Government Relations


Native American Bibliography

The Native Americans of the Great Lakes have dealt with the French, British, and the United States governments. They have helped fight the wars between these powers, have worked to enrich them through the fur trade, and ceded much of their land through treaties with the government of the United States.

An Act of the Fourth Congress to Regulate Trade and Intercourse with the Indian Tribes and to Preserve Peace on the Frontier. Printed by John McCall in Detroit, 1796. Facsimile Edition Detroit, MI: Detroit Public Library, 1945.

This printing of the Act was occasioned by the interest of those early Detroiters who lived by trade with the Indians; it told them where the boundary between whites and Indians had been fixed, and specified definite procedures in case of infringement.

Allen, Robert S. The British Indian Department and the Frontier in North America 1755-1830. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1975.

Many illustrations and maps in this history of the British Indian Department.

Annual Report of the Acting Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Michigan, Made to the Bureau of Indian Affairs at Washington, at the Close of the Fiscal Year, 30th September 1840. Detroit, MI: Asahel S. Bagg, 1840.

Schoolcraft was the acting superintendent.​

Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners. Washington, DC, GPO.

Have: 1870, 1871, 1884, 1887.

Brophy, William S. and Sophie D. Aberle. Compilers The Indian: America's Unfinished Business. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966.

Report of the Commission on the Rights, Liberties and Responsibilities of the American Indian.

Campbell, James V. Outlines of the Political History of Michigan. Detroit, MI: Schober, 1876.

Includes Native American leaders.

Canada and Its Provinces: A History of the Canadian People and their Institutions. Toronto: Edinburgh University Press, 1914.

Volumes 1 and 2: New France
Volumes 3 and 4: British Dominion.

Carter, Clarence Edwin. Compiler and Editor. The Territorial Papers of the United States. Washington, DC: GPO.

Volumes 2 and 3: The Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, 1787-1803.
Volume 10: The Territory of Michigan 1805-1820.
Volume 11: The Territory of Michigan 1820-1829.
Volume 12: The Territory of Michigan 1829-1837.

Cleland, Charles. Cass, Sassaba and Ozhaw-quscoday-wa-quay: History, Ethnohistory and Historical Reality." In Entering the 90's: The North American Experience: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 27-28, 1989 edited by Thomas E. Schirera. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1991.

It is likely that Ozhaw-quscoday-wa-quah, a remarkable woman, quite literally saved her relations from annihilation through her supernatural gifts.

Gilpin, Alec R. The Territory of Michigan 1805-1937. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1970.

Gilpin tells of Indian problems and the legal, educational and economic problems of a pioneer area.

Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians. Compiled by Edward E. Hill. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Service, 1981.

Purposes of this guide are to describe and assist the researcher in locating within the National Archives of the United States materials that are concerned with American Indians and the relations of the Government and people of the United States with them.

Harmon, George Dewey. Sixty Years of Indian Affairs: Political, Economic, and Diplomatic 1789-1850. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1941.

Harmon's purpose is to examine the many phases of the federal Indian policy in their financial, political and diplomatic significance. A factor of chief importance was the legal title of the Indians to the soil and the transfer of this ownership to the white people and their government.

Havighurst, Walter. Wilderness for Sale: The Story of the First Western Land Rush. NY: Hastings House, 1956.

An attempt to picture the first huge western frontier in America, and the process of its acquisition from the Indians.

Horsman, Reginald. Expansion and American Indian Policy, 1783-1812. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1967.

From the time the first settlers arrived on the eastern seaboard of America, the fundamental struggle with the aboriginal inhabitants was over possession of the land.

Horsman, Reginald. Matthew Elliot, British Indian Agent. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1964.

From the Revolution through the War of 1812, Elliot was involved in carrying out British policies on the western edges of the American frontier.

Humins, John Harold. George Boyd: Indian Agent of the Upper Great Lakes, 1819-1842. Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1975.

Boyd served as federal Indian agent at Michilimackinac from 1819 to 1832.

Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook Compiled by the Confederation of American Indians. Jefferson, SC: McFarland, 1986.

A state by state listing.

Indian Tribes as Sovereign Governments: A Sourcebook on Federal-Tribal History, Law, and Policy. Oakland, CA: AIRI Press, 1988.

Designed to promote understanding about Indian tribal governments.

Inquiries Respecting the History, Present Condition and Future Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Unpublished.

