Literature and Legends


Native American Bibliography

The literature of the Native Americans includes their stories and legends handed down over the generations orally. Works about Native American authors are included in this section. There have also been books written with Native American heroes and heroines and these are also included here. Books primarily for children have not been included in this bibliography.

Altrocchi, Julia C. Wolves Against the Moon. NY: Macmillan, 1940.


Andrews, Clarence. Michigan in Literature. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1992.

A guide to literary and dramatic works sets in Michigan. Includes a chapter on Indians, French and British.

Armstrong, L.O. "Hiawatha," or, Nanabozho: An Ojiway Indan Play. n.p.: 1901.

Descriptive notes and excerpts to be used as a libretto.

Asikinack, William. "Anishinabe (Ojiway) Legends through Anishinabe Eyes." In Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 16-17, 1987 edited by Thomas E. Schirer. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University,1988: 3-12.

Augustine, Robertson M. Kau-bau-gwas-shee: A Flat River Story. Greenville, MI: 1973.

Fictional account of Mikkinak, an Ot-chit-we Indian who lived in the Flat River area of Michigan.

Baner, Johan Gustav R. Kitch-iti-ki-pi, the "Big Spring"; Wonderfully Beautiful. The Ojibway and Chippeway Indian Legends. Manistique, MI: 1933.

The Big Spring is 12 miles from Manistique, Michigan. These are the Native American stories about it.

Barbeau, C.M. Huron and Wyandot Mythology With an Appendix Containing Earlier Published Records. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1915.

The Hurons settled along the shore of the Detroit River in 1701.

Belknap, Charles E. The Legend of the Trailing Arbutus. Unpublished.

The tale of winter changing to spring.

Bishop, Levi. Teuchsa Grondie. A Legendary Poem. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons, 1870.

Teucha Grondie was an Indian village on the present site of Detroit.

Brehm, Victoria. Editor. The Woman's Great Lakes Reader. Duluth, MN: Holy Cow Press, 1998.

Includes Anishnaabeg stories.

Brown, William Edgar. Echoes of the Forest; American Indian Legends. Boston, MA: R.G. Badger, 1918.

Ojibwa stories in poetic form.

Brown, William Edgar. Indian Legendary Poems and Songs of Cheer. NY: Everywhere Publishing Co., 1912.

Ojibwa Indian legends in poetic form.

Brown, William Edgar. The Valley of the Ontonagon. St. Ignace, MI: St. Ignace Enterprise, n.d.


Burton, Frederick R. Redcloud of the Lakes: A Novel. NY: Dillingham, 1909.


Chamberlin, Mary Jane. Whitewing: An Indian Story. Charlevoix, MI: The Author, 1911.


Clements, William M. Native American Folklore in Nineteenth Century Periodicals. Athens, OH: Swallow Press, 1986.

Includes: "Mental Character of the Aborigines" by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft; "The Huron Historical Legend" by Horatio Hale; and "Indian Superstitions and Legends" by Simon Pokagon.

Coady, John P. The Legends and Story of the Michigan Indian. Cedar Springs, MI: Cedar Springs Historical Society, 1993.

Legends given to John Coady by a student in Morley, Michigan.

Coatsworth, Emerson and David Coatsworth. Compilers The Advenures of Nanbush: Ojibway Indian Stories Told by Sam Snake, Chief Elijah Yellowhead, Alder York, David Simcoe, Annie King. Full color illustrations by Francis Kagigo. NY: Atheneum, 1980.

Tales are a faithful translation of the Ojibway legends and remain as true to the oral traditions as possible.

Coleman, Bernard, Ellen Frogner, and Estelle Rich. Ojibwa Myths and Legends. Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1962.

These stories express aboriginal social and religious beliefs and an aboriginal economy.

Copway, George. The Ojibway Conquest, A Tale of the Northwest, by Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh, or G. Copway. NY: G.P. Putnam, 1850.

Tradition says the last decisive battle between the Sioux and the Ojibwa was fought near the Apostle Islands. This is a tale of that tradition in the form of a poem.

Deming, Alden O. Manabozho, The Indian's Story of Hiawatha. Philadelphia, PA: Davis, 1938.

Taken from Schoolcraft's works.

