Michigan's Native Americans have fought in many wars both for and against the governments occupying the area.


Alberts, Robert C. George Rogers Clark and the Winning of the Old Northwest. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1975.

Publication of the George Rogers Clark National Historic Park in Vincennes, Indiana.

Andrews, Roger. Old Fort Mackinac on the Hill of History. Menominee, MI: Herald-Leader, 1938.

Records the history of the old forts which were the defenses of the early northwest development.

Anglo-French Boundary Disputes in the West 1749-1763. Edited by Theodore Calvin Pease. Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, 1936.

Documentary source material.

Antal, Sandy. A Wampum Denied: Proctor's War of 1812. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1997.

Story of the war of 1812 on the Detroit frontier with emphasis on Tecumseh.

Armour, David and Keith R. Widder. At The Crossroads: Michilimackinac During the American Revolution. Mackinac Island, MI: Mackinac Island State Park Commission, 1978.

While much of the story is told through experiences, attitudes and judgments of De Peyster and Sinclair, the authors have attempted to present the community as a whole, including the Indians.

Armour, David A. Editor. Massacre at Mackinac: Alexander Henry's Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories Between the Years 1760 and 1764. Mackinac Island, MI: Macinac Island State Park Commission, 1966.

A reprint of volume one of Henry's Narrative. "Henry's account of his canoe voyage to Michilimackinac and his subsequent journey as a captive paints a rich panorama of life, both Indian and white, on the upper Great Lakes from 1760-1764."

Armour, David A. Editor. Treason? At Michilimackinac. Mackinac Island, MI: Mackinac Island State Park Commission, 1967.

The proceedings of a General Court Martial trial held at Montreal in October 1768 against Major Robert Rogers.

Atherton, William. Narrative of the Suffering and Defeat of the North-Western Army, Under General Winchester: Massacre of the Prisoners: Sixteen Months Imprisonment of the Writer and Others with the Indians and British. Frankfort, KY: A.G. Hodges, 1842.

The River Raisin Massacre. The author says, "By some it may be thought strange to find the savages, in point of feeling and humanity, placed above the British – but the truth ought always to be told."

Au, Dennis M. War on the Raisin: A Narrative Account of the War of 1812 in the River Raisin Settlement, Michigan Territory. Monroe County Historical Commission, 1981.

Report of the attacks by the British and the Indians.

Baby, William Lewis. Souvenirs of the Past. Windsor, ONT: 1896.

Baby recounts his experiences during the Conspiracy of Pontiac among other things.

Barbarities of the Enemy, Exposed in a Report of the Committee of the House of Representatives of the United States, Appointed to Enquire into the Spirit and Manner in which the War has been Waged by the Enemy, and the Documents Accompanying Said Report. Worcester, MA: Isaac Sturtevant, 1814.

One of the points raised was the ransom of American prisoners from the Indians.

Brace, Elmore. The Land of the Miamis. Fowler, IN: Benton Review Shop, 1922.

An account of the struggle to secure possession of the Northwest from the end of the Revolution until 1812.

Barnett, Le Roy and Roger Rosentreter. Michigan's Early Military Force: A Roster and History of the Troops Activated Prior to the American Civil War. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2003.

There are chapters on the pre-territorial miltia, the War of 1812, and the Black Hawk War.

Barnhart, John D. Editor. Henry Hamilton and George Rogers Clark in the American Revolution with the Unpublished Journal of Lieut. Geo Henry Hamilton. Crawfordsville, IN: R.E. Banta, 1951.

The American Revolution was responsible for the chief tasks which Hamilton undertook as Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit – the direction of Indian warfare on the western frontiers and the command of an expedition against George Rogers Clark.

Barry, James P. Old Forts of the Great Lakes: Sentinels in the Wilderness. Lansing, MI: Thunder Bay Press, 1994.

A guide to the forts and why and where they were built.

Beers, Henry Putney. The Western Military Frontier 1815-1846. Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, 1935.

Chief attention is fixed upon the military frontier which is regarded as the line of military posts that developed from the Great Lakes to the Red River.

Beirne, Francis F. The War of 1812. Hamden, CN: Archon Books, 1965.

Includes Tecumseh.

Berkhofer, Robert F. "Barrier to Settlement: British Indian Policy in the Old Northwest 1783-1794." In The Frontier in American Development: Essays in Honor of Paul Wallace Gates edited by David M. Ellis. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1969. 249-276.

The Indian confederacy was used by the British to consolidate the Indians and frustrate American plans.

Berton, Pierre. The Invasion of Canada. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1980.