Questions asked and organization of Schoolcraft's volumes.

The Inter-Agency Advisory Committee Statement for American Indians. Meeting the Health Needs of American Indians in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Public Health, 1978.

The major means of implementing their program is a cooperative communication system.

Jackson, Helen. A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the United States Government Dealings with Some of the Indian Tribes. Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1964.

Includes Michigan.

Janke, Ronald Arthur. The Development and Persistence of U.S. Indian Land Problems as Shown by a Detailed Study of the Chippewa Indian. Dissertation. University of Minnesota, 1975.

Purpose is to analyze the development and persistence of land problems among the Indians of the United States. The Turtle Mountain and Lac du Flambeau bands are closely studied.

Johnson, Steven L. Guide to American Indian Documents in the Congressional Serial Set: 1817-1899. NY: Clearwater, 1977.

Makes more accessible United States documents on American Indians.

Keller, Mark. The Chippewa Land of Keweenaw Bay: An Allotment History. Baraga, MI: Keweenaw Bay Tribal Council, 1982.

The purpose of this study is to outline a history of the Keweenaw Bay Indian community especially how the land was allotted to the tribe by the federal government, and how these lands were sold to non-Indian buyers by various means.

Kinney, J.P. A Continent Lost – A Civilization Won: Indian Land Tenure in America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1937.

Includes a chapter on Indian Removal.

Letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting information in relation to the Superintendency of Indian Affairs, in the Territory of Michigan during the year 1820, and part of the year 1821. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1822.

This is just after the Treaty of Saginaw.

McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham. The Influence of Governor Cass on the Development of the Northwest. A Paper Read Before the American Historical Association, 1888. NY: Knickerbocker Press, 1889.

From 1813 to 1831 Cass was Superintendent of Indian Affairs and came into contact with the Indians of the whole Northwest.

Manypenny, George W. Our Indian Wards. Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clarke, 1880.

Manypenny was Commissioner of Indian Affairs from 1853 to 1857. This book is an account of the relationships between the United States government and the American Indian, valuable for the insight it provides into the philosophies of a man who was active in Indian affairs.

Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs. Annual Report. Lansing, MI: The Commission, 1970 –1977.

The Commission on Indian Affairs has worked to provide the basis for a firm policy that will improve health, education, housing and economic development for the Indians of our State."

Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs. Commission Progress Report. Lansing, MI: The Commission, 1997.

Report on programs and personnel.

Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs. Michigan Indian Directory. Lansing, MI: The Commission, 2000 and 2002.

Directory of urban Indian organizations, federal and historical tribes, American Indian services and resources.

Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs. Resource Manual. Lansing, MI: The Commission, 1998.

Directory of cultural, education, youth and senior programs.

Michigan Department of the Treasury. Taxation of American Indians in Michigan. Lansing, MI: The Department, 1997.

Brief economic history of American Indians in Michigan; summary of major court decisions regarding state and tribal tax issues; socioeconomic description of Michigan's American Indians; State services received by Indians in Michigan; and estimates of the state taxes paid and cost to the State of exempting certain Indian activities from taxation.

Michigan Division of Health Care Systems. Meeting Health Needs of American Indians and Migrant Farm Workers in Michigan. Lansing, MI: The Division, 1978.

The purpose of the study was to provide background and develop a knowledge base in order to develop policy.

The Minutes of the Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs 1956-1977. Akron, OH: Hillman Publications, 1990.

The Commission is an important agency in the history of Indians in the State and a ‘must' in terms of getting a clear picture of what was happening in the world of Indians in the State. The minutes were collected and published by a former commissioner so they would not be lost.

Morse, Jedidiah. A Report to the Secretary of War of the United States, on Indian Affairs, Comprising a Narrative of a Tour Performed in the Summer of 1820, Under a Commission from the President of the United States, for the Purposes of Ascertaining, for the Use of the Government, the Actual State of the Indian Tribes in Our Country. New Haven, CN: S. Convene, 1822.

Morse was in the Great Lakes region as part of his tour.

The Papers of Sir William Johnson. Prepared for publication by Alexander C. Flick. Albany, NY: University of the State of New York, 1925. Have: Volumes 4-14.

Johnson was in charge of the northern branch of Indian affairs for the British.

Pevar, Stephen L. The Rights of American Indians and Their Tribes. NY: Puffin Books, 1997.

