American Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.

Native American history of the game with rules, equipment, techniques, regional differences and legendary underpinnings. Many illustrations.

Vennum, Thomas. Wild Rice and the Ojibwa People. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1988.

Examines in detail the place of wild rice in Ojibwa culture.

Vogel, Virgil J. American Indian Medicine. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.

Discusses Indian theories of disease and methods of combating disease. Includes Great Lakes area.

Vogel, Virgil J. Indian Names in Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1986.

Focus is on Native American place names in Michigan. The great majority of these are the names of tribes and notable Indians.

Wahla, Ed. J. Everyday Life of the Protohistoric Michigan Indians. Detroit, MI: Aboriginal Research Club, 1961.

Compiled from original sources to provide a short and condensed account of some former Indian ways and customs in the early days of white contact.

Walker, Louise J. Woodland Wigwams. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale School Supply, 1963.

Walker has depicted the Indians' home life, their philosophical and religious beliefs, their moral code, their feasts and festivals, their burial customs, their contributions to our culture, and their present status, plus fifteen legends.

White Wolf, Chief. Reminiscences by Chief White Wolf of the Chippewa. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Sault News, 1957.

This piece is copyrighted by Ralph E. McCarry. "To put before you in my own way, the philosophy and culture pattern of the Ojibwa tribe in the Great Lakes area."

Wilder, Keith. Together as Family: Metis Children's Response to Evangelical Protestants at the Mackinaw Mission, 1823-1837. Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1989.

This story shows that the metis must not be viewed as tribal Indians, but as a distinct group of people.

Wilbur, C. Keith. The Woodland Indians: An Illustrated Account of the Life Styles of America's First Inhabitants. Old Saybrook, CN: The Globe Pequot Press, 1995.

Focuses mainly on the period from 1000 B.C. to 1500 A.D. Text and illustrations combine to tell of the Indians'leadership, religious beliefs, seasonal celebrations, agriculture, and warfare.

Williams, Thomas Benton. The Soul of the Red Man. n.p.: Thomas Benton Williams, 1937.

Speeches of Great Indian orators of all tribes.

Wright, Robert C. Indian Masonry.​ Ann Arbor, MI: Tyler Publishing Co., 1907.

Includes Ojibwa Grand Medicine Lodge.


Peterson, Leona. Chippewa Religion. CMU Term Paper, 1964. (Cannot be copied)

Stephens, Genevieve. Chippewa Traditional Religion: 1800-1850. CMU Term Paper, undated. (Cannot be copied)


Aller, Wilma F. "Aboriginal Food Utilization of Vegetation by the Indians of the Great Lakes Region as Recorded in the Jesuit Relations." Wisconsin Archeologist 35 (September 1954): 59-73.

Discusses the vegetation probably evident at the time of Jesuit activity and points out the Indian uses of the botanical environment.

Armour, David A. "An Indian View of Michigan History." Michigan History 67 (May/June 1983): 17-22.

Speech of Okactau, Ottawa Chief, July 7, 1818.

Baerreis, David A. "Chieftainship Among the Potawatomi: An Exploration of Ethnohistoric Methodology." Wisconsin Archeology 54 (September 1973): 114-143.

The ethnohistoric evidence cited leaves no doubt as to the recognition of two types of chiefs.

Bailey, Bea. "Ottawa Elders Praised." Indian Talk 3 (January 1976): 14-15.

The work of the Oral Indian History Project.

Baird, Elizabeth Therese. "Reminiscences of Early Days at Mackinac." Wisconsin Historical Collections 14 (1898): 17-64.

Baird recounts much of interest about the Native Americans at Mackinac.

Baird, Mrs. H. S. "Indian Customs and Early Recollections." Wisconsin Historical Collections 9 (1880-1882): 303-326.

Granddaughter of Madame Therese Schindler of Mackinaw. Her account includes Indian customs, Legend of the Red Swan, reminiscences of Mackinaw and Green Bay and the Indian massacre at Prairie du Chein.

Barndow, Victor. "A Chippewa Mide Pirest's Description of the Medicine Dance." Wisconsin Archeologist 41 (December 1960): 77-97.

An informant at Lac du Flambeau described the preparations a person makes to join the Midewiwin, as well as ritual activities that take place during the Medicine Dance.

Bauman, Robert F. "The Ottawa Trading System." Northwest Ohio Quarterly 36 (Summer 1964): 146-167; 36 (Spring 1964): 60-78.

The Ottawas were the masters of trade in the Great Lakes area. Bauman describes their activities.

Bowen, Robert N. "Plants and the American Indian." Dearborn Historian 11 (Spring 1971): 43-54.

Plant use in the Great Lakes area.

Classen, Mikel B. "Drums of the Earth." Above the Bridge 9 (Fall 1993): 36-37.

A brief description of pow-wows.

Crippen, Jim. "Indian Pasties." Indian Talk 2 (August 1975): 32.

A recipe.