Dunn, Anne M. When Beaver was Very Great: Stories to Live By. Mount Horeb, WI: Midwest Traditions, 1995.

Dunn is an Ojibwa storyteller.

Emerson, Ellen Russell. Indian Myths, or, Legends, Traditions and Symbols of the Aborigines of America compared with those of Other Countries Including Hindostan, Egypt, Persia, Assyria, and China. Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1965. Reprint of 1884 edition.

Includes Great Lakes Indian legends.

Engle, C. Five Advertising Pamphlets Concerning Indian Chief Simon Pokagon and His Books. Hartford, MI: 1901.

Engle was Pokagon's publisher.

Ford, Richard Clyde. Campfire and Trail (The White Captive): A Tale of the Pontiac War. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 1915.


Fuller, Iola. The Loon Feather. NY: Harcourt, Brace, 1940.


Gillard, Kathleen Isabel. Michigan as Recorded in its Writings. Dissertation. George Peabody College for Teachers, 1950.

Gillard, Kathleen Isabel. Our Michigan Heritage. NY: Pageant Press, 1955.The purpose of this work is to describe writings which have their origin in Michigan or which describe it. First chapter is "The Indian in Michigan History and Literature."

Gordon, Charles W. The Man from Glenfarry: A Tale of the Ottawa. NY: Revell, 1901.


Gordon, H.L. Legends of the Northwest including ‘The Sea Gull': The Ojibwa Legend of the Pictured Rocks of Lake Superior. St. Paul, MN: St. Paul Book and Stationery Co.,1881.

Legends in verse. Include the Dakota legends "The Feast of the Virgins," "Winona," and "The Legend of the Falls." An Ojibwa legend, "The Sea Gull" is also included.

Greasley, Philip A. Editor. Dictionary of Midwestern Literature. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Includes Native American authors.

Grimm, Joe. Compiler and Editor. Michigan Voices: Our State's History in the Words of the People Who Lived It. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1987.

Includes Native Americans Blackbird and Pontiac.

Hamilton, Charles. Cry of the Thunderbird: The American Indian's Own Story. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1950.

More than fifty authors, including Ohiysea, Simon Pokagon, Andrew Blackbird, William Warren, and Tecumseh are represented in this collection.

Hamlin, Marie Caroline Watson. Legends of Le Detroit. Detroit, MI: Thorndike Nourse, 1884.

Many of the legends involve Indians.

Hardin, Terri. Legends and Lore of the American Indians. NY: Barnes and Noble, 1993.

Includes stories from the Great Lakes region.

Hedrick, Ulysses P. The Land of the Crooked Tree. NY: Oxford University Press, 1948.


Helbig, Aletha K. Editor. Nanabozhoo, Giver of Life. Brighton, MI: Green Oak Press, 1987.

Over 60 stories about Nanabozhoo.

Inaqtik Atanoqken and John I. Bellaire. Medicine Water. Maskhig kiu ne pish Kitch-iti-ki-pi; The Big Spring. Menominee and Chippeway Indian Legends and Myths. n.p.:1933.

Stories of the Menominee and Ojibwa Indians.

The Indian Play "Hiawatha," in the Land of the Ojibways, Wa-ya-ga-mug. Grand Rapids, MI: Grand Rapids and Indiana Railway, 1912.

Libretto of the Indian play Hiawatha, played at Wa-ya-g-mug, on the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railway, near Petoskey, Michigan, each summer season, by native Ojibway Indians.

Johnston, Basil H. Mermaids and Medicine Women: Native Myths and Legend. Illustrated by Maxine Noll. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1998.

Collection of Ojibway mythology.

Johnston, Basil. Ojibway Tales. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.

Traditional tales.

Jones, William. Ojibwa Texts Collected by William Jones. Edited by Truman Michelson. NY: G.E. Stechert, 1917-1919. 2 volumes.

An attempt to get at the religious ideas of a people from their own point of view.

Judson, Katharine Berry. Myths and Legends of the Mississippi Valley and the Great Lakes. Chicago, IL: McClurg, 1914. and reprint Dekalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 2000.

A collection of American Indian stories.

Kane, Grace Franks. Compiler. Myths and Legends of the Mackinacs and the Lake Region. Cincinnati, OH: Editor Publishing Co., 1897.