Prepared by the American Civil Liberties Union this guide set forth the rights of American Indians and their tribes under the present law and offers suggestions as to how these rights can be protected.

Pokagon, Simon. Indians Residing in Michigan and Indiana: Supplementary Memorial of Certain Indians Residing in Michigan and Indiana. 42nd Cong. 2nd Sess. Misc Doc 137. Washington, DC: GPO, 1872.

The Potawatomies remaining in Michigan and Indiana present to Congress the condition of the other annunities and funds heretofore granted by the government to them, and show the amounts of the same now remaining due and unpaid.

Pound, Arthur. Johnson of the Mohawks. NY: Macmillan, 1930.

Sir William Johnson who was in charge of Indian Affairs for the British. Includes his trip to Detroit in 1761 and treaty negotiations there.

Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Policy in the Formative Years. The Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts 1790-1834. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962.

This study of developing legislation shows, through congressional documents and records, how existing conditions governed and modified the enactments of Congress.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Lewis Cass and American Indian Policy. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1967.

Historical Society of Michigan Lecture, 1966.

Report of the Michigan Interim Action Committee on Indian Problems. Lansing, MI: 1971.

Part One presents recommendations to alter the structure and responsibilities of the Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs and Part Two focuses on the programs necessary to meet the urgent needs of the Indian citizens of Michigan.

Smith, E. B. Compiler. Indian Tribal Claims Decided in the Court of Claims of the United States briefed and compiled to June 30, 1947. Washington, DC: University Publications of America, 1976. 2 volumes.

Smith provides in a convenient form complete information regarding the judicial history of transactions between the government and various groups of aboriginal Indians.

Smith, William Henry. The Life and Public Services of Arthur St. Clair, Soldier of the Revolutionary War; President of the Continental Congress; and Governor of the North-Western Territory. Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clarke, 1882. 2 volumes.

Includes St. Clair's Native American policies.

Sosin, Jack M. Whitehall and the Wilderness: The Middle West in British Colonial Policy, 1760-1775. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1961.

Whitehall decided on an imperial program which included maintaining royal garrisons in the wilderness, Indian reservations and equitable trade with the natives.

Stone, William L. The Life and Times of Sir William Johnson, Bart. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1865. 2 volumes.

Johnson was in charge of British Indian policy. Stone includes Johnson's visit to Detroit.

Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. Compiler. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. Albuquerque, NM: Tiller Research, 1996.

A state by state guide.

Unger, Robert W. Lewis Cass: Indian Superintendent of the American Territory, 1813-1831: A Survey of Public Opinion as Reported in the Newspapers of the Old Northwest Territory. Dissertation. Ball State University, 1967.

Were Cass's activities as Indian Superintendent of the Michigan Territory as reported in the newspapers of the Old Northwest the basis for his future national political strength?

United States. Census Office. Report on Indians Taxed and Not Taxed in the United States (except Alaska) at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington, DC: GPO, 1894.

Lists state by state Condition of the Indians" and Vital Statistics.

United States. Congress. Condition of the Indian Tribes. Report of the Joint Special Committee, with an Appendix. 38th Cong. 2nd sess. Washington, DC: GPO, 1867.

Appendix is reports from all over the country.

United States. Congress. L'Anse and Vieux de Sert Bands of Chippewa Indians. 43 Cong. 1st sess. Report # 396. Washington, GPO, 1874.

A bill for the relief of the L'Anse and Vieux de Sert band of Chippewa Indians in the State of Michigan.

United States. Congress. Letter from the Secretary of War Transmitting a List of Names of Persons Charged with the Disbursement of Money, Goods, or Effects, For the Benefit of the Indians. 23rd Cong. 2nd sess. House # 150. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1835.

Includes Michigan.

United States. Congress. Licenses to Trade with Indians, 1831 and 1832. US 22nd Cong. House Doc no. 121. Washington, DC: 1832.

Includes Michigan.

United States. Congress. A List of the Names of the Several Agents of Indian Affairs, and of Agents of Indian Trading Houses, with the Pay and Emoluments of the Agents Respectively. Washington, DC: DeKraft, 1818.

The President is reporting this information to the Senate.

United States. Congress. Report of the Committee on Public Lands, of the House of Representatives of the United States, in Relation to Claims to Land in the Territory of Michigan. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1828.

People claiming land and their reasons.

