Material which covers more than one aspect of Native American life, gives an overview of some area of interest, or provides the background for some of the more detailed and specialized works in other parts of the bibliography are listed here.





Anderson, David D. Editor. Michigan: A State Anthology: Writings about the Great Lakes State, 1641-1981, Selected from Diaries, Journals, Histories, Fiction and Verse. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1983.

Seven selections from the period of discovery to statehood.

Anderson, James W. and Ivah A. Smith. Editors. Ethnic Groups in Michigan. Detroit, MI: Michigan Council for the Arts, 1983.

Native Americans are included.

Askin, John. The John Askin Papers. Edited by Milo M. Quaife. Detroit, MI: Detroit Library Commission, 1928-1931. 2 volumes.

John Askin's activities over a period of half a century in the northwest illustrate practically every aspect of his time in the region of the upper Lakes.

Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Edited by Helen Tanner Cartography by Miklos Pinther. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

33 maps graphically display the movement of Indian communities from 1640 to about 1871, when treaty making between Indian tribes and the United States government came to an end.

Baker, Brian Alan. A Nation in Two States: The Annishnabeg in the United States and Canada, 1837-1991. Dissertation. Stanford University, 1996.

Baker argues that dissimilarities in the reorganization of Annishnabeg identity are rooted in differences in the institutional regimes between these two countries.

Baraga, Frederic. Abrege de l'Histoire des Indians de l'Amerique Septenrionale. Paris: A La Societe des Bon Livres, 1837.

Beld, F. Clever. Michigan in Four Centuries. NY: Harper and Brothers, 1954.

Includes Indians in general. Also includes Pontiac and Tecumseh.

Blackbird, Andrew J. Complete Both Early and Late History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan, A Grammar of Their Language, Personal and Family History of the Author. Harbor Springs, MI: Babcock and Darling, 1897.

Blackbird's purpose is to perpetuate the history of his people.

Blackbird, Andrew J. Grammar of Their Language, and Personal and Family History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan; A History of the Author. Ypsilanti, MI: Ypsilanti Job Printing House, 1887.

Blackbird recorded the earliest history of the Ottawa tribe of Indians, according to their traditions.

Blackbird, Andrew J. The Indian Problem, From the Indian's Standpoint. n.p., 1900.

Blackbird believed better education was needed.

Blair, Emma Helen. Editor. The Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Region of the Great Lakes as Described by Nicolas Perrot, French Commant in the Northwest; Bacqueville de la Potherie, French Royal Commissioner to Canada; Morrell Marsten, American Army Officer; and Thomas Forsyth, United States Agent at Fort Armstrong. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1911-1912. 2 volumes.

Presents old French and American memoirs by writers who, having spent many years among the Indians, were most competent and reliable as an authority on aboriginal life.

Blanchard, Rufus. The Discovery and Conquests of the Northwest Including the Early History of Chicago, Detroit, Vicennes, St. Louis, Fort Wayne, Prairie du Chien, Marietta, Cincinnati, Cleveland etc. Chicago, IL: Cushing, Thomas, 1880.

Includes Native American material

Bremer, Richard G. Indian Agent and Wilderness Scholar: The Life of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Mt. Pleasant, MI: Clarke Historical Library, 1987.

Focuses on Schoolcraft's career with the Office of Indian Affairs and his work as an ethnologist.

Brown, Alan S., John T. Houder and John H. Yzenboard. Michigan Perspectives: People, Events, and Issues. Dubuque, IA: Kendale/Hunt, 1974.

Contains: "The Image of the Indian in Pre-Civil War America." By Francis Paul Prucha.

Brown, Charles A. "The Impact of the European Presence on Indian Culture." In Contest for Empire 1500-1775. Proceedings of an Indiana Revolution Bicentennial Symposium edited by John B. Elliott. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1975.

Brown, Charles. The Old Northwest Territory: Its Missions, Forts and Trading Posts. Kalamazoo, MI: Brown, Moore and Quale, 1875.

Lists the missions, forts and trading posts with locations and maps.

Buley, R. Carlyle. The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period 1815-1940. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1950. 2 volumes.

Includes Indians.

Burnet, Jacob. Notes on the Early Settlement of the North-Western Territory. Cincinnati: OH: Derby, Bradley, 1847.

Northwest Territory from 1795, with much about the Indians.

Burr, C. B. Editor. Medical History of Michigan. Minneapolis, MN: Bruce, 1930. 2 volumes.

Includes a chapter, "The American Indian: His Mentality, Manners, Morals and Medicine," by C.B. Burr.

Bursey, M. T. Compiler. Aube Na Bing; Pictorial History of Michigan Indians. Grand Rapids, MI: Michigan Indian Press, 1988.

Photographs of Indians, including contemporary ones.

Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe. The Western Country in the 17 th Century: The Memoirs of Lamothe Cadillac and Pierre Liettle. Edited by Milo Milton Quaife. Chicago, IL: Lakeside Press, 1947.

The Memoir by Cadillac was designed as a comprehensive picture of the life of the tribes of the Great Lakes region. The narrative by Liettle is devoted to a detailed and specific description of the Illinois Indians.

Caitlin, George. Adventures of the Ojiibbeway and Ioway Indians in England, France and Belgium: Being Notes of his Eight Years Travels and Residence in Europe with his North American Indian Collection. London: The Author, 1852.

"In their visits to the capitals and provincial towns of England, Scotland, Ireland, France, and Belgium I was at their side, their interpreter."

Canton, John Dean. The Last of the Illinois and a Sketch of the Pottawatomies. Chicago, IL: Fergus, 1876.

A speech read before the Chicago Historical Society in 1870.

Cantor, George. Old Roads of the Midwest. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1997.

Before the super highways, most roadways were trails used by Native Americans, pioneers and farmers. This is a history of modern roads.

Catton, Bruce. Michigan: A History. NY: W.W. Norton, 1976.

Includes Indians.

Chippewa and Dakota Indians: A Subject Catalog of Books, Pamphlets, Periodical Articles, and Manuscripts in the Minnesota Historical Society. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1969.

Reproduces the card catalog subject entries of the Minnesota Historical Society.

Clark, Dan Elbert. The West in American History. NY: Thomas Y Crowell, 1937.

A college textbook with chapters on the Middle West and Native Americans.

Clarke, Peter Dooyentate. Origin and Traditional History of the Wyandots, and Sketches of Other Indian Tribes of North America, True Traditional Stories of Tecumseh and His League in the Years 1811 and 1812. Toronto: Hunter, Rose, 1870.

"The lapse of ages rendered it difficult to trace the origin of the Wyandots…My sketch reaches back about three centuries and a half and commences from what is now Montreal…It was in the year 1701 that the first colony of Europeans pitched their tents on the bank of Detroit River, where the city of Detroit now stands, and they were the first French colony the Wyandots ever met with in this part of the country."

Claspy, Everett. The Potawatomi Indians of Southwestern Michigan. Dowagiac, MI: 1966.

History of the Potawatomi from the French-British period to the present.

Cleland, Charles E. Rites of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan's Native Americans. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1992.

Cleland takes a multiethnic and regional approach which focuses on Michigan's Native Americans.

Clifton, James, George L. Cornell, and James McClurken. People of the Three Fires: The Ottawa, Potawatomie and Ojibway of Michigan. Grand Rapids, MI: West Michigan Printing, 1986.

A history of the three major tribes of Michigan by three experts.

Colden, Cadwellader. The History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada, Which are Dependent on the Province of New York in America and are the Barrier Between the English and French in that Part of the World. London: Lockyear Davis, 1755.

Includes Great Lakes area.

Cooley, Thomas McIntyre. Michigan: A History of Governments. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin, 1885.

Includes Indians and Pontiac's Rebellion.

Copway, George. Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh. Indian Life and Indian History by an Indian Author, Embracing the Traditions of the North American Indians Regarding Themselves, Particularly of that Most Important of all Tribes, the Ojibways. Boston, MA: A. Colby, 1858.

"As the first volume of Indian history written by an Indian, with the hope that it may in some degree benefit his nation, and be the means of awakening an interest for the red-men of America in those whose homes and where they once lived and loved, this work is sent forth tremblingly, yet with hope by its Author."

Corey, Albert B. Canadian-American Relations Along the Detroit River. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1957.

The Cass Lecture at the Detroit Historical Society.

Cornell, George. "Unconquered Nations: The Native Peoples of Michigan." In Michigan: Visions of Our Past edited by Richard J. Hathaway. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1989.

Danziger, Edmund J. The Chippewas of Lake Superior. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978.

An overview of the Chippewa experience in the Lake Superior region.

Davis, Charles M. Editor. Readings in the Geography of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Publishers, 1964.

Includes: "Archeology and Indians" by W.P.A. Writers' Program; and " Indian Place Names in Michigan" by Ivan H. Walton.

DeLoria, Vine Jr. Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto. London: Macmillan, 1969.

"A totally unique and ironic tour de force – a shocking story of human waste, twisted legend, and broken promises that have left the Indian the most maligned and least understood citizen in America." Includes Chippewa and Potawatomi Indians.

Derr, Bernard James. A History of the Chippewa Nation to 1856. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1940.

1 reel of microfilm.

Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966-1998. 14 volumes.

For a Canadian view of the shared history of the area this is a wonderful resource. There are extended biographical entries for Native Americans.

Drake, Samuel G. The Aboriginal Races of North America. NY: Hurst, 1880.

Drake, Samuel G. Biography and History of the Indians of North America From its First Discovery. Boston, MA: Benjamin B. Mussey, 1851.

Includes: "Biography and History of the Iroquois or Five Nations, and Other Neighboring Tribes of the West."

Drake, Samuel G. The Book of the Indians of North America; Comprising Details in the Lives of About Five Hundred Chiefs and Others, the Most Distinguished Among Them. Also, A History of Their Wars; Their Manners and Customs; Speeches of Orators, Etc, From Their First Being Known to Europeans to the Present Time. Boston, MA: Josiah Drake, 1833.