Indian myths and legends.

Kawbawgam, Charles. Ojibwa Narratives of Charles and Charlotte Kawbawgam and Jacques Le Pique, 1893-1895. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1994.

Traditional tales related near Marquette, Michigan in the summers of 1893-1895.

Kuclo, Marion. Michigan Haunts and Hauntings. Lansing, MI: Thunder Bay Press, 1992.

Includes Native American stories.

Kutz, Mrs. M. Jennie. Wab-ah-see, the White Swan: A Legend of the Sleeping Dew and Other Poems. Grand Rapids, MI: Dygert, Hart, 1870.

Laidlaw, Geo. E. Ojibwa Myths and Tales. Reprinted from the Archaeological Report, 1918.

"In this paper I have taken in a wider scope of myths and tales, embracing those from earliest times before the advent of the white man, and those of presumably the time of French occupation of Canada down through modern times to the latter life of the present day Indians."

Langley, Mary Cobb. Chippewa Trails and Indian Tales. Pigeon, MI: Thumb Publications, 1968.

Lanman, Charles. Haw-Ho-Noo; or, Records of a Tourist. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Grambo, 1850.

Includes many Native American legends including some from the Great Lakes area.

Leekley, Thomas B. The World of Manabozho; Tales of the Chippewa Indians. Illustrated by Yeffe Kimball. NY: Vanguard Press, 1965.

Leekley retells some of the Manabozho stories.

Leggett, Samuel. Me-nah-sa-gor-ning. A Legend of Orchard Lake. n.p.: 1909.

A legend of verse of Orchard Lake in Oakland County.

Lewis, Janet. The Invasion: A Narrative of Events Concerning the Johnston Family of St. Mary's. NY: Harcourt, Brace, 1932.


Littlejohn, F.J. Legends of Michigan and the Old Northwest; or, A Cluster of Unpublished Waifs, Gleaned Along the Uncertain, Misty Line, Dividing Tradtional from Historic Times. Allegan, MI: Northwestern Bible and Pubishing Co., 1875. Reprint: Allegan, MI: 1956.

"The characters, facts and events we have sought to delineate we frankly admit have hitherto been ranked, neither among the world's celebrities, nor have they been immortalized in song and story. They may all be pronounced within the ordinary track of adventurers in border life and Indian warfare."

Contains: "The Shawnee and Pottowatomie War"; "The Triple Alliance and Final Great Battle of Three Rivers"; "The Sauk, Fox and Chippewa Raid"; "Ou-wan-a-ma-che and Mo-kish-e-no-qua or, the Native Saginaw Maidens of 1804"; :Alice and Effie or, The Captive White Maidens of the Huron River"; "Star Light and Red Hand or, The Discarded Ojibway Wife and Son"; "The Chippewa Raid on Green Bay or, Red Wing the Sauk Chief"; and "Se-go-quen, the Native Deaf-Mute, or The Last Raid."

Llewellyn, H. Ojibbeway Joe: or Red Eagle's Flight. NY: Clinton Taylor Dewitt, 1877.

Champion ten cent novel, no. 40.

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. "Hiawatha," With its Original Indian Legends, Compiled with Essays on its Authentic Background of Lake Superior Country and Chippewa Indians by Chase S. Osborn and Stellanova Osborn. Lancaster, PA: Jacques Cattell, 1944.

Complete correlation of the poem with the original Indian legends from which it was constructed.

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. The Song of Hiawatha. Boston, MA: Ticknor and Fields, 1855.

Great Lakes Indian legend turned into an epic poem.

Ludlow, Will Comback. Onawago: or, the Betrayer of Pontiac. Benton Harbor, MI: Antiquarian Publishing Company, 1911.


Mac Harq, William Briggs. The Indian Drum. NY: Grosset & Dunlap, 1917.


Macomb, Alexander. Pontiac, or, the Siege of Detroit. A Drama in Three Acts. Boston, MA: S. Colman, 1835.


McClinchey, Florence. Joe Pete. NY: Holt, 1929.


McNeil, Everett. Daniel du Luth, or Adventuring on the Great Lakes; Being the Tale Told by Young Paul Douay of the Long Journey He Made in Indian Canoes in the Company of Daniel Greysblon Du Luth, from Montreal through the Great Lakes to Lake Superior, in Quest of his Sister Stolen by the Indians when a Babe…as Set Down in English by Everett McNeil. NY: Dutton, 1926.