United States. Congress. Report of the Secretary of War Relative to the Number and Situation of the Indians on the Frontiers of the United States, and a Plan for an Increase of the Army. US 24th Cong. 1st Sess. Washington, DC: 1836.

United States. Department of Commerce. Federal and State Indian Reservations and Indian Trust Areas. Washington, DC: GPO, 1974.

A listing by state.

United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Annual Report from the Office of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC.

Holdings: 1837, 1847, 1851, 1864, 1865, 1868, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1894, 1895, 1911.
These reports include information on Michigan groups.

United States. Secretary of the Interior. Communicating a Report Made by R.H. Schoolcraft, on the State of Indian Statistics. Washington, DC: 1854.

Difficulties of getting accurate statistics.

United States. Secretary of the Interior. Report Relative to the Necessities of the Chippewa Indians of Lake Superior, and Recommending an Appropriation for Relief. 40th Cong. 2nd sess. Ex Doc 246. Washington, DC: 1868.

United States. Secretary of War. The Indian Department. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1822.

Number of persons employed in the Indian Department, as superintendents, factors, agents, subagents, interpreters, missionaries, teachers, mechanics, agriculturists, explorers, surveyors, and messengers, with their names.

United States. Secretary of War. Information in Relation to the Superintendency of Indian Affairs, in the Territory of Michigan During the Year 1820, and Part of the Year 1821. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1822.

Amount of presents to the Indians in 1820 was considerably increased by the Treaty of Saginaw.

Viola, Herman J. Thomas L. McKenney, Architect of America's Early Indian Policy, 1816-1830. Chicago, IL: Swallow Press, 1974.

Story of McKenney's life and work with his Indian projects. It is also a study in public policy making and administration, and a glimpse into the religious and humanitarian programs so fashionable in the early 19th century.

Wallin, Helen. The United States Indian Agency and Its Employees in Michigan 1814-1851 with Special Emphasis on Walter Drake, U.S. Farmer in the Grand Traverse Area." Report of the Historical Society of Greater Lansing, May 20, 1964.

Information taken from government reports.

Woehrmann, Paul. At the Headwaters of the Maumee: A History of the Forts of Fort Wayne. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1971.

Mainly concerned with the heyday of Fort Wayne when it served as a military post, Indian agency, trading house, and diplomatic headquarters.

Woodford, Frank B. Lewis Cass: The Last Jeffersonian. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1950.

Includes his work with the Indians.

Young, Willliam T. Sketch of the Life and Public Services of General Lewis Cass. Detroit, MI: Alexander McFarren, 1852.

Includes his work with the Indians.​


American Indians Receiving Payment


Alward, Clarence W. and Clarence E. Carter. "Trade and Politics, 1767-1769." Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library 16 (1921)

British trade and politics source material. It includes much on Pontiac.

Berkhofer, Robert F. Jr. "Americans Versus Indians: The Northwest Ordinance, Treaty Making, and Native Americans." Indiana Magazine of History LXXXIV (March 1988): 90-108.

Expansion with honor as a policy for United States Indian relations was bound to fail because American ethnocentrism only permitted solutions in terms limited by white ideals.

Blackburn, George M. "George Johnston and the Sioux-Chippewa Boundary Survey." Michigan History LI (Winter 1967): 312-322.

This line was called for in the Prairie du Chien Treaty of 1825.

"Canadian Documents." Wisconsin Historical Collections 5 (1867-1869): 64-108.

Various documents from the Canadian Library relating to the Old Northwest 1690's to 1730's.

Conrad, Dennis. "Museums Bury the Dead." News From Indian Country 9 (Late November 1995): 6A.

Federal law and American Indian descendants may force the reburial of remains and burial objects under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990.

Flesher, John. "Michigan Leaders Pleased with Compensation." News From Indian Country 11 (Late November 1997): 3A.

In 1948 the Bay Mills Indian community sued the federal government for shortchanging their ancestors in a land deal. After another half-century of legal twists and turns Washington apparently is about to pay up.

Flesher, John. "Tri-State Gathering Seeks Help in Battling Pollution." News From Indian Country 7 (Mid July 1993): 7.

Tribal leaders from three states met in Traverse City and accused the federal government of shortchanging tribes on funds for environmental problems.

Gower, Calvin W. "The CCC Indian Division: Aid for Depressed Americans." Minnesota History 43 (Spring 1972): 3-13.

By providing financial assistance to working Indians to improve their land the CCC was a valuable program for American Indians.