Includes speeches by Pontiac, Captain Pipe, and Tecumseh.

Driver, Harold E. Indians of North America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Description of the enormous variation of culture patterns among Native Americans. Not tribe specific.

Dunbar, Willis. Michigan Historical Markers. Lansing, MI: Michigan Historical Commission, 1967.

Includes some Native American sites. Notes text of markers and their location.

Dunbar, Willis. Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1965.

The history is presented by century. Early Native Americans are included.

Dunbar, Willis. Michigan Through the Centuries. NY: Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1955. 4 volumes.

Includes Native Americans in Volume 1: The Seventeenth Century.

Eastman, Mary H. The American Indian Aboriginal Portfolio. Illustrated by Seth Eastman. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Grambo, 1853.

Eastman, Mary H. The American Annual: Illustrative of the Early History of North America. Illustrated by Seth Eastman. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, n.d.

Includes: "Fort Mackinaw," "Michilimackinac," and "Combat Between the Ojibwas and the Sac and Foxes, on Lake Superior."

Eaton, Hamish Bach. "Patrick Sinclair: Builder of Mackinac and Founder of Lybster: An Account of His Life and Work. Unpublished.

Much about the Native Americans is included.

Eccles, W. J. The Canadian Frontier 1534-1760. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969.

Includes information about the Native Americans.

Eckert, Allan W. Gateway to Empire. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1983.

Recreates the relentless and tragic wresting of the North American continent from the Indians from 1763 to 1816.

Edmunds, R. David. A History of the Potawatomi Indians, 1615-1795. Dissertation. University of Oklahoma, 1972.

Discusses the history of the Potawatomies from earliest French contacts to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.

Edmunds, R. David. Kinsmen Through Time: An Annotated Bibliography of Potawatomie History. Methchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1987.

Potawatomi bibliography. Includes Michigan.

Edmunds, Russell D. The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978.

The Potawatomi Indians were the dominant tribe in the region of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana and southern Michigan during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Ellis, George E. "The Red Indian of North America in Contact with the French and English." In Narrative and Critical History of America edited by Justin Winsor. Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin, 1889: Volume l: 283-328.

From earliest settlers to Pontiac.

Events in Indian History, Beginning with an Account of the Origin of the American Indians, and Early Settlements in North America, and Embracing Concise Biographies of the Principal Chiefs and Head-Sachems of the Different Indian Tribes, with Narrative and Captivities. Lancaster: G Hills, 1841.

Includes the Ottawas, Pontiac, the Siege of Detroit, the Grand Indian Council at Detroit, and Tecumseh.

Fasquelle, Ethel. When Michigan was Young; The Story of Its Beginnings, Early Legends and Folklore. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1950.

Recreates the life of the frontier as well as a good deal of Indian fact and legend.

Finlan, Bill. Michigan U.P. Indians: Before the Invasion, and After. Utica, MI: Bill Finlan, 1975.

"The Indian remains a commercial gimmick for many in the U.P., rather than a strong backbone in the foundation of the society in which we find ourselves, in a land which was theirs."

Flader, Susan L. Editor. The Great Lakes Forest: An Environmental and Social History. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1983.

Includes three chapters on "The Indian Experience" by Charles Cleland, Duncan Harlin and Robert Deer.

Ford, Richard C. Red Man or White; A Story of Indian Life in the Northwest. Chicago, IL: Lyons and Carnahan, 1938.

A manuscript narrative of William Barton's early life among the Indians of Minnesota and Wisconsin which has been reworked by Ford.

Francis, George. Legends of the Land of Lakes. Lake Superior and Surroundings. Chicago, IL: G. F. Thomas, 1884.

Subtitle: History, tradition and mysteries, gleaned from years of experience among the pioneers, voyageurs and Indians.

Frazier, Patrick. Editor. Many Nations: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Indian and Alaska Native Peoples of the United States. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1996.

An attempt to describe the Library of Congress collections related to Native American experience from earliest accounts to the present day.

Fuller, George Newman. Economic and Social Beginnings of Michigan. Lansing, MI: Wynkoop Hillenbeck Crawford, 1916.

A study of the settlement of the Lower Peninsula during the Territorial period, 1805-1837.

Fuller, George N. Editor. Historic Michigan: Land of the Great Lakes. National Historic Association, 1924. 3 volumes.

The papers contained in these volumes have been selected almost entirely from the publications of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society and the Michigan History Commission.

Fuller, George N. Michigan: A Centennial History of the State and Its People. Chicago, IL: Lewis, 1939. 3 volumes.

Includes a chapter on the Native Americans.

Gale, George. Upper Mississippi: or, Historical Sketches of the Mound-Builders, the Indian Tribes, and the Progress of Civilization in the North-West; From A.D. 1600 to the Present Time. Chicago, IL: Clarke, 1867.

Gale "has attempted to bring to light the extinct race of people called "The Mound Builders," locate the north-western Indian tribes, and their connections with the "French and Indian" wars of the colonies, and their wars against the United States, marking their emigrations, and detailing the efforts of the whites to Christianize and civilize them."

Gedicks, Al. The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles Against Multinational Corporations. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1993.

In the north woods of Wisconsin, Kennecott Copper Corp is pressuring Native Americans for the right to construct an environmentally destructive open pit copper mine. Opposing the mine's construction is a coalition of Chippewa traditionalists and Wisconsin environmentalists.

Gilbert, Helen Frances. Tonquish Tales. Plymouth, MI: Pilgrim Heritage Press, 1984. 2 volumes.

Stories of early d'Etroit, pioneers and Michigan Indians.

Goodrich, Calvin. The First Michigan Frontier. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1940.

Book has to do with earlier years of the white man's occupation of Michigan. Goodrich discusses such topics as Indian ceremonies and canoe trips.

Great Lakes Indian Fishing and Wildlife Commission. Tribal Hatcheries of the Great Lakes Region. Odamah, WI: The Commission, 1993.

Map of fish hatcheries and information about each.

Greenman, Emerson F. The Indians of Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Historical Commission, 1961.

Greenman deals with the Indians of Michigan from the period preceding the Historic era down to modern times.

Gringhuis, Dirk. Moccasin Tracks: A Saga of the Michigan Indian. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Museum, 1974.

Starts with the Paleo Indian and continues to the Historic period.

Guillet, Edwin C. Early Life in Upper Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1933.

Includes Native Americans and maple sugar making, fishing, trails and canoes.

Hale, Duane Kendall. Researching and Writing Tribal Histories. Grand Rapids, MI: Michigan Indian Press, 1991.

Because it seemed that many tribes would lose their language, history and culture when this generation disappeared, Dr. Hale developed a series of workshops to train Native American people to write their own histories.

Hall, James. Editor. The Western Souvenir: A Christmas and New Year's Gift for 1829. Cincinnati, OH: N. and G. Guilford, 1829.

Contains: "Speech of an Ottawa Chief near Detroit in 1788," and "Traditions of the Mammoth" which includes Indian lore about the mammoth.

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Ojibwa Personality and Acculturation." In Beyond the Frontier, Social Processes and Cultural Change edited by Paul Bohannan and Fred Plog. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press, 1967. 227-237.

The Ojibwa Indians, a food-gathering people originally and now living in communities scattered over a considerable geographical area, represent an ethnic group with a common cultural background but now exhibit varying levels of acculturation.

Harrison, William Henry. A Discourse on the Aborigines of the Ohio Valley in which the Opinions of Its Conquest in the Seventeenth Century by the Iroquois or Six Nations, are Examined and Contested. Chicago, IL: Fergus, 1883.

Speeches, manners, history and customs of the North West Indians.

Hart, Gerald E. The Fall of New France 1775-1760. Montreal: W. Drysdale, 1888.

A Canadian history of the events in the Great Lakes area.

Hart, John S. Editor. The Iris: An Illuminated Souvenir for 1852. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Grambo, 1852.

"Captain Eastman, of the U.S. Topographical Corps, having been stationed for nine years on our northwestern frontier, among the Indian tribes, at and around Fort Snelling, made a series of drawings of some of the most striking and remarkable objects connected with Indian traditions. His accomplished lady collected the traditions themselves, and wove them into tales and poems that let us into the very heart of Indian life. The whole of this valuable and original collection is in this volume."

Hatcher, Harlan. Lake Erie. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1945.

The emphasis in the early part of this book is on the main stream of the history of the region, especially its exploration and early settlement.

Hathaway, E. J. The Story of the Hurons. Reprinted from Macleans's Magazine, August 1915 by the Ontario Historical Society, August, 1915.

History from the earliest records to their dispersion following war with the Iroquois.

Havighurst, Walter. Editor. The Great Lakes Reader. NY: Macmillan, 1966.

A collection of narratives from the Great Lakes area.

Havighurst, Walter. Land of Promise: The Story of the Northwest Territory. NY: Macmillan, 1946.

Includes Native Americans, Pontiac, and Tecumseh.

Hedrick, Ulysses P. The Land of the Crooked Tree. NY: Oxford University Press, 1948.

Activities of the early settlers on the northern tip of the lower peninsula in the 1870s and 1880s.

Highlights of Economic Impact of Michigan's Indian Gaming Enterprises. Lansing, MI: University Associates, 1994.

The purpose of this study was to gather information from the seven tribes who operate casinos about the local economic impact of their business.

Hinsdale, B.A. The Old Northwest With a View of the Thirteen Colonies as Constituted by Royal Charters. NY: Townsend MacCoun, 1888.

Includes Native Americans.

Hinsdale, Wilbert. Distribution of the Aboriginal Population of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1932.

With reference to the forests, Great Lakes, and streams before and during the first white occupancy.

Hinsdale, W. B. Trade and Lines of Overland Travel of the Michigan Indians. Ann Arbor, MI: 1929.

Paper presented at the Geography Conference of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club Meeting in April 1929. Indicates the line of human travel across certain parts of the country.