McSherry, James. Pere Jean, or, The Jesuit Missionary: A Tale of the North American Indians. Baltimore, MD: J. Murphy, 1847.


Mengelkoch, Louise. "Rejection and Renewal: The Theme of Alienation in the Writings of Five Mixed Blood Word Warriors." In Entering the 90's: The North American Experience: Proceedings of the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 27-28, 1989. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1991. 134-148.

Analyzes the work of William W. Warren, Gerald Vizenor, Maria Campbell, Michael Dorris and Louise Erdrich.

Moore, John Eugene. Indian Paul. NY: Harcourt, Brace, 1945.

Fiction set in Mackinac County.

Morriseau, Norval. Legends of my People the Great Ojibway. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1965.

Morriseau tells of the beliefs, tales and legends of the Ojibwas.

Nichols, Robert E. Birds of Algonquin Legend. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1995.

Indian stories of birds in the Great Lakes region.

O'Gushnaan = Our Mother. Sault Ste. Marie, ONT: Wayne Webb, 1982.

A collection of writings by and about Anishinabe of the Eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

Olson, Dennis L. Shared Spirits: Wildlife and Native Americans. Minocqua, WI: Northword Press, 1995.

Collection of Native American stories focusing on the 12 animals more revered by traditional Native cultures.

Osborn, Chase S. and Stellanova Osborn. Schoolcraft – Longfellow – Hiawatha. Lancaster, PA: Jaques Cattell, 1942.

In its essence the Song of Hiawatha is as native to America as are the Indian lore and legends it embodies.

Otto, Simon. Ah-soo-cah-nah-nah: Storyteller. Indian River, MI: Talking Leaves, 1997.

Otto, an Ottawa and Ojibway elder is striving to pass on what he knows and what he has heard so that younger ones can carry on traditions.

Otto, Simon. Walk in Peace: Legends and Stories of the Michigan Indians. Illustrations by Kayle Crampton. Grand Rapids, MI: Michigan Indian Press, 1990.

Stories and legends Otto remembers.

Overholt, Thomas W. and J. Baird Callicott. Clothed–In–Fur, and Other Tales: An Introduction to an Ojibwa World View. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982.

The authors believe that the world view they attempt to describe is a fundamental presupposition of all aspects of the traditional Ojibwa culture, and that reflection on it will enhance understanding of specific aspects of that culture.

Page, Lorena M. Legendary Lore of Mackinac. Original Poems of Indian Legends of Mackinac Island. Cleveland, OH: The Author, 1901.

Poetry of the legend about Mackinac.

Parrish, Randall. The Sword of the Old Frontier, A Tale of Fort Chartres and Detroit: Being a Plain Account of Sundry Adventures Befalling Chevalier Raoul de Coubert…During the Year 1763. NY: Burt, 1905.


Peyton, John L. The Stone Canoe and Other Stories. Blacksburg, VA: McDonald and Woodward, 1989.

Collection of 12 stories told by the northern Ojibway.

Pokagon, Simon. Algonquin Legends of Paw Paw Lake. Hartford, MI: Engle, n.d.

Birch bark book.

Pokagon, Simon. Algonquin Legends of South Haven. Hartford, MI: Engle, n.d.

Birch bark book.

Pokagon, Simon. Indian Day. Poem. Hartford, MI: Engle, n.d.

Birch bark book.

Pokagon, Simon. O-Gi-Maw-Kwe Mit-I-Gwa-Ki (Queen of the Woods). Also Brief Sketch of the Algaic Language by Chief Pokagon. Hartford, MI: Engle, 1899.

The story of Pokagon and his first wife, with an historical sketch of Pokagon's life.

Pokagon, Simon. Pottawattamie Book of Genesis: Legend of the Creation of Man. Hartford, MI: Engle, 1901.

Birch bark book.

Pokagon, Simon. The Red Man's Greeting. Hartford, MI: Engle, 1893.

Birch bark book.

Pokagon, Simon. The Red Man's Rebuke. Hartford, MI: Engle, 1893.