Gulliford, Andrew. "Bones of Contention: The Repatriation of Native American Human Remains." Public Historian 18 (Fall 1996): 117-143.

This essay explores the history of the collection of Native American skeletons and explains the unintended effects of recent legislation which was passed to help return Indian remains to tribal hands.

Gulliford, Andrew. "Curation and Repatriation of Sacred and Tribal Objects." Public Historian 14 (Summer 1992): 23-45.

Native Americans are reasserting hegemony over their own cultural values and insisting on curatorial change in the nation's museums.

Hardiman, Clayton. "Indians Reject Payment Plan." Indian Talk 2 (December/January 1975): 18-19.

The Grand River Band of Ottawa Indians voted unanimously to reject a government plan for payment of more than $1 million for land the Indians ceded 153 years ago.

Harrold, Richard. "Saginaw Chippewa May Face Supreme Court in Property Tax Withholding Case." News From Indian Country 11 (Late October 1997): 1+.

Since 1988 members of the Saginaw Chippewa tribe have refused to pay property taxes on land bought from non-Indians in Union Township, Isabella County, Michigan. County and state officials want them to pay up; the tribe says it doesn't have to.

Hinsdale, B.A. "The Western Land Policy of the British Government from 1763 to 1775. Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 1 (December 1887): 207-229.

"Facts now presented show conclusively that in the years following the French war the western policy of the British was not steady or consistent, but fitful and capricious; prompted partly by a solicitude for the Indian that was partly feigned."

"Indian Commission Forms Plan of Operation." Indian Talk 1 (April 1974): 4-8.

The Commission will be centering its attention on Indian groups and organizations.

"Indian Commission Problems Analyzed, Solutions Recommended by Director." Indian Talk 3 (March/April 1976): 16-18.

The Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs issued a report which recommends operating and policy guidelines.

Jung, Patrick J. "To Extend Fair and Impartial Justice to the Indian: Native Americans and the Additional Court of Michigan Territory, 1823-1836." Michigan Historical Review 23 (Fall 1997): 25-48.

While Anglo-American law as thrust upon Native Americans against their will, they were not passive victims of an alien legal system, but devised strategies to use the law for their own benefit.

Kole, Bill. "Michigan Legislation Would Broaden Tribal Police Powers." News From Indian Country 7 (Late May 1993): 8.

Tribal police would have more power to make arrests both on and off Michigan reservations under legislation which cleared a House panel.

"Michigan Could Lose $25 Million Commission if They Approve Pokagon Casino (St. Joseph, Michigan)." News From Indian Country 10 (Mid March 1996): 6A.

The state promised it would not allow private gambling.

"Michigan Indian Band Sues for Health Care." News From Indian Country 4 (March 8, 1990): 13.

The suit contends about 100 band members from Charlevoix county are being denied promised health care.

"Ottawa Face Decisions After Recognition." News From Indian Country 12 (Mid January 1978): 4A.

A $13 million windfall is among major issues facing the Little River Band of Ottawa.

Pittman, Philip McM. "Michigan Indian Treaties: The Problem of Title, Rights and Privileges." Chronicle, The Magazine of the Historical Society of Michigan 27 (1993): 35-39.

Pitman discusses the thorny issues surrounding current interpretation of treaty rights accorded to Native Americans and the larger matter of property rights and power.

Prucha, Francis Paul. "America's Indians and the Federal Government, 1900-2000." Wisconsin Magazine of History 84 (Winter 200-2001): 24-37.

Reviewing a century of conflict and change Prucha is cautiously optimistic.

Prucha, Francis Paul. "Early Indian Peace Medals." Wisconsin Magazine of History 45 (Summer 1962): 279-289.

Early medals were designed and produced to provide suitable symbols of peace and friendship for the Indian tribes with whom we shared the continent.

"Indian Tribes Asked to Give Back." News From Indian Country 12 (Mid October 1998): 1+.

Lawmakers are putting pressure on wealthier tribes to give up a large chunk of their federal funding, and several Michigan tribes have made their list.

Rubenstein, Bruce A. "Suffrage for the Savage: The Struggle for Indian Voting Rights in Michigan, 1850-1867." The Journal of the Great Lakes History Conference 2 (1979): 49-56.

Indians were enthusiastic voters because the elective franchise was not conditioned upon assimilation.