Historical and Scientific Sketches of Michigan. Comprising a Series of Discourses Delivered Before the Historical Society of Michigan, and Other Interesting Papers Relative to the Territory. Detroit, MI: Stephen Wells and George L. Whitney, 1834.

Papers by Cass, Schoolcraft, Whiting, and Biddle.

History of the Great Lakes. Chicago, IL: J. H. Beers, 1899. 2 volumes.

Includes material on the aborigines; the French, British and American struggles for the area, and the War of 1812.

Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of North American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1907. 2 volumes.

The aim of this book is to give a brief description of every linguistic stock, confederacy, tribe, subtribe or tribal division, and settlement known to history or even to tradition, as well as the origin and derivation of every name treated.

Hubbard, Bela. Memorials of a Half-Century. NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1887.

Hubbard lived in Michigan for 50 years. He went on exploring trips in 1837 and 1840. He included chapters on: "Indians in Michigan," "Policy of the Government Towards the Indians," and "The Mound Builders in Michigan."

Hulst, Cornelia Steketee. Indian Sketches: Pere Marquette and the Last of the Pottawatomi Chiefs. NY: Longman, Greens, 1912.

Includes: "The Mission of Pere Marquette," "The Last of the Pottawatomie Chiefs (Pokagon 1)," and "Chief Simon Pokagon."

The Indian: The Northwest 1600…1900! The Red Man, The War Man, The White Man and the Northwestern Line. Chicago, IL: Chicago and Northwestern Railway Co., 1901.

The Indian had his time and now is the time of the railroad.

Indians in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Historical Commission, 1962.

A portfolio of pictures of Michigan Indians.

Indians of the Upper Great Lakes. Lansing, MI: Michigan Historical Commission, 1970.

Portfolio of 20 pictures.

Jacobs, Wilbur R. Diplomacy and Indian Gifts: Anglo-French Rivalry Along the Ohio and Northwest Frontiers, 1748-1763. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1950.

Traces Indian politics on the Northwest frontiers .

Jaenen, Cornelius J. The French Regime in the Upper Country of Canada During the Seventeenth Century. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1996.

Jaenen reproduces explorers' accounts and other documents.

Jones, Arthur Edward. Old Huronia. Toronto: Ontario Archives, 1908.

Huron Indian history with identification of village sites, Huron missionaries and mission centers. Traces the history of the Hurons before and after their dispersion.

Kellogg, Louise Phelps. The British Regime in Wisconsin and the Northwest.​ Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1935.

With, of course, much about the Native Americans.

Kellogg, Louise Phelps. The French Regime in Wisconsin and the Northwest. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1925.

Much about the Native Americans.

Kelton, Dwight H. Indian Names and History of the Sault Ste. Marie Canal. Detroit, MI: Detroit Free Press, 1889.

Kent, Timothy J. Ft. Pontchartrain at Detroit. Ossineke, MI: Silver Fox Enterprises, 2001. 2 volumes.

A guide to the daily life of fur traders, military personnel, settlers and missionaries at French posts.

Kent, Timothy J. Tahquamenon Tales: Experiences of a Early French Trader and His Native Family. Ossineke, MI: Silver Fox Enterprises, 1998.

Kent recreated the items of daily life of the early native and French inhabitants of North America.

Kinietz, W. Vernon. Chippewa Village: The Story of Katikitegon. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1947.

Kinietz worked with village people to learn in what ways their lives and manners differ from those of the Chippewa of the past and from their white neighbors of the present.

Kinietz, Vernon. Indians of the Western Great Lakes, 1615-1760. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1940.

Ethnographies of various tribes from historic background documents.

Kinzie, Mrs. John H. Wau-Bun: The 'Early Day' of the North-West. NY: Derby and Jackson, 1856. and Chicago, IL: Caxton Club, 1901.

"Upon her pages we seem to see and feel the life at the frontier military stockades, to understand intimately the social and economic relations between the savages and the government officials set over them."

Klein, Bernard and Daniel Icolari. Editors. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. NY: B. Klein, 1967.

Listings of: Government Agencies, Museums, Libraries, Associations, Monuments and State Parks, Reservations, Tribal Councils, Schools, College Courses, Sources of Authentic Arts and Crafts, Visual and Instructional Aids, Government Publications, Newspapers, Magazines and Periodicals, Books and Biographical Who's Who.

Kraner, Frank R. Voices in the Valley: Mythmaking and Folk Belief in the Shaping of the Middle West. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964.

"French explorers and missionaries in Canada in the 17 th century discovered a land of forests and Indian villages, of rapids and myth."

Krause, David J. The Making of a Mining District: Keweenaw Native Copper 1500-1870. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1992.

The first section deals with Keweenaw copper before 1800.

Lafitau, Joseph Francois. Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains, Comparees aux Moeurs des Premiers Temps. Paris: Saugrain l"aine, 1724. 2 volumes; Toronto: Champlain Society, 1974.

Summary of seventeenth century knowledge of the life and society of the American Indian. Lafitau's comparison of Indian societies with Asian societies was an attempt to demonstrate the Asian origin of the American Indians. Many fine engravings.

Lajeunesse, Ernest J. The Windsor Border Region: Canada's Southernmost Frontier: A Collection of Documents. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1960.

The Windsor border region includes Huron Mission and other early events involving Native Americans.

Lamb, Paul M. Bibliography: The American Indian in Michigan, 1850-1900. East Lansing, MI: n.p., 1974.

A 24 page bibliography.

Lanctot, Gustave. A History of Canada. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963. 2 volumes

Covers Canadian history to 1713. Much about the Native Americans.

The Land of the Ojibwe. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1973.

Developed by the Ojibwe Curriculum Committee, American Indian Studies Department, University of Minnesota.

Landon, Fred. Lake Huron. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1944.

History of Lake Huron and the St. Clair River. It is an attempt to tell some of the happenings around and upon these waters in the years since Champlain first saw a portion of Georgian Bay.

Lanman, Charles. Essays for Summer Hours. Boston, MA: Hilliard, Gray, 1941.

Includes an essay, "The Old Indian."

Lanman, Charles. The Red Book of Michigan: A Civil, Military and Biographical History. Detroit, MI: E.B. Smith, 1871.

Contains a chapter, "The Indians and Antiquities of the State."

Lanman, James H. History of Michigan, Civil and Topographical. NY: E. French, 1839.

The history of Michigan exhibits three epochs. The first may be properly denominated the Romantic, which extends to the year 1760, when its dominion was transferred from France to Great Britain. This was the period when the first beams of civilization had scarcely penetrated its forests and the paddles of the French fur trade swept the lakes, and the boat-songs of the traders awakened tribes as well as the wolves which howl around the wigwams. The second epoch is the military commencing with the Pontiac War; and, running through the successive struggles of the British, the Indians, and the Americans, to obtain dominion of the country, it ends with the victory of Commodore Perry, the defeat of Proctor, and the death of Tecumseh, the leader of the Anglo-Savage confederacy upon the banks of the Thames. The third epoch commences with the introduction of the public lands into the market.

Laut, Agnes C. Cadillac: Knight Errant of the Wilderness: Founder of Detroit: Governor of Louisiana from the Great Lakes to the Gulf. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1931.

Includes much Native American material.

Leeth, John. A Short Biography of John Leeth, with a Brief Account of His Life Among the Indians for Eighteen Years. Cincinnati, OH: R. Clarke, 1883.

Leeth was an Indian captive who was in the Detroit area during his captivity.

Levernica, James and Hennig Cohen. Editors. The Indians and Their Captives. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1977.

Includes John Dodge, John Tanner and Daniel Boone.

Leitch, Barbara A. A Concise Dictionary of Indian Tribes of North America. Algonac, MI: Reference Publications, 1979.

Each entry is designed to give in capsule form a sketch of the tribe it treats.

Levi, Carolissa. Chippewa Indians of Yesterday and Today. Illustrations by Peter Whitebird. NY: Pageant Press, 1956.

History of the Chippewas.

Lewis, Ferris. The French Intriques in the Region of Illinois and the Great Lakes from the Year 1760 to 1768. Thesis. University of Detroit, 1930.

"In the writings of that day will be found revealed the hidden motives and the ruined aspirations of the French inhabitants in the heart of America."

Lewis, Kenneth. West to Far Michigan: Settling the Lower Peninsula, 1815-1860. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2002.

Includes chapters on the Native Americans before 1815 and on the transfer of land.

Lindquist, G.E.E. The Indian in American Life. NY: Friendship Press, 1944.

A minister looks at Native Americans in 1944.

Lindquist, Gustaus E.E. The Land of Hiawatha. Reprinted from The Southern Workman, April 1928.

A short history of the Chippewa.

McCabe, James D. The Pictorial History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent to the Present Time. Philadelphia, PA: National Publishing, 1877.

Includes Native Americans.

McCarry, Ralph E. Fragments of the Ojibwas of the Great Lakes. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Sault News Printing Co., 1951.

Chippeway Totem Village pamphlet describing what was to be found on a trip over the Indian trail.

McKee, Russell. Great Lakes Country. NY: Thomas Y Crowell, 1966.

McKee begins with the earliest nomadic tribes who came to the Great Lakes region more than 13,000 years ago.

McKenney, Thomas L. History of the Indian Tribes of North America, with Biographical Sketches, and Anecdotes of the Principal Chiefs, Embellished with One Hundred Portraits from the Indian Gallery in the War Department at Washington. Philadelphia, PA: Rice, Rutter, 1870. 3 volumes.

Includes: Caatousee, Tshusick, Shingaba W'ossin, Okeemakeequid, Kanapima, Chippeway Squaw and Child, Waemboeshkam, Wa Baun See, Katawabeda, Metea, Chippeway Widow, and Wabishkeepenas.

MacLeod, William Christie. The American Indian Frontier. NY: Knopf, 1928.

Includes the fur trade, missions, French war, Pontiac's war, Tecumseh, and the reservation system.

Mackinac Under Three Flags: Tourist Guide and History. Mackinac Island, MI: Wichman's Photo and Gift Shop, 1928.

A history of the area for the tourists.