"Customs of Ojibwa Indian Burial of the Lake Superior Region Before 1850." Above the Bridge 9 (Fall 1993): 23-24.

Courtesy of the Baraga Tourism Council.

Densmore, Frances. "Dakota and Ojibwe People in Minnesota." Roots 5 (Winter/Spring 1977): 2-55.

Chapters on homes, clothing, food, travel, industries, picture writing and children.

Devens, Carol Green. "Anishnabek Childhood: Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries." Michigan Historical Review 20 (Fall 1994): 184-197.

The Anishnabek managed to continue many older practices and lifeways, teaching their children older customs, rituals, lessons and games.

Dickson, Kenneth R. "Tradition of the Ottaway Indians by Benjamin Franklin Stickney." Northwest Ohio Quarterly 71 (Summer/Autumn 1999): 62-80.

While researching Stickney's life the author discovered this manuscript, written by Stickney in 1825, documenting the history and culture of Ottawa.

Dustin, Fred. "Indian Pipes Collected in Saginaw County, Michigan." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 14 (1931): 35-45. (Fitting Mss Box 4)

Describes the various pipes collected by Dustin.

Erickson, Sue. "Powwow: The Circle of Life." Lake Superior Magazine (August/September 1995): 22-27.

Native Americans invite the public to celebrate life and the bounty of the region.

Ford, R. Clyde. "The Indian as an Orator." Michigan History 6 (1922): 515-535.

Speeches of Pontiac, Little Elk, Black Hawk, Logan, Red Jacket.

Francis, Shirley. "The Ojibwa Religion: A Way of Life." Indian Talk 1 (November 1973): 4-5.

Ceremonies at the Clarence Gillespies' home, Branch, Michigan.

Garrad, Charles. "Beaver Island and the Indian God." Journal of Beaver Island History 3 (1988): 13-18.

Garrad, Charles. "Some Notes on the Ojibwa (Chippewa) of the Beaver Islands." Journal of Beaver Island History 3 (1988): 7-11.

Gilmore, Melvin R. "Some Chippewa Uses of Plants." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 17 (1932): 119-143. (Fitting Mss Box 5)

The information in this paper was obtained by interviews with Chippewas in Pinconning and Lapeer Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario.

Gringhus, Dirk. "Indian Costume at Mackinac: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century." Mackinac History 2 (1972): 12 pages (Fitting Mss Box 5)

Leaflet describes and illustrates the costumes of Mackinac Indians from the time of the earliest European contact until 1800.

Hilger, Sister M. Inez. "Naming a Chippewa Indian Child." Wisconsin Archeologist 39 (June 1958): 120-126.

An account given to Hilger by John E. Kingfisher.

Hinsdale, Wilbert B. "Indian Corn Culture in Michigan." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 7 (1927): 31-49.

Michigan Indians were dependent on hunting and on agriculture.

Hinsdale, W. B. "Religion at the Algonquian Level." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 5 (1925): 15-27.

Changes in religious conceptions may be traced through animatism, anthropomorphism, polytheism to monotheism.

Holman, Margaret and Kathryn C. Egan. "Maple Sugaring." Michigan History 74 (March/April 1990): 30-35.

Maple sugaring has played a valuable role in the Native American lifestyle.

Huntwork, Jane Ettawageshik. "Indian Medicinal Herbs." Michigan-Out-Of-Doors 32 (April 1978): 34-35.

Various herbs used by the Ottawa Indians for their medicinal value.

"Indian Games." Wisconsin Then and Now 11 (March 1965): 1-3.

Lacrosse, Bowl and Dice, Snow Snake, and Cat's Cradle are discussed.

"Indian Signatures." Family Trails 2 (Fall 1969): 49-50.

1809 names and marks.

Kewley, M. J. "Sacred Food: The Chippewa Ricing Tradition." Lake Superior Magazine (September 1993): 26-31.

Beyond the mere task of harvesting the wild rice, Lake Superior Chippewa perform an act of faith as they gather the rice.

Kilmer, Diane G. H. "Traditional Native American Ideals Woven into Modern Life of Young Couple." Mt. Pleasant Magazine (February 2002): 22-25.

Elizabeth and Jefferson Bellew are living out ancient Native American values in Mt. Pleasant 2002 society.

Krenble, Carol. "The Huron Feast of the Dead." Michigan Sportsman 5 (November/December 1980): 48-49.

The Feast of the Dead is described as it was held in 1636 and observed by de Breuf.

Lalemont, Jerome. "The Festival of the Dead." Michigan Archaeologist 4 (July 1958): 35-39.

Account of the Jesuit Lalemont who was present at the ceremony in 1642.

Liles, Joe. "A Traditional Wedding." News From Indian Country 11 (Mid March 1997): 3B+.

Midewin wedding ceremony.

McKee, Russell. "Brown Sugars from Red Men." Michigan Conservation 28 (March/April 1959): 10-15.