Birch bark book.

Richardson, John. Wacousta: Or the Prophecy: An Indian Tale. London: [1832].

Fiction about the Pontiac conspiracy.

Rohr, Jack F. Ojibway Trails. Ottawa, IL: Jack Rohr, 1928.

Ojibway stories of We-ne-bo-sho.

Schell, Stanley. Editor. Hiawatha Entertainment…Scene of "Hiawatha Bids Farewell to His People," "Transformation Scene." NY: E.S. Werner, 1907.

How to present Hiawatha with chapters on Directions for Indian Costumes and Make-up, How to Make and Set Up a Wigwam, How to Make Moccasins, Study Helps, Building of the Canoe, and Indian Sun Dance.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. Algic Researches, Comprising Inquiries Respecting the Mental Characteristics of the North American Indians. NY: Harper, 1839. 2 volumes

Many stories of the Great Lakes Indians.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. The Fire Plume: Legends of the American Indians. NY: Dial Press, 1969.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. The Myth of Hiawatha, and Other Oral Legends, Mythologic and Allegoric of the North American Indians. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott, 1856.

Reprint: Au Train,MI: Avery Color Studios, 1984.
Versions of oral legends from the Indians.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. Oneota, or The Red Race of America. 1 (August 1844).

Contents: "Indian Storytellers," "The White Stone Canoe," "The Lynx and Hare," "The Worship of the Sun," "Shingebiss," "Names of the American Lakes," "Ojibwa Song," "Shingabawossins, or Imase Stones," "Pawnee Barbarity," "Personal Reminscences," "Picture Writing Among the North American Indians," "Grave Creek Mound," "Georgraphical Terminology of the United States," "Indian Music, Songs and Poetry," "Piskaret, an Algonquin Chief," "The Saustawraytsees, a Wyandot Tradition," "Early Sketches of Indian Women," "Chant of Indian Children to the Fire-fly," and "Indian Arrow-heads."

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Schoolcraft's Ojibwa Lodge Stories; Life on the Lake Superior Frontier. Edited with an introduction by Philip P. Mason. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1962.

Reprint of the Literary Voyager No. 1, December 1826 to No. 15, April 1827.

Schwarz, Herbert T. Windigo, and Other Tales of the Ojibways. Illustrated by Norval Morrisseau. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1969.

Eight legends of the Ojibway, illustrated in the traditional style of the tribe.

Seno, William J. Enemies: A Novel. Madison, WI: Prairie Oak Press, 1992.


Skinner, Charles M. Myth and Legend of Our Own Land. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott, 1896.

There is a section which has Great Lakes Native American stories.

Smallwood, Carol. Editor. Michigan Authors. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 1993.

Includes Native American authors.

Sproul, Gloria C. Mishe-mokwa and the Legend of Sleeping Bear. Greenwich, CT: Mishe-Mokwa Publications, 1979.

Thompson, Ione M. Amik! Paradise, MI: Cloud Nine, 1989.

Fiction about John Johnston.

Troop, Edna Willa. Blackbird: A Story of Mackinac Island. Detroit, MI: Citator, 1907.


Turrill, David A. Michilimackinac: A Tale of the Straits. Fowlerville, MI: Wilderness Adventure Books, 1989.


Vilom, Judith C. Folklore of the North American Indians: An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1969.

Includes a section on Northeast Woodland folklore.

Vizenor, Gerald. The Everlasting Sky: Voices of the Anishinabe People. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2000.


Vizenor, Gerald. The People Named the Chippewa: Narrative Histories. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.


Vizenor, Gerald. Editor. Touchwood: A Collection of Ojibway Prose. St. Paul, MN: New Rivers Press, 1987.

Native American authors.

Walker, Louise J. Beneath the Singing Pines. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 1971.

Chippewa stories.

Walker, Louise J. Legends of Green Sky Hill. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1959.

The author collected these Ojibwa stories near Charlevoix, Michigan.

Walz, Grace. Andrew Jackson Blackbird of L'Arbre Croche. Thesis. Western Michigan University, 1964.

A study of Blackbird's life and work.

Weatherwax, Wilma M. The Blue-Eyed Chippewa (Bayshew). Swartz Creek, MI: Broadblade Press, 1986.