Satz, Ronald N. " 'Tell Those Gray Haired Men What They Should Know': The Hayward Indian Congress of 1934." Wisconsin Magazine of History 77 (Spring 1994): 196-224.

In April 1934 representatives from Indian bands and tribes in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan convened at Hayward, Wisconsin for the purpose of receiving information about proposed federal legislation calling for major reforms in Indian affairs.

St. John, Paige. "Michigan Indian Tribes File Suit Over Gambling Talks." News From Indian Country 4 (Mid July 1990): 4.

Six Michigan Indian tribes claim Governor James Blanchard has blocked talks on reservation gambling rights.

Stevens, Paul L. "The Indian Diplomacy of Capt. Richard B. Lernoult, British Military Commandant of Detroit, 1774-1775." Michigan Historical Review 13 (Spring 1987): 47-82.

As commandant at the outbreak of the American Revolution, Lernoult conducted the Crown's Indian business at Detroit at a time when British policy underwent a marked shift.

Stevens, Paul L. " 'To Keep the Indians of the Wabache in His Majesty's Interest': The Indian Diplomacy of Edward Abbott, British Lieutenant Governor of Vincennes, 1776-1778." Indiana Magazine of History LXXXIII (June 1987): 141-171.

Scrutiny of Abbott's Indian diplomacy.

"Upper Peninsula Chippewa Seeking Federal Status." News From Indian Country 6 (Late May 1992): 3.

Chippewas living in the Upper Peninsula are seeking federal recognition as an Indian tribe to preserve their heritage and collect government benefits.

Volwiller, Robert T. "The Imperial Indian Department and the Occupation of the Great West, 1758-1766." Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society (1925): 100-107.

The completion of the occupation of the Great West in 1765 opened it permanently to Anglo-Saxon civilization.​


Butt, William G. Michigan Collection on Indian Affairs, 1903-1981. 1 box, 1 volume.

This collection documents Native American issues, legislation, and governmental organizations concerned with the issues in Michigan.

Aboriginal People. National Archives of Canada. 259 reels of microfilm.

The Native Americans of Michigan and Canada intermingled freely. These documents provide information from the Canadian side of the border.

Cass, Lewis. Collection.

This manuscript collection contains newspaper clippings about Lewis Cass and his dealings with Native Americans, arranged in chronological order. 1826-1848 and 1934.

Cederberg, Alfred. 55 boxes.

Cederberg was a Member of the House of Representatives years

Included in this collection are: Maple River Water and Michigan Indians 1975-1978; Michigan Indian Grant; Intertribal Council of Michigan 1969-1970; Michigan Indians 1968-1971; and Michigan Indians Fishing Rights and Legal Issues 1978.

Clifton, James. Papers.

1) Keewenaw Bay Chippewa case documents, 2) Bay Mills Sault Ste. Marie court documents, 3) Isabella Reservation documents, 4) Saginaw Chippewa documents.

Griffin, Robert P. Papers.

Sault Ste. Marie Indian Trust Lands, Box 203.

Harrison, William Henry. 1 folder.

"Voucher! Greenville 10th August, 1873. For the Putawaumies one hundred and ninety eight pounds of beef and flour – and one hundred and ninety two gills of whiskey, Wm. H. Harrison, Comissary."

Hawkins, Charles. Saginaw Indian Sub-Agency, 1836-1846." CMU Term Paper. (Cannot be copied)

Indian Agents and Commissioners of Indian Affairs. Vertical File-Native Americans.

Mereness, Newton D. Calendar of Material in the Federal Archives Relating to the Upper Mississippi Valley. Washington, DC: National Archives, 1937. 55 reels of microfilm.

A detailed card index to the documentary materials in the National Archives relating to the history of the upper Mississippi River. Including records from the Department of State, the Senate, the Post Office, the Department of the Interior, and the War Department.

Reinhard, Martin. 1 folder.

Included is a copy of a report by United States Indian Agent George W. Lee, 1881. The report details the activities and problems of members of the Swan Creek and Black River Band and the Saginaw Chippewa tribe at the Isabella Reservation.

Sargent, Winthrop. Winthrop Sargent Papers, 1786-1820. Massachusetts Historical Society. 7 rolls of microfilm.

Arranged chronologically. Includes the dissertation of Benjamin H. Perishing, "Winthrop Sargeant: A Builder in the Old Northwest." Papers include Sargeant's secretaryship and duties and acting governor of the Old Northwest Territory, problems arising from the Indian threat, the preparations for and defeat of the St. Clair expedition against the Indians.