Magnaghi, Russell M. A Guide to the Indians of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, 1621-1900. Marquette, MI: Belle Fontaine Press, 1984.

Chronological study of the history of the Upper Peninsula Indians.

Magnaghi, Russell M. The Way it Happened: Settling Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Iron Mountain, MI: Mid-Peninsula Library Cooperative, 1982.

Includes chapters on "Indian Treaties," "Indian Slavery," "Assimilation of the Indians," and "Indian CCC Camp at Eckerman."

Mainfort, Robert C. Indian Social Dynamics in the Period of European Contact: Fletcher Site Cemetery, Bay County, Michigan. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Museum, 1979.

Although much information concerning changing political organizations can be gleaned from historical documents, inferences about changing social organizations must depend greatly on the archaeological record, specifically burial sites.

Malinowski, Sharon and Anna Sheets. Editors. Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Volume 1: Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean. Detroit, MI: Gale, 1998.

Essays which include Michigan Native American groups.

Malkus, Alida. Blue-Water Boundary: Epic Highway of the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence. NY: Hastings House, 1960.

The conflicts of the Iroquois and Huron, of white man and red, are depicted.

Marsden, Michael T. A Selected, Annotated Edition of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes of the American Frontiers. Dissertation. Bowling Green State University, 1972.

This edition focuses on Schoolcraft, the man who was the one most responsible for the ways in which significant literary figures have treated the American Indian.

Mason, Ronald J. "Huron Island and the Island of the Poutouatamis." In Aspects of Upper Great Lakes Anthropology: Papers in Honor of Lloyd A. Wilford edited by Elden Johnson. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1974.149-156.

Attempts a pulling together and interpretation of the early historical sources on Rock Island and its neighbors.

Massie, Larry B. Copper Trails and Iron Rails: More Voyages into Michigan's Past. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1989.

Includes stories about Native Americans.

Massie, Larry B. Michigan Memories: True Stories From Two Peninsulas' Past. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press, 1994.

Includes stories about Native Americans.

Massie, Larry B. On the Road to Michigan's Past. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press, 1995.

Stories include Indian encounters.

Massie, Larry B. Pig Boats and River Hogs: Further Voyages into Michigan's Past. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press, 1990.

Includes Indian stories and encounters.

Massie, Larry B. Potawatomi Tears and Petticoat Pioneers. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press, 1992.

Includes Potawatomi removal and Father Sifferath's mission to the Ottawa.

Massie, Larry B. Voyages Into Michigan's Past. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1988.

Includes stories about Native Americans.

Massie, Larry B. White Pine Whispers. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press, 1998.

Includes stories about LaCrosse, Madam Laframboise, and the white widow among the Chippewa.

May, George S. Michigan: An Illustrated History of the Great Lakes State. Northbridge, CA: Windsor, 1987.

Includes a chapter on the Indians.

May, George S. Pictorial History of Michigan: The Early Years. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1967.

Includes a chapter on the prehistoric Indians.

May, George and Herbert Brinks. A Michigan Reader: 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1865. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1974.

A book of writings which includes the Native Americans.

Michigan: A Guide to the Wolverine State. Works Project Administration. NY: Oxford University Press, 1941.

Includes chapter on Archaeology and Indians.

Michigan Indian Gaming Enterprise. Lansing, MI: University Associates, 1992.

The purpose of this study was to gather information from employees about the local economic impact resulting from the expanding Gaming business.

Michigan Indian Health: Report of the Director's Indian Health Task Force. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Public Health, 1985.

Report of the health status and needs of American Indians residing in Michigan.

Michigan Indians. Lansing, MI: Michigan History Division, 1975.

Four page pamphlet.

Michigan's Minorities at the Mid-Seventies: Indians, Blacks, Chicanos. Flint, MI: Charles Steward Mott Foundation, 1974.

2nd Annual Conference of the Michigan Foundation. Topics include population, economic status, health, housing, education, public order, family structure, religion, and political power.

Montfort, Margaret Mary. Ethnic and Tribal Identity Among the Saginaw Chippewa of Nineteenth Century Michigan. Thesis. Michigan State University, 1990.

Examines the evolution of ethnic and tribal identity among the Saginaw Chippewa between 1800 and 1840.

Moore, Charles. History of Michigan. Chicago, IL: Lewis, 1915. 4 volumes.

Volume 1 includes: "The Mound Builders, the Garden Beds and the Ancient Miners," and "Indian Folk-Lore Attaching to Michigan Localities." Several other chapters include material about the Native Americans.

Moore, Charles. The Northwest Under Three Flags 1635-1796. NY: Harper and Brothers, 1900.

History of the Northwest Territory with much about Native Americans, including Pontiac's War.

Morse, Dan. Ancient Disease in the Midwest. Springfield, IL: Illinois State Museum, 1969.

There are two reasons why a careful search for the pathological and abnormal should be part of the study of excavated skeletons. 1) We should have all information about a culture, and 2) the study of dried bone collections may increase our knowledge of bone pathology.

Mosser, Duane Paul. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft: Eyewitness to a Changing Frontier. Dissertation. University of California Santa Barbara, 1991.

Of the many who migrated to the Great Lakes Henry Rowe Schoolcraft stands out as an expert witness to record the 'Americanization' of the area. His recorded observations of Native American cultures and of nature are invaluable sources for historians and anthropologists.

Mount, Graeme S. and John Abbott and Michael J. Mulloy. The Border at Sault Ste. Marie. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1995.

Reviews the military activity, business, cultural and religious developments, as well as politics on both sides of the border.

Murphy, Lucy Eldersveld. A Gathering of Rivers: Indians, Metis, and Mining in the Western Great Lakes 1737-1832. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.

Focusing on personal stories and detailed community histories, Murphy charts the changing economic forces at work in the region.

National Congress of American Indians. National Indian Directory. Washington, DC: National Congress, 1975.

The purpose of this directory is to serve as a source book for Indian and Indian related organizations.

Nelson, Larry Lee. Cultural Mediation on the Great Lakes Frontier: Alexander McKee and Anglo-American Indian Affairs, 1754-1799. Dissertation. Bowling Green State University, 1994.

This study examines the life of Alexander McKee [1735-1799] and centers on his role as a cultural mediator, one who facilitated interaction between the native and European worlds along the Great Lakes frontier during the second half of the 18 th century.

Nutes, Grace Lee. Lake Superior. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1944.

Includes a chapter, "Nanabazhoo and his Followers" which are Native American stories.

Ojibwe Waasa Inaabidaa (We Look In All Directions). Duluth, MN: WDSE TV, 2002.

6 videotapes. Series invites viewers through a portal of rich historical and contemporary scenes based on six main themes of Ojibwe life and culture from pre-contact to contemporary times.

Paxson, Frederic L. History of the American Frontier 1763-1893. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1924.

Includes Michigan and the Great Lakes area.

Payette, B.C. The Northwest. Montreal: Payette Radio Ltd, 1964.

Reprints several documents relating to the Old Northwest.

Pease, Theodore Calvin. The French Foundations, 1680-1693. Springfield, IL: Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 1934.

"A selection of documentary material revealing the activities of the French in the Old Northwest."

Peters, Bernard C. Lake Superior Place Names: From Bawating to the Montreal. Marquette, MI: Northern Michigan University Press, 1996.

Examines the origin and meaning of the Indian and French place names which form part of Michigan's Lake Superior landscape.

Peyser, Joseph L. Editor. Letters from New France: The Upper Country 1686-1783. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

Focus on the colorful personalities and events associated with the Great Lakes country from 1686 to 1783.

Philbrick, Francis S. The Rise of the West 1754-1830. NY: Harper and Row, 1965.

Includes a chapter: "Removing Indians and Selling Public Lands."

Prucha, Francis Paul. A Bibliographic Guide to the History of Indian-White Relations in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Intended as a tool for persons interested in the history of Indian-white relations.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Indian-White Relations in the United States: A Bibliography of Works Published 1975-1980. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

A supplement to the above book.

Quaife, Milo M. Condensed Historical Sketches for Each of Michigan's Counties. Detroit, MI: J.L. Hudson, 1940.

Some counties were named for Indians, some use Indian words in their name.

Quaife, Milo M. Lake Michigan. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1944.

Supplies a picture of the lake in its historical and human setting, including Native Americans.

Quaife, Milo M. and Sidney Glazer. Michigan From Primitive Wilderness to Industrial Commonwealth. NY: Prentice Hall, 1948.

Chapter "Birth of the Commonwealth" includes Native American material.

Rankin, Ernest H. The Indians of Gitchi Gumee. Marquette, MI: Marquette County Historical Society, 1966.

A pamphlet designed to share a bit of the history of the Chippewa Indian and their way of life.

Raphael, Ralph B. The Book of American Indians. Greenwich, CN: Fawcett Books, 1953.

"Mr. Raphael has brought together highlights from numerous sources and well chosen examples of typical features from different tribes and an excellent series of illustrations,…presenting in an interesting fashion what most people want to know about the aboriginal American."

Ratigan, William. Straits of Mackinac! Crossroads of the Great Lakes. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1957.

Includes Native Americans.

Reibel, Daniel B. A Brief Account of Indians in Michigan. Detroit, MI: Detroit Historical Museum, n.d. (Fitting Mss Box 7)

Pamphlet with basic information.

Romig, Walter. Michigan Place Names: The History of the Founding and Naming of More Than Five Thousand Past and Present Michigan Communities. Grosse Pointe, MI: Walter Romig, [1973].

Many places in Michigan have been named by or for Native Americans.

Rubenstein, Bruce A. Justice Denied: An Analysis of American Indian – White Relations in Michigan, 1855-1889. Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1974.

Rubenstein, Bruce A. and Lawrence E. Ziewacz. Michigan: A History of the Great Lakes State. Arlington Heights, IL: Forum Press, 1981.

Includes "Original Michiganians."

Russell, Nelson Vance. The British Regime in Michigan and the Old Northwest 1760-1796. Norfield, MN: Carleton College, 1939.