Weeks, George. Sleeping Bear; Its Lore, Legends and First People. Glen Haven, MI: Cottage Book Shop of Glen Harbor, 1988.

Indian lore of the Sleeping Bear sand dunes.

Western Scenes and Reminscences: Together with Thrilling Legends and Traditions of the Red Men of the Forest to which is added Several Narratives of Adventures Among the Indians. Auburn: Derby and Miller, 1853.

Contents include: "Personal Reminscences," "Tales of a Wigwam," "Poetry," "Sketches of the Lives of Noted Red Men and Women," "Origin and History of the Race," Ethnology," "Language," and an Appendix with 6 captivity narratives.

Whiting, Henry. Ontwa, The Son of the Forest. A Poem. NY: Wiley and Halsted, 1822.


Whitney, A. Pontiac: A Drama of Old Detroit. 1763. Boston, MA: Badger, 1910.


Williams, Mentor L. Editor. Schoolcraft's Indian Legends from Algic Researches, The Myth of Hiawatha, Oneota, The Red Race in America, and Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes of the United States. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1991.

Reprint of Schoolcraft stories.

Wilson, Robert C. Crooked Tree. NY: Putnam, 1980.


Wright, J. C. Chicago-Jig: The Tradition of the Happy Hunting Grounds. Alma, MI: J.C. Wright, 1934.

Hand made book. Chicago-Jig was an Ottawa chief who camped with his followers along the southern shore of Lake Michigan. Chicago was named after him according to Wright.

Wright, John C. The Great Myth. Lansing, MI: Michigan Education Co., 1922.

Story of the origin of Na-Na Bo-Sho.

Wright, John Couchois. Northern Breezes. Harbor Springs, MI: J.C. Wright, 1917.

Poems of northern Michigan by this Native American author.

Wright, John Couchois. The Ottawan, A Short History of the Villages and Resorts Surrounding Little Traverse Bay, and the Indian Legends Connected Therewith. Harbor Springs, MI: J.C. Wright, 1895.

Wright said he wrote the Ottawan hoping it would prove a worthy memento of one of the oldest missionary fields in the northwest and one of the fairest spots on the entire globe.

Wright, John C. Petoskey…Greatest Tradition of the American Indians and Best Souvenir of the North. With Notes and Indian Refrains. All Work Done by Hand by the Author. n.d.

Scrapbook, with pasted in postcards of the Petoskey area and a poem of Chief Pe-Toss-E-Ga.

Wright, John Couchois. Scenic Michigan in Verse. Ithaca, MI: Gratiot County Herald, 1939.

Poems meant to be a souvenir of Michigan.

Wright, John C. Stories of the Crooked Tree. Harbor Springs, MI: Lakeside Press, 1915.

Legends, myths, grotesque and ludicrous tales, based upon superstition or imagination, as well as those relating to historical incidents, all had a part in the life of the aborigines of L'Arbre Croche, and are here set down precisely as related by the Indians themselves or by others familiar with their manners and customs.

Wright, Robert. Legends of the Chippewas. Munising, MI: Wright Printing, 1927.

Collection of mythical stories relating to the exploits of the Indian demi-gods, about the region of the Pictured Rocks and south shore of Lake Superior.

Voelker, John D. Laughing Whitefish. NY: McGraw Hill, 1965.



Belknap, Charles E. "Legend of Trailing Arbutus." Michigan History 10 (July 1926): 323-326.

Legend of winter changing to spring.

Belknap, Charles E. "Indian Legend of Plum Orchard." Michigan History 9 (April 1925): 131-135.

Tradition related to Belknap by an Ottawa woman.

Bulkley, John M. "The Early French Settlements on the Great Lakes." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 22 (January 1913): 341-348.

Includes Chippewa stories of Men-a-bou-jou.

Champney, Stella M. "Michigan Indian Trails: Legends of Nena-Boo-Shoo, The Trickster." Michigan History 19 (Spring/Summer 1935): 215-229.

Stories of The Trickster retold by a writer for the Detroit News.

Crooks, Anne. "Legends of Spirit Island." Lake Superior Magazine (May/June 1987): 26-31.

Native American stories of Spirit Island in Minnesota.