Accounts indicate that the Indians of the lake states knew and used maple syrup a long time before the first white explorers came to America.

McKee, Russell. "Out of the Ages, the Canoe." Michigan Conservation 28 (July/August 1959): 10-15.

History of the canoe.

Mason, Philip P. "Michigan's First Outdoorsmen." Michigan Conservation 39 (March/April 1960): 40-45; 39 (May/June 1960): 26-29.

Describes the hunting, fishing and agriculture of Michigan's Indian tribes.

Mendoza, Kathy. "Ghost Suppers." Torch Magazine (Autumn 1986): 26.

Native Americans hold annual Ghost Suppers to honor their departed relatives.

Mertz, Connie. "Deer Hunt - Indian Style." Michigan Hunting and Fishing 11 (September 1993): 118-122.

There is much to learn from those early hunters.

Otto, J. Foster. "Punishment Among Indians." Michigan Archaeologist 3 (March 15, 1957): 7-8.

Murder trial near Detroit as related to him by Otto's father.

Peters, Bernard C. "Moon Names of the Presque Isle (Marquette) Band of Chippewa." Above the Bridge 7 (Fall 1991): 25-28.

Indians kept track of the months by observing the moon. This article examines the names given to the moons (months) by the Chippewa Indians who lived in the Marquette area.

Peters, Bernard C. "Wa-Bish-Kee-Pe-Nas and the Chippewa Reverence for Copper." Michigan Historical Review 15 (Fall 1989): 47-60.

Investigates the religious ideas about copper held by the Native Americans living on the shores of Lake Superior.

Quimby, George I. "Some Notes on Kinship and Kinship Terminology Among the Potawatomi of the Huron." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 25 (1939): 553-563. (Fitting Mss Box 7)

The kinship data presented in this paper was obtained from five informants among the Huron band of the Potawatomi in Calhoun County, Michigan.

Ritzenthaler, Robert. "The Chippewa Indian Method of Securing and Tanning Deerskin." Wisconsin Archeologist 28 (March 1947): 6-13.

Discusses the methods used.

Rohrl, Vivian J. "The Drum Societies in a Southwestern Chippewa Community." Wisconsin Archeologist 49 (September 1968): 131-137.

Drum dances at Mille Lacs Lake, Minnesota in 1963-1964.

Salzer, Robert J. "Bear-Walking: A Shamanistic Phenomenon Among the Potawatomi Indians in Wisconsin." Wisconsin Archeologist 53 (September 1972): 110-146.

The description of bear walking contained in this report represents the analysis of data from three informants.

Smith, Beverly P. "The Use of Animals at the 17th Century Mission of St. Ignace." Michigan Archaeologist 31 (December 1985): 97-122.

Relationship between animals and the Indian people who relied on them at the Mission of St. Ignace.

Smith, Jeff. "Peshawbestown: An Indian Community Striking a Balance." Traverse the Magazine 1 (August 1981): 16-19.

Peshawbestown is a small Indian community on the Leelanau Peninsula. It's Ottawa/Chippewa residents feel that keeping their Indian traditions alive while succeeding in the dominant culture which surrounds them is crucial to their survival.

Strawser, Patsy. "Native American Revives Ancient Art of Healing." Eberly's Michigan Journal (March/April 1983): 6-7+.

Bill Nelson didn't learn he was Indian until he was grown. The knowledge set him on a path that has led him to the preservation of the timeless traditions of his heritage.

Thomas, Mathew M. "The Archaeology of Great Lakes Native American Maple Sugar Production in the Reservation Era." Wisconsin Archeologist 82 (January/December 2001): 139-166.

The cultural significance and context of maple sugaring is explored alongside a profile of the material remains of Native American maple sugaring from three periods of the reservation era.

Turton, Cheryl L. Reynolds. "Mino Bimaadizinwin: Good Life, Strong Life." Harlow's Wooden Man 34 (Summer 1998): 7-11.

Anishnaable ways of knowing about health are significantly based upon spiritual knowledge gleaned from elders, healers, fasting, offering tobacco, dreaming and participating in ceremonies and sweat lodges, and dancing.

Varni, Gerald R. "Contemporary Chippewa Hunting and Gathering." Michigan Archaeologist 10 (June 1964): 31-43.

The purpose of the article is to purpose and develop the concept of traditional-modified patterns of economic activity.

"Visit a U.P. Ghost Supper." Indian Talk 3 (December 1975): 28-29.

Rickley family and a Ghost Feast.

Wilcox, Arthur T. "The Chippewa Sugar Camp." Michigan History 37 (1953): 276-285.

Background material to be used in making an exhibit.

Willig, Timothy D. "Prophetstown on the Wabash: The Native Spiritual Defense of the Old Northwest." Michigan Historical Review​ 23 (Fall 1997): 115-158.

Prophetstown was a focal point of Native religious and cultural revival and an attempt to defend the Old Northwest through sacred power.

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