Sibley, Henry Hastings. Henry Hastings Sibley Papers. 1834-1874. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1968. 32 reels of microfilm

Sibley was active in affairs around the Great Lakes in many capacities. He was Governor of Minnesota Territory and a fur trader. His papers include a good account of the fur trade at Mackinac Island.

The Territorial Papers of the United States. Washington, DC: National Archives and Record Service, 1972.

Territory of Michigan 1805-1837. 2 reels of microfilm.
Official records of those federal territories which ultimately became states of the Union. Indian affairs are generally excluded from the series.

United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Papers.

1) Correspondence, February 26, 1902 regarding the amount of acreage in the Isabella Indian Reservation, 2) Huron Potawatomi. Inc. 1995 proposed findings about the recognized federal status of the Huron Potawatomi of Fulton, Michigan, 3) Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Potawatomi Indians of Michigan federal acknowledgement 1997, 1998, 4) Schedule of enrollment of all members of the United Band of Chippewa and Munsee Christian Indians in Kansas, 1900.

United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. Washington, DC: National Archives. 962 reels of microfilm.

Correspondence received by the Central Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. To a large extent the records here reproduced consist of communications received from Superintendents, agents and other field officials of the Bureau. These communications relate to the general situation of the Indians, their population, education, health and medical care, and their agriculture and subsistence. They cover such matters of administrative concern as emigration, land allotments, annuity payments, depredations, claims, complaints, traders, buildings, supplies, employees and accounts.

United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Letters Sent by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. Washington, DC: National Archives. 166 reels of microfilm.

Arranged by date or by category. No tribal or geographic index. Reproduced handwritten transcripts of communications sent by the Office of Indian Affairs during the period March 18, 1824 through January 5, 1882. The letters include instructions to superintendents, agents, and other field officials of the Bureau, reports to the Secretary of War, acknowledgements of and replies to incoming letters, notices of appointment, and many other communications concerning all aspects of the operations of the office.

United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Special Files of the Office of Indian Affairs 1807-1904. Washington, DC: National Archives, 1971. 62 reels of microfilm

These records relate principally to claims and investigations. Includes Black Hawk War, Michigan, Ottawa Indians, Potawatomi Indians, Chippewas of Saginaw, Schools, and War of 1812.

United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Records. Washington, DC: National Archives. 1 reel of microfilm.

Selected documents concerning the administration of Indian affairs at the La Pointe and Mackinac Indian agencies 1855-1871. Indian agent was Leach.

United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Michigan Superintendency. Washington, DC: National Archives. 72 reels of microfilm

Letters received and sent by the Superintendent and the agents at Mackinac and Sault Ste. Marie, May 31, 1814-April 14, 1851. Rolls 2 and 3 include the letter books of Lewis Cass, ex-offico Superintendent of Indian Affairs 1814-1818.

United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letters Sent 1807-1823. Washington, DC: National Archives. 6 reels of microfilm

This position was responsible for purchasing goods for the Indian trade, transmitting those good to the factors on the frontier; receiving, storing and disposing at auction of the ‘furs and peltries' collected in barter with the Indians; purchasing and transmitting, after 1811, goods needed for annunities and presents for the tribes; receiving periodic reports on the trade from the factors; and instructing factors in matters of policy and practice.

United States. Treasury Department. Letters Received by the Secretary of the Treasury Relating to Public Lands (N Series) 1831-1849. Washington, DC: National Archives, 1849. 23 reels of microfilm

These letters relate to such subjects as Indian Territories; preemption rights, letters from members of Congress, narrative reports for Michigan, etc.

United States. War Department. Indian Affairs. Letters Sent by the Secretary of War, 1800-1826. Washington, DC: National Archives. 6 reels of microfilm

United States. War Department. Indian Affairs. Letters Received by the Secretary of War, 1806-1824. Washington, DC: National Archives. 4 reels of microfilm

The responsibility for the conduct and administration of the government's relation with Indian Tribes was entrusted to the Secretary of War in 1789 until the establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs within the War Department in 1824. Indian affairs remained the responsibility of the War Department until 1849, when they were transferred to the Department of the Interior. Letters Received has many letters from the Indians themselves demanding redress of grievances, as well as correspondence relating to claims for war losses.