Dickason, David H. "Chief Simon Pokagon: 'The Indian Longfellow.'" Indiana Magazine of History LVII (June 1961): 127-140.

Dustin, Fred. "Chief Pokagon and His Book." Michigan History 6 (1922): 565-572.

A review of Queen of the Woods.

Ernes, Calvin. "Indian Legends as Told By Amos Greenbird and Other Indians Who Lived at Au Gres and Saganing." Michigan Heritage 7 (Summer 1966): 215-221.

Brief stories.

Faben, Walter W. "Listen for the Thunderers." Northwest Ohio Quarterly 35 (Autumn 1963): 164-171; 36 (Spring 1964): 98-112.

Stories from the legends of the Indians.

Hale, Horatio. "A Huron Historical Legend." Magazine of American History (December 1883): 475-483.

The Legend of King Sastaretsi who led his people to Detroit, with explanations.

Helbig, Alethea K. "Manabozho: Trickster, Guide, and Alter Ego." Michigan Academician 7 (Winter 1975): 357-371.

Paper explaining that Manabozho was the guide and representative of every person.

Helbig, Alethea K. "Manabozho of the Great Lakes Indians: As He Was, As He Is." Michigan Academician 11 (Summer 1978): 49-58.

In spite of the passage of about one hundred forty years and numerous changes in Indian life and culture owing to the coming of the whites, Manabozho remains neither entirely human nor wholly a god, but something in between, a little of both.

Leggett, Samuel M. "The Legend of Me-Nah-Sa-Gox-Ning." Michigan History 5 (July/October 1921): 356-363.

Verse of romance at Orchard Lake.

Littlejohn, Flavius J. "Red Cloud and Dew Drop." Michigan History 3 (October 1919): 663-717.

A previously unpublished romance of the Saginaws.

McKee, Russell. "Meekatoto, The Tale of a Rabbit." Michigan Conservation 26 (July/August 1957): 27-31.

An Indian legend.

Morrison, Dennis Michael. "The Magician of the Manatoline Islands." Above the Bridge 8 (Spring 1992): 27-28; 8 (Summer 1992): 28-29.

These are fables of the Ottawa Indians printed in Schoolcraft's The American Indian.

"The Origin of the Arbutus: An Indian Legend." Magazine of American History (March 1892): 222-224.

Legend of Winter and Spring in the form of poetry.

Sakry, Mark. "Maniboujou and the Thunderbirds: Trickster of Ojibway People." Lake Superior Magazine (October/November 1992): 34-37.

This modern interpretation of an authentic Ojibway legend is based on a translation by Frances Densmore.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. "Wa-Wa-Be-Zo-In, or, The Swing on the Pictured Rocks of Lake Superior." Above the Bridge 9 (Fall 1993): 32-33.

Schoolcraft's story adapted by Alice M. Radcliffe.

Smith, Donald. "The Life of George Copway or Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh (1818-1869) - and a Review of His Writings." Journal of Canadian Studies 23 (Autumn 1988): 5-38. (Vertical File-Native Americans-Copway, George).

Raises questions about the historical reliability of Copway's published work about himself and the Ojibway Indians.

"Story of the First Earth: A Chippewah Legend." American Indian (June 1939): 37-39.

Swift, Ivan. "Indian Legend of the Deluge." Michigan History 23 (Summer 1939): 217-219.

As related to Swift by Albert Wabanossa at Garden River.

Swift, Ivan. "The Indian." Michigan History 11 (April 1927): 185-190.

Kijigobenese family legend of their Lord's ascension retold by Swift.

"Wabus, the Winner." Michigan Sportsman 4 (July/August 1979): 34-35.

A Menominee legend about Rabbit.

"White Swan: A Legend of the Pottawotami." American Indian (June 1939): 62.

Whitney, Blair. "American Indian Literature of the Great Lakes." The Great Lakes Review 2 (Winter 1976): 43-53.

An overview of the Native American literature in the area.

Wright, John C. "Indian Legends of Northern Michigan." Michigan History 2 (January 1918): 81-89.

Stories told by Sophia Bailey, Wright's grandmother.‚Äč


Collins, Jerrie Lynn. Bibliography of the Work of John Cushois Wright of Harbor Springs, Michigan. CMU Term Paper, 1969. (Cannot be copied.)