The purpose is to describe the transition from the French regime to the British, and from the British to the American in that part of the Old Northwest known as Michigan.

Sanson, Nicholas. L'Amerique; en Plusiers Cartes Nouvelles et exactes, et en divers Traittez de Geographie, et d'Historoire. Paris: 1683.

Sanson Nicholas. America-1667. Translated by Pauline Carson Block and Robert Martinon. Edited by Louis M. Block, Jr. Cleveland, OH: Bloch, 1959.

This is a translation is L'Amerique which describes in detail what Sanson knew of America in 1667. Sanson describes not only the known geography of North America but also writes about the settlements of New France, New England, New Netherlands, New Sweden, New Spain, Virginia and Florida.

Santon, Richard A. Michigan: Heart of the Great Lakes. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1977.

A geography text that includes chapters and statistics on the Native Americans.

Schenck, Theresa M. "The Voice of the Crane Echoes Afar": The Sociopolitical Organization of the Lake Superior Ojibwa, 1640-1855. NY: Garland, 1997.

A study of continuity and change in one essential aspect of Ojibwa culture, its sociopolitical organization, the band society which enabled it to persist.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. The American Indians, Their History, Condition and Prospects, From Original Notes and Manuscripts. Buffalo, NY: George H. Darby, 1851.

Originally issued 1844-1845 in eight numbers.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. A Discourse Delivered on the Anniversary of the Historical Society of Michigan, June 4, 1830. Detroit, MI: Geo. L. Whitney, 1830.

"A deep solicitude has been manifested in the history and fortunes of the Indian race."

Schoolcraft, Henry R. The Indian in His Wigwam, or, Characteristics of the Red Race of America from Original Notes and Manuscripts. NY: Dewitt and Davenport, 1848.

Includes "Personal Reminiscences," "Scenes and Adventures in the Ozark Mountains," "Character of the Red Man of America," "Tales of a Wigwam," "Early Indian Biography," "Historical Traditions," "Ethnology," "Languages," and many other essays.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. Information Respecting the History Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Illustrated by Seth Eastman and others. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Grambo, 1853. 6 volumes.

General history of the North American Indians. A standard work with information about many aspect of North American Indian life. Compiled for the United States government.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes on the American Frontiers: With Brief Notices of Passing Events, Facts and Opinions, A.D. 1812 to A.D. 1842. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Grambo, 1851.

"The story these incidents tell, is the story of a people's settling the wilderness. It is the Anglo-Saxon race occupying the sites of the Indian wigwams. It is a field in which plumed sachems, farmers, legislatures, statesmen, speculators, professional and scientific men, and missionaries of the gospel, figure in their respective capacities."

Seno, William Joseph. Editor. Up Country: Voices from the Midwestern Wilderness. Madison, WI: Round River Publishing, 1985.

A compilation of journals, letters and memoirs written by early adventurers in the Midwest.

Seymour, Flora Warren. The Story of the Red Man. London: Longmans, Green, 1929.

Includes Pontiac and Tecumseh.

Sheldon, E. M. The Early History of Michigan From the First Settlement to 1815. NY: A.S. Barnes, 1856.

Much on the Native Americans.

Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Silent Tongues, Black Robes: Pottawatomi, Europeans, and Settlers in the Southern Great Lakes, 1640 – 1850. Dissertation. University of Michigan, 1994.

Suggests that the withdrawal of European powers and the arrival of the settlers did not dissolve the middle ground nor herald Native American demise. Focuses on southwest Michigan.

Slocum, Charles Elihu. The Ohio Country Between the Years 1783 and 1815. NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1910.

"The habitual use of intoxicating beverages was a strong factor in much of the savagery recorded."

Smith, W.L.G. Life and Times of Lewis Cass. NY: Derby and Jackson, 1856.

Includes his dealings with the Native Americans.

Speck, Frank Gouldsmith. The Iroquois. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1955.

A study in cultural evolution.

St. Valier, Jean de la. Estat Present de la Colonie Francoise dans la Nouvelle France. Paris: Chez Robert Pepie, 1688.

Presents an appraisal of conditions in the French dominions of North America in 1685. St. Valier described the relationships and rivalries among the Indian tribes. An indication of the rivalry between the Dutch and French for the fur trade is shown in St. Valier's account of Mackinac. There, he said, sixty Hollanders and their Iroquois allies were converging upon that wilderness outpost.

Stewart, Catherine. New Homes in the West. Nashville, TN: Cameron and Fall, 1843.

Stewart lived among the Pottawattamies at St. Joseph, Michigan. She gives accounts of Po-Ke-Gamis rule, the Councils and the 1833 Treaty of Chicago.

Storck, Peter L. A Preliminary Bibliography of Early Man in Eastern North America 1839-1973. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1975.

This bibliography contains 1242 titles of abstracts, short comments or single artifacts and small collections, journal articles, reviews, monographs, and books dealing in whole or in part with the subject of Early Man east of the Mississippi.

Strang, James. Ancient and Modern Michilimackinac, Including an Account of the Controversy Between Mackinac and the Mormons. As Published in 1854 with supplement, 1855.

History of Michilimackinac includes Indians; Catholic missions; Protestant missions; Rat, the Huron; fisheries; slavery and peonage; Indian whiskey, and Indian payments.

Stuart, Paul. Nations Within a Nation: Historical Statistics of American Indians. NY: Greenwood Press, 1987.

An attempt to gather a variety of statistics pertaining to American Indian groups in the United States. Topics such as land holdings, population, migration, vital statistics, federal government activity, health care, education, occupations, and the use of natural resources are covered.

Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1952.

Intended to inform the general reader what Indian tribes occupied the territory of his state and to add enough data to indicate the place they occupied among the tribal groups of the continent and the part they played in the early period of our history.

Sweetser, Kate Dickinson. Book of Indian Braves. NY: Harper and Brothers, 1913.

Includes Pontiac.

Symon, Charles A. We Can Do It! A History of the Civilian Conservation Corps in Michigan 1933-1942. Escanaba, MI: Richards Printing, 1983.

Includes a chapter on Camp Marquette, "The Indian Camp."

Tanner, Helen Hornbeck. The Ojibwas: A Critical Bibliography. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1976.

A bibliography of basic resources on the Ojibwas.

Terry, Frank Taylor. The Aborigines of the Northwest; A Glance into the Remote Past. Milwaukee, WI: Parkman Club Publications, 1896.

Archaeological evidence and accounts of the first explorers.

The Tragedy of Old Huronia (Wendake Ehen). By a Pilgrim. Midland, ONT: The Martyr's Shrine, 1932.

A popular story of Martyr's Shrine, Fort Ste. Marie, and the other Jesuit Huron Missions of Canada, 1615-1650, according to the Jesuit Relations.

Tuttle, Charles Richard. General History of the State of Michigan. Detroit, MI: R.D.S. Tyler, 1873.

"A complete history of the Peninsula State from the earliest settlement to the present time."

Underhill, Ruth Murray. Red Man's America: A History of Indians in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1953.

Includes a chapter on the Great Lakes Indians.

United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Indians of the Great Lakes Area. Washington, DC: GPO, 1966.

An overview.

United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Constitution and By-Laws of the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan – Approved May 6, 1937. Washington, DC: GPO, 1937.

Utley, Henry M. and Byron M. Crutcheon. Michigan as a Province, Territory and State, The Twenty-Sixth Member of the Federal Union. NY: Publishing Society of Michigan, 1906. 4 volumes.

Includes Native Americans.

Volwiler, Albert T. George Croghan and the Westward Movement 1741-1782. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1926.

George Croghan was the leading exponent of the expansion of the Anglo-Saxon race into the Ohio region during the generation before 1775.

Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. Maps and Illustrations by Molly Braun. NY: Facts on File, 1985.

Covers the history, culture, and tribal locations of Indian peoples in the United States, Canada, and Middle America from ancient times to the present.

Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. NY: Facts on File, 1988.

A comprehensive reference work discussing more than 150 Indian tribes of all North America, as well as prehistoric peoples and civilizations.

Waldman, Carl. Who Was Who in Native American History: Indians and Non-Indians from Early Contact through 1900. NY: Facts on File, 1990.

An extensive reference work.

Walker, Francis A. The Indian Question. Boston, MA: James R. Osgood, 1874.

Includes accounts of the tribes by state.

Warren, William W. History of the Ojibway Nation. Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1957.

Reprint of 1885 edition. Perhaps the most important history of the Ojibway ever written. First hand descriptions and stories.

West, George Arbor. Copper: Its Mining and Use by the Aborigines of the Lake Superior Region: Report of the McDonald-Massee Isle Royale Expedition, 1928. Milwaukee, WI: 1929.

Sites on Isle Royale and implements which were found made of copper. Many illustrations.

White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

About a search for accommodation and common meaning in Indian-white relations. It tells how Europeans and Indians met, regarding each other as alien and how between 1650 and 1815 they constructed a common, mutually comprehensible world in the region around the Great Lakes.

Winger, Otto. The Potawatomi Indians. Elgin, IL: Elgin Press, 1939.

Potawatomi history in Michigan and Indiana.

Winsor, Justin. The Westward Movement: The Colonies and the Republic West of the Alleghanies 1763-1798. Boston, MA: Hougton Mifflin, 1897.

History with many maps.

Wissler, Clark. Indians of the United States. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966.

Traces the history and culture of the American Indian from prehistoric times to the present. Includes Great Lakes area.

Woodford, Frank B. and Albert Hyma. Gabriel Richard, Frontier Ambassador. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1958.

Much about the Native Americans.

Wyman, Walker D. The Chippewa: A History of the Great Lakes Woodland Tribe Over Three Centuries. River Falls, WI: University of Wisconsin-River Falls Press, 1993.

Records the long history of the Chippewa from arrival in the Lake Superior region.

Zeisberger, David. History of the Northern American Indians.​ Edited by Archer Butler Hulbert and William Nathaniel Schwarze. Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1910.

Reproduces a manuscript written in German by David Zeisberger in 1779-1780. Its chief scientific interest is that it depicts conditions before white settlers came into the middle west.


Albers, Patricia and William R. James. "Images and Reality: Post Cards of Minnesota's Ojibway People 1900-80." Minnesota History 49 (Summer 1985): 229-240.

Studying the history and diversity of postcard pictures reveals a great deal about the role that popular photography has played in promoting authentic as well as stereotypic images of Ojibway and other American Indians.

Alvord, Clarence Walworth and Clarence Edwin Carter. "The New Regime 1765-1767." Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library 11 (1916)

Source material on the British regime. Much about the Native Americans.

Alvord, Clarence Walworth and Clarence Edwin Carter. "Trade and Politics, 1767-1769." Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library 16 (1921): 1-760.

British trade and politics source material. Includes the Native Americans.

Anderson, Dean L. "Breaking the Myth." Michigan History 79 (July/August 1995): 26-31.

It was Native Americans, not Europeans, who held the balance of power in the western Great Lakes for over 100 years.

Anderson, Mathew. "Shared Waters." Michigan History 87 (March/April 2003): 28-35.

Fort Miami Heritage Society exhibition explores how Native Americans and early French explorers of the Great Lakes interacted.

Aquila, Richard. "The Iroquois as "Geographic" Middlemen: A Research Note." Indiana Magazine of History 80 (March 1984): 51-60.

The Iroquois' geographic middlemen activities not only provided the Five Nations with economic, political, and military benefits, they also affected the English-French struggle to control the West, the fur trade, and western tribes.

Armstrong, William John. "Sitting Bull and a Michigan Family: Legacy of an Unlikely Friendship." Michigan History 79 (January/February 1995): 28-35.

In the early 1880's Sitting Bull created a series of autobiographical drawings for the Quinby family of Niles. The pictographs are at the Fort St. Joseph Museum.

Benson, Maxine. "Schoolcraft, James and the 'White Indian'." Michigan History LIV (Winter 1970): 311-328.

John Tanner was the 'white Indian.'

Bergstrom, Gerald. "They Call it 'Great Water'." Eberly's Michigan Journal (March/April 1983): 12-13.

The picturesque language of Native Americans survives today in the names of Michigan waterways, towns, and parks.

Blackburn, George M. "Foredoomed to Failure; The Manistee Indian Station." Michigan History 53 (Spring 1969): 37-50.

The station was supposed to become an Indian agricultural community but because of many circumstances it did not prosper.

"Booze Problems: What's Being Done in Detroit and Grand Rapids." Indian Talk 1 (February 1974): 13-15.

The article is about Indian Outreach services.

Borcherdt, Bruce. "Casinos: Lake Superior Tribes Hit the Jackpot." Lake Superior Magazine (August/September 1991): 33-37.

High-stakes Vegas-style casinos are bringing new independence to regional tribes.

Brace, Elmore. "The Savage Allies of the Northwest." Indiana Magazine of History 16 (June 1920): 152-171; 17 (March 1921): 50-68.

The area which now comprises the states of Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan and Wisconsin was inhabited by the Wyandots, Miamis, Shawnees, Delawares, Ottawa, Chippewas and Pottawatomis.

Brown, Elizabeth Gaspar. "Lewis Cass and the American Indian." Michigan History 37 (1953): 286-298.

Information about Cass and his publication, "Inquiries, Respecting the History, Traditions, Languages, Manners, Customs, Religion, Etc, of the Indians Living Within the United States."

Buffalohead, Priscilla K. "Farmers, Warriors, Traders: A Fresh Look at Ojiway Women." Minnesota History 48 (Summer 1983): 236-244.

An image of Ojibway women which speaks of dynamic and resourceful women whose contributions encompassed traditionally defined female roles and reached beyond them into nearly every facet of life.

Burnet, J. "Letters Relating to the Early Settlement of the North-Western Territory – Contained in a Series of Letters Addressed to J. Delafield, Esq During the Years 1837-8." Transactions of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio. 1 (1839): 9-180.

Includes comments about the Indians.

Burns, Francis R. "Chippewa Indians of the Upper Peninsula." Harlow's Wooden Man 5 (Summer 1969): 6-9.

Digest of a term paper written at Northern Michigan University by Burns, who is Chippewa.

Calkins, Edmund A. "Old Trails of Central Michigan." Michigan History 12 (April 1928): 327-349.

Traces the evidence of Indian trails in central Michigan.

Campbell, Daniel R. "Prosperity and Power: The Success and Failure of Potawatomi Leadership in Michigan." Michigan Archaeologist 30 (September/December 1984): 125-136.

This is a case study which focuses on the Mejash Kewappikisco band.

"Cass Manuscripts: No. 1 through No. 7." Wisconsin Historical Collections 3(1857): 141-177.

Translated by Charles Whittsley, these are the documents obtained from the French archives by Lewis Cass which pertain to Old Northwest Native Americans.

Cavill, J. C. "Historic Indian Trails." Harlow's Wooden Man 36 (Fall 2000): 3-5.

The Indian system of trails furnished overland transportation for centuries. The trails were readily adapted during succeeding centuries for commerce and travel by all who came late and developed into much of our present day highway system.

Cleland, Charles E. "Gitchee Gumee Land." Michigan Natural Resources Magazine 55 (May/June 1986): 22-25.

A brief history of the Native Americans in the Great Lakes area.

Cleland, Charles E. "An Introduction to the Cultures and Histories of the Indians of the Great Lakes." Dearborn Historian 14 (Winter 1974): 3-14.

An overview of the subject.

Clifton, James. "Michigan Indians: Tribe, Nation, Estate, Racial, Ethnic, or Special Interest Group." Michigan Historical Review 20 (Fall 1994): 93-152.

A long, complex account of identity for Michigan Indians.

Cox, Isaac Joslin. "The Indian as a Diplomatic Factor in the History of the Old Northwest." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 18 (1909): 542-565.

There were two general diplomatic questions affecting the Northwest. One was a desire to keep the region a wilderness for development of the fur trade. The other was to open the country to civilization.

Cremin, William M. "Late Prehistoric Adaptive Strategies on the Northern Periphery of the Carolina Biotic Province: A Case Study from Southwest Michigan." Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 8 (1983): 91-107.

When European explorers penetrated the upper Great Lakes region, the Potawatomi and Miami Indians of southern lower Michigan were pursuing an economic strategy suited to the northern periphery of the Carolinian biotic province.

"The Critical Period, 1763-1765." Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library 10 (1915).

Source material from the Illinois State Historical Library about the critical period for the British. Much about Indians and Indian affairs.

Demers, E. A. S. "Native-American Slavery and Territoriality in the Colonial Upper Great Lakes Region." Michigan Historical Review 28 (Fall 2002): 163-172.

European enslavement of native peoples was heavily influenced by Native-American constructions of captivity and slavery.

"Detroit Casino Plans by Chippewa in the Hands of the Federal Government." News From Indian Country 6 (Late December 1992): 3.

Two Detroit developers and a tribe of American Indians from northern Michigan are moving ahead with a plan to bring casino gambling downtown- whether voters want it or not.

Doherty, Robert. " 'We Don't Want Them to Hold Their Hands Over Their Heads': The Economic Strategies of the L'Anse Chippewa 1830-1860." Michigan Historical Review 20 (Fall 1994): 47-70.

Though comprised of several factions, the Keweenaw Indians successfully molded the challenges of the 1840s and 1850s to meet their needs, and they did so without being co-opted.

Dorson, Richard M. "The Centennial of Longfellow's 'The Song of Hiawatha'." Michigan History 39 (1955): 461-473.

A survey of the gains in knowledge about Indian tales, songs, dances and ceremonies in the past century.

Dosey, Herbert W. "Great Lakes Indian Lore." Inland Seas 31 (Summer 1975): 97-112.

Adapted from a speech this article provides and overview of the Native Americans in the Great Lakes area.

Dunham, Douglas. "Rix Robinson and the Indian Land Cession of 1836." Michigan History 36 (December 1952): 374-388.

It was through such men as Robinson, with dual interests in the welfare of their Indian friends and in the future development of the lands, that the Indian titles to vast sections of public domain were extinguished with a minimum of difficulty and friction.

Eastman, Charles A. (Ohiyesa). "Camping with Indians." The Teepee Book 1 (September 1915): 5-12.

An account of camping near Lake Superior with Ojibways.

Edmunds, R. David. " 'Designing Men, Seeking a Fortune': Indian Traders and the Potwatomie Claims Payment of 1836." Indiana Magazine of History LXXVII (June 1981): 109-122.

Events surrounding the 1836 Potawatomie claims payments illustrate several facets of the traders' influence upon both the Indians and government officials.

Edmunds, R. David. "Shells That Ring for Shadows on Her Face: Potwatomi commerce in the Old Northwest." Wisconsin Magazine of History 76 (Spring 1993): 162-179.

A history of the Potawatomi traders in Wisconsin.

Edwards, Everett E. "American Indian Contributions to Civilization." Minnesota History 15 (September 1934): 255-272.

The Indians have made many contributions to out present civilization and this paper summarizes them.

Errett, Russell. "The Indian Preference for the French." Magazine of Western History 7 (April 1888): 595-609.

The reasons the Indians preferred the French.

Farmer, Silas. "Detroit During Revolutionary Days." Magazine of Western History 3 (January 1886): 250-257.

Farmer includes information about the Indians in Detroit during the American Revolution.

Fitting, James E. "The Huron as an Ecotype: The Limits of Maximazation in a Western Great Lakes Society." Anthropologica 14 (1972): 3-18. (Fitting Mss Box 4)

The adaption of the Hurons to the changing conditions in the Great Lakes area.

Francis, Shirley. "Indian Health in Michigan: Where is it at?" Indian Talk 1 (September 1974): 6-8.

Poor health is a significant problem.

"The French Regime in Wisconsin, 1634-1727." Wisconsin Historical Collections 16 (1902): 1-477.

The most important documents concerning this epoch in Wisconsin and the Old Northwest.

Gagnieur, William F. "Indian Place Names in the Upper Peninsula, and Their Interpretation." Michigan History 2 (July 1918): 526-555.

Interpretations help make historical research more exact.

Gagnieur, William F. "Some Place Names in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Elsewhere." Michigan History 3 (July 1919): 412-419.

Gives the origin of place names with information about how they were derived from the Indian name for a place.

Gallatin, Albert. "A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America." Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society 2(1836): 9-422.

Includes languages and vocabularies and well as general information.

Genetin-Pilawa, C. Joseph. "The Politics of Assimilation in the Great Lakes, 1880-1910." Northwest Ohio Quarterly 73 (Spring 2001): 65-79.

An overview of the policy of assimilation.

Genser, Wallace. " 'Habitants,' 'Half-Breeds,' and Homeless Children: Transformations in Metis and Yankee-Yorker Relations in Early Michigan." Michigan Historical Review 24 (Spring 1998): 23-47.

This article explores relations between mixed-race inhabitants and Yankee-Yorkers who attempted to implant a distinctly Protestant commercial culture in early nineteenth century Michigan.

Greenman, Emerson F. "Chieftainship Among Michigan Indians." Michigan History 24 (Summer 1940): 361-379.

Some of the information gathered by the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, about individual Indians in Michigan.

Greenman, E. F. "The Compleat Smoker." Michigan Archaeologist 4 (September 1958): 63-68.

Reports of tobacco smoking among the Indians dating back to 1535.

Halsey, John R. "Mishwabik – Red Metal: Lake Superior Copper and the Indians of Eastern North America." Michigan History 67 (September/October 1983): 32-41.

Since at least 3000 B.C. Michigan copper has played a role in the lives and afterlives of Indian societies throughout eastern North America.

Halsey, John R. "Native Copper." Michigan History 85 (November/December 2001): 20-25.

We are beginning to better understand the truly amazing accomplishments of Native American miners and artisans.

Halsey, John R. "Without Forge or Crucible: Aboriginal Native American Use of Metals and Metallic Ores in the Eastern Woodlands." Michigan Archaeologist 42 (March 1996): 1-58.

Halsey explores how Native Americans used various metals and ores prior to full-scale contact with Europeans and offers some explanations of why full metallurgy never developed in the prehistoric eastern woodlands of North America.

Hawkins, Grace. "Some Ways of Managing Indians Around Detroit in Early Days." Michigan History 28 (January/March 1945): 198-203.

Cadillac's correspondence about the Indians.

Hinsdale, Wilbert B. "Indian Modes and Paths of Travel in Michigan." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 6 (1927): 11-20.

Long distance travel was usually on the water.

"History of the Chippewa Tribe." American Indian (June 1939): 12-13.

A brief history.

Holland, Reid. "The Deca Millenium." Indian Talk 3 (December 1975): 25-27; 3 (January 1976): 21-23.

Deca Millenium series prompted by the Bicentennial. It is a reflection upon an invasion and a challenge for red and white to reexamine where they came from. Includes a bibliography.

Holland, Reid. "Indian Life in the Great Lakes Agency." Indian Talk​ 3 (March/April 1976): 27-30.

Acquaints readers with the historical development of the Great Lakes Indian Agency and the caliber of life among Michigan Indians.

"Holy Man's Prayer Opens Congress." Indian Talk​ 2 (October 1975): 29-30.

For the first time in United States history, an American Indian hold man delivered the opening prayers for a House of Congress.

Hunter, Juanita. "The Indians and the Michigan Road." Indiana Magazine of History LXXXIII (September 1987): 244-266.

With the northward push of settlers in Indiana during the 1820's considerable interest developed in constructing a road from Lake Michigan to the Ohio River. The Treaty of 1826 stipulated land for this road.

"A Huron Village." Totem Pole 6 (March 3, 1941): 1-6; 7 (April 7, 1941): 1-12.

Census of the Huron village in the Detroit area which was done in 1743 with information about more than 400 residents. The village was abandoned in 1768.

"Indian Councils at Detroit." Totem Pole 23 (August 1, 1949): 1-2.

Names the chiefs involved at councils held in 1778, 1807, 1809.

"Indian Legal Services Corporation Set Up."Indian Talk​ 3 (December 1975): 14-15.

The start of this corporation is noted with information about the services it provides.

"Indian Legal Services: Native Rights Advocate." Indian Talk​ 3 (January 1976): 7-9.

The work of the service is discussed.

"Indian Villages in Michigan." Totem Pole 6 (January 6, 1941): 4.

Indicates where some of the villages were located.

"An Interesting Document." Totem Pole 20 (October 6, 1947): 1-3.

A land grant made by the Chippewa Indians of the St. Clair district to Richard Cornwall.

Jacobs, Wilbur R. "Presents to Indians Along the French Frontiers of the Old Northwest, 1748-1763." Indiana Magazine of History 44 (September 1948): 245-256.

What they were and who gave them.

Kellogg, Louise Phelps. Editor. "Frontier Advance on the Upper Ohio 1778-1779." Wisconsin Historical Collections 23 (1916): 9-409.

Documents from the Draper Collection.

Kellogg, Louise Phelps. Editor. "Frontier Retreat on the Upper Ohio 1779-1781." Wisconsin Historical Collections​ 24 (1917): 9-499.

Documents from the Draper Collection.

Kohn, Rita. "Always a People: Oral Histories of Contemporary Woodland Indians." Traces 9 (Fall 1997): 14-21.

Several oral interviews with Native Americans.

Larzelere, Claude S. "The Red Man in Michigan." Michigan History 17 (Summer/Autumn 1933): 344-376.

Information about the Hurons, Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Chippewa tribes in Michigan.

McClurken, James. "Strangers in Their Own Land." Grand River Valley Review 6: 2-25.

The Ottawa have managed, by the power of their will and the skill of their political maneuvers to make a place for themselves in a changing Grand River Valley.

McClurken, James. "The Voices of Ottawa Women in Western Michigan History." Grand River Valley History 12 (1995): 8-13.

One of the largest collections of Ottawa women's reminiscences in their own words is in the Local History Department of the Grand Rapids Public Library. This article contains excerpts from the collection.

Magnaghi, Russell. "Indian Slavery in Upper Michigan." Harlow's Wooden Man 17 (Fall 1981): 11-12.

A little known aspect of American colonial history was the enslavement and trade of Indians by the French, English and Spanish colonists.

Magnaghi, Russell. "Red Slavery in the Great Lakes Country During the French and English Regimes." The Old Northwest 12 (Summer 1986): 201-217.

The capture, trade, and enslavement of Indians in the Great Lakes country is a little known or understood aspect of colonial history.

Mann, Nancy Jones. "Great Lakes Indian History: Charting A New Course." Traverse Northern Michigan's Magazine 7 (October 1987): 20-24.

A new book by Helen Tanner offers a comprehensive look at the history of Great Lakes Indians.

Marsden, Michael T. "Henry Rowe Schoolcraft: A Reappraisal." The Old Northwest 2 (June 1976): 153-182.

It is in the light of the recognition of the unfulfilled promise of the Indian as the proper American subject that the work of Schoolcraft must be examined.

Mason, Carol I. "In Search of the Island of the Potawatomis." Chronicle, the Magazine of the Historical Society of Michigan 15 (Summer 1979): 4-11.

Modern historians have puzzled over the location of La Salle's island, both because of its role in the final voyage of the Griffon, and because of its importance in the drama of European expansion.

Massie, Dennis. "Sir William Johnson in Detroit." Detroit Historical Society Bulletin 25 (March 1969): 4-8.

Johnson was the English Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1761. He came to Detroit to establish a treaty and to regulate the fur trade.

May, George S. "The Meaning and Pronunciation of Michilmackinac." Michigan History XLII (1958): 385-413.

A review of Greenman's publication on the subject and responses to it.

"A Michigan Trail." Totem Pole 22 (March 7, 1949): 5-6.

The Indian trail from Cadillac to Grand Traverse Bay as marked out by Milo Petosky Crosby.

Mills, Randy. " 'It is the Cause of all Mischief Which the Indians Suffer': Native Americans and Alcohol Abuse in the Old Northwest." Ohio Valley History 3 (Fall 2003): 3-16.

Frontier accounts vary as to whether excessive drinking on the part of many Native American groups stemmed from biological or cultural factors.

Mitchell, Gary. "Potawatomi Nation Gathers for the Third Year." News From Indian Country (Mid October 1996): 9B.

An estimated 500 representatives from several Potawatomi bands joined in weekend festivities sponsored by the Hannaville Potawatomi.

Morse, Richard F. "The Chippewas of Lake Superior." Wisconsin Historical Collections 3 (1857): 338-369.

A number of chapters include people and episodes of Michigan.

Mumford, Jeremy. "Mixed-race Identity in a Nineteenth-century Family: The Schoolcrafts of Sault Ste. Marie, 1824-27." Michigan Historical Review 25 (Spring 1999): 1-23.

Traces two attempts the Schoolcrafts made to turn Jane's Chippewa inheritance into a family asset.

Noble, Vergil E. Jr. "In Dire Straits: Subsistence Patterns at Mackinac." Michigan Archaeologist 29 (September 1983): 29-48.

Summarizes the subsistence practices of various groups at the Straits, as they are reflected in the faunal assemblages reported from representative sites.

Peters, Bernard C. "Hypocrisy on the Great Lakes Frontier: The Use of Whiskey by the Michigan Department of Indian Affairs." Michigan Historical Review 18 (Fall 1992): 1-13.

Although the government attempted to cover up its use of whiskey, much of the land acquired from Indians was obtained by debauching them with whiskey at treaty negotiations.

Peters, Bernard C. "Indian Grave Robbing at Sault Ste. Marie, 1826." Michigan Historical Review​ 23 (Fall 1997): 49-80.

Peters asks, "Why were Indian skull collected? Who was behind the grave robbing? And, Was there a cover up to protect one of the individuals involved?

Peters, Bernard C. "The Origin and Meaning of the name "Sault Sainte Marie." Michigan Academician 19 (Spring 1987): 253-257.

The original Indian name described the physical feature, but did not have a specific name attached.

Peters, Bernard C. "The Origin and Meaning of Place Names Along Pictured Rock National Lakeshore." Michigan Academician 14 (Summer 1981): 41-55.

Peters discusses not only currently used names but also Chippewa place names no longer in existence.

Peyser, Joseph L. "It was not Smallpox: The Miami Deaths of 1732 Reexamined." Indiana Magazine of History LXXXI (June 1985): 159-169.

Review of the evidence supports d'Arnaud's conclusion that the Miamis died of a toxin in the brandy purchased at Oswego.

Pohrt, Richard A. "The Iron Trade and Tomahawk in Michigan." Michigan Archaeologist 3 (June 15, 1957): 28-31.

History of the tomahawk and its use and manufacture in Michigan.

Prucha, Francis Paul. "The Image of the Indian in Pre-Civil War America." Indiana Historical Society Lectures (1970-1971): 3-19.

Includes views expressed by Lewis Cass.

Rice, H. M. "Mineral Regions of Lake Superior: As Known From Their First Discovery to 1865." Minnesota Historical Society Collections 2 (1860-1867): 176-182.

From their first discovery by Europeans to the mining era.

Robertson, Nellie A. "John Hays and the Fort Wayne Indian Agency." Indiana Magazine of History 39 (September 1943): 221-236.

Information about Hays and his time at the Agency, 1820-1823.

Rolater, Fred S. "The American Indian and the Origin of the Second American Party System." Wisconsin Magazine of History 76 (Spring 1993): 180-201.

Between 1830 and 1842 the second American party system emerged. Voting on Indian matters became the most consistent predictor of whether a person was a Whig or a Democrat.

Rubenstein, Bruce A. "Justice Denied: Indian Land Frauds in Michigan, 1855-1900." The Old Northwest 2 (June 1976): 131-140.

Blame for the Indians losing much of their land and timber ultimately must be laid on the federal government's insistence that Indians receive land in severalty with power of alienation.

Sherer, Tim. "Governor Hull and the Michigan Indians." Detroit in Perspective 7 (Spring 1983): 33-45.

Hull's failure to win over the Michigan Indians not only brought them eventual misery and hardship but also contributed to the downfall of his own administration.

Sibley, Henry H. "Reminscences, Historical and Personal." Minnesota Historical Society Collections 1(1902): 374-396.

Much about the Indians.

Smith, Dwight L. "William Wells and the Indian Council of 1793." Indiana Magazine of History LVI (September 1960): 217-226.

William Wells attended the general council held in the summer of 1793 and made a disposition of his attendance from which we can learn about the council.

Smith, Robert E. "The Clash of Leadership at the Grand Reserve: The Wyandot Subagency and the Methodist Mission, 1820-1824." Ohio History 89 (Spring 1980): 181-205.

United States government officials dealing with Indians were groping for a suitable Indian policy following the War of 1812.

Spooner, Harry L. "The Other End of the Great Sauk Trail." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 29 (July 1936): 121-134.

One of the oldest throughfares in the United States, the Great Sauk Trail started a the mouth of the Rock River, ran through southern Michigan, and ended at Amherstburg.

St. Pierre, T. "Detroit During Cadillac's Administration." Magazine of Western History 5 (November 1886): 62-71.

Includes accounts of Indians in the area and their actions.

Stille, Glenn G. "The Indian of Cadillac's Detroit." Detroit Historical Society Bulletin 12 (November 1955): 4-8.

The five tribes which settled at Detroit served Cadillac well. The Indians were probably responsible for whatever success Cadillac enjoyed from a standpoint of subsistence and economy.

"Story of a River-Name." Michigan Archaeologist 2 (December 15, 1956): 17-21.

Origin and meaning of the name 'Shiawassee'.

Strum, John. "Farewell to the Swan Creek Chippewa." Chronicle, The Quarterly Magazine of the Historical Society of Michigan 21 (Summer 1985): 20-25.

By 1939 white settlers were pressing for an end to the 'Indian nuisance' caused by Chippewas living in Macomb and St. Clair counties. Henry Schoolcraft recommended removal.

Swift, Ivan. "The Good Indian." Michigan History 22 (Summer 1938): 409-414.

Harbor Springs writer with comments about local Native Americans.

Tanner, Helen Hornbeck. "Chippewa History in Michigan." Indian Talk 3 (December 1975): 18-33; 3 (February 1976): 16-28.

The Ottawa and Chippewa bands in Michigan were among the first Indians in the United States to be assigned individual land allotments.

Trask, Kerry A. "In the Name of its Father: Paternalism and the 1763 Indian Uprising at Michilimackinac." The Old Northwest 9 (Spring 1983): 3-21.

The paternalism of the French was replaced by that of the English.

Verwyst, Chrysotom. "Geographical Names in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan having a Chippewa Origin." Wisconsin Historical Collections 12 (1892): 390-398.

Alphabetical listing with name and origin.

Vizenor, Gerald. "The Anishinabe." Indian Historian 4 (Winter 1971): 16-18.

Chippewa/Ojibway should reclaim Anishinabe name.

"Wag-A-Nuk-Zee Center Opens." Indian Talk​ 2 (August 1975): 12-13.

The Center opened in Petoskey.

Wahla, Ed J. "The Straits of Detroit: Land of Attiwandaronk." Totem Pole 27 (April 2, 1951): 1-5.

The Indians who occupied the area.

Wakefield, Francis. "The Elusive Mascoutens." Michigan History 50 (September 1966): 228-234.

The linguistic difficulties that caused confusion.

Warren, William W. "History of the Ojibways, Based on Traditions and Oral Statements." Minnesota Historical Collections 5 (1885): 21-394.

Warren passed his lifetime among the Ojibways of Lake Superior and the Upper Mississippi. His ancestors on the maternal side have been in close connection with the tribe for the past 150 years. Speaking their language perfectly he has deemed it a duty to save their traditions from oblivion.

Warrington, Jerry. "Michigan's Haunted Hunting Grounds." Michigan Sportsman 8 (January/February 1983): 47-49.

Sauk Indians in the Saginaw River region.

Witherell, B.F.H. "Reminscences of the Northwest." Wisconsin Historical Collections​ 3 (1857): 299-337.

Witherell wrote these for Detroit newspapers. The War of 1812 and Indian anecdotes are included.

Woltz, L. Oughtred. "The Chippewa Cession of Mackinac Island to George III, May 12, 1781." Michigan History 9 (April 1925): 136-142.

A history of this event.


American Indian Deeds.

Four deeds to land near Detroit signed with Indian totems of the sellers.

Chaput, Donald. Collection. 1 box.

Includes information about Michigan Native Americans.

Clifton, James. "Visiting Indians" in Canada. 1979. 1 folder

Photocopy of a paper about the Great Lakes Indians moving freely across the US/Canadian border.

Denny, Ebenezer. Correspondence, 1794. 1 folder

Correspondence to Denny as Captain of the detachment for Presque Isle to lay out the town at Presque Isle, Michigan. The letter also directed Denny to watch the movement of the Indians.

Desjarlais, Wayne J. Pottwatomi and Hannahville Indian Community. CMU Term Paper, 1970. (Cannot be copied)

Detroit Collection, 1672-1868.

The collection includes 19th century copies of French and English documents concerning early military and Indian relations history. There is a Finding Aid for this collection.

Featherstonehaugh, George W. Papers. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society. 10 reels of microfilm.

Geddes, P. Letters, 1853-1858. 4 items

Topic of letters includes Indians.

Hollands, Hulda. Papers. 1 box

Hollands was a writer on early Michigan history and the history of St. Clair County. The essays in this collection include: "Native Americans," "The First Inhabitants," "Indian Names," "Okemos," and "Wampum."

Johnston, George. Papers, 1792-1866. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. 3 reels of microfilm.

Johnston was an Indian agent and interpreter. The papers include his journal and copies of his letters.

Keller, Mark. A Micro Model of Leadership among the Ojibwa of Southeast Michigan and their Descendants, with a cassette tape of oral interviews with Normal Landosky and Ron Douglas on August 28-29, 1995 which were used to create this report.

Luther, George. Collection, 1886-1935. 3 folders

Includes his notes, collected information and newspaper clippings on Michigan Indian treaties, land grants, and reservations.

Mackinac Island Collection 1789-1933. 4 reels of microfilm

This collection includes business records, personal and political correspondence, customs and lighthouse reports, legal documents, manuscript biographical genealogies, and other items collected or generated by the Wendell and Fenton families of Mackinac Island.

McKenney, Kathryn. Michigan’s Indians: Their Population Habits from 1900 to 1970.

Undated paper in the McGaugh mss collection.

Porter, David L. Correspondence, 1829-1832. 14 items

Topics discussed include Native Americans and the Black Hawk War.

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Papers, 1806-1875. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. 68 reels of microfilm

The papers are in chronological order with no index. The bulk of the material relates to mineralogy and to Indian affairs.

Stevens, Edward J. Papers. 1 reel of microfilm

File cards and newspaper clippings relating to Indian mounds, villages and towns in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Michigan. Also included are names of Indian chiefs, interpreters, and a manuscript gazetteer of New France and the Old Northwest.

Taliaferro, Lawrence. Papers, 1813-1868. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society. 4 reels of microfilm

Set down in detail in Taliaferro’s journals are the names of the Sioux and Chippewa Indians who visited; their numbers; tribes; bands; chiefs; the gifts, gorgets, medals, trade goods, and annunity payments they received; their health; personal idiosyncrasies ; and day-to-day relationships with the agents, fur traders, and the army. A published guide is available.

Thompson, Jo Anne. Indians and Lewis Cass. CMU Term Paper. (Cannot be copied)

Trelfa, Tom C. and Fred R. Collection. 7 boxes