Includes Tecumseh.

Bird, Harrison. War for the West 1790-1813. NY: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Reconstruction of the Indian campaigns in the West during the War of 1812.

Bodley, Temple. George Rogers Clark: His Life and Public Services. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1926.

Clark was instrumental in winning the trans-Allegheny wilderness for the United States, including Detroit.

Bougainville, Louis Antoine de. Adventure in the Wilderness: The American Journal of Louis Antoine de Bougainville 1756-1760. Translated and edited by Edward P. Hamilton. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964.

Bougainville served as General Montcalm's aide-de-camp during the French and Indian War.

Bond, Beverley W. The Civilization of the Old Northwest: A Study of Political, Social and Economic Development, 1788-1812. NY: Macmillan, 1934.

Includes a chapter, "The Conquest of the Indians."

Bouquet, Henry. The Orderly Book of Colonel Henry Bouquet's Expedition Against the Ohio Indians, 1764. Edited by Edward G. Williams. Pittsburgh, PA: Mayer Press, 1960.

Bouquet's expedition against the Ohio Indians has not been accorded the military fame it deserves. Bouquet was the master of the proper means to combat the Indians as demonstrated at Bushy Run.

Bouquet, Henry. The Papers of Henry Bouquet. Edited by S.K. Stevens, Donald H. Kent and Autumn L. Leonard. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1972. 5 volumes.

Includes his Detroit years and Michigan Native Americans, and Pontiac's Rebellion.

Bouquet's March to the Ohio: The Forbes Road. Edited with an Historical Introduction, Notes, and Appendices by Edward G. Williams. Pittsburgh, PA: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, 1975.

Relation Historique de l'Expedition contra Les Indians de l'Ohio en MDCCLXIV Commadee par le Chevalier Henry Bouquet. Amsterdam: Marc-Michel Rey, MDCCLXIX.

Pontiac's War source material.

Bourinot, John G. Canada Under British Rule 1760-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1900.

Includes sections on the War of 1812.

Boyd, Thomas. Mad Anthony Wayne. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1929.

Biography of the leader of the American forces against the Indians in the Old Northwest.

Brady, Cyrus Townsend. Border Fights and Fighters. NY: McClure, Phillips, 1902.

Includes the Old Northwest Territory.

Brannan, John. Official Letters of the Military and Naval Officers of the United States, During the War with Great Britain in the Years 1812, 13,14, & 15 With Some Additional Letters and Documents Elucidating the History of that Period. Washington, DC: Way & Gideon, 1823.

Includes the Great Lakes area.

Brown, Samuel. An Authentic History of the Second War for Independence. Auburn: J.G. Hathaway, 1815.
Includes Michigan, the Great Lakes, and Indian involvement in the War of 1812.

Brown, Samuel R. Views of the Campaigns of the North-Western Army. Burlington, VT: Samuel Mills, 1814.
Includes Tecumseh and Indian participation in the War of 1812. The account ends with the reoccupation of Detroit in the fall of 1813. Brown was a participant in part of what he describes.

Brownell, Charles DeWolf. The Indian Races of North and South America. Boston, MA: Dayton and Wentworth, 1852.

Contains information on Pontiac's War.

Buell, Augustus C. Sir William Johnson. NY: D. Appleton, 1903.

Contains a chapter on Pontiac's War.

Burgess, Rosaline K. Fort St. Joseph in Port Huron 1686-1688. Port Huron, MI: Museum of Arts and History, 1985.
A study of the early French in the area of Port Huron.

Burton, Clarence M. Editor. Ephraim Douglas and His Times; A Fragment of History with the Journal of George McCully and Various Letters of this Period. NY: William Abbatt, 1910.

Events of a trip to Detroit in 1783 to notify the Indians of the terms of peace after the Revolutionary War.

Butterfield, Consul Wilshire. History of George Roger Clark's Conquest of the Illinois and the Wabash Towns 1778 and 1779. Columbus, OH: F.J. Heer, 1904.

Clark's successes were the most important of any gained by the Americans over the British and Indians northwest of the Ohio during the Revolutionary War.

Butterfield, Consul Wilshire. Washington-Irvine Correspondence. Madison, WI: D. Atwood, 1882.

Correspondence between General Washington as Commander in Chief of the American army and Brigadier General William Irvine, while the latter was in command of the Western Department from 1781-1783.

Byfield, Shadrach. A Narrative of a Light Company Soldier's Service in the Forty-first Regiment of Foot (1807-1814). NY: William Abbatt, 1910.

A contribution to the literature of the War of 1812, with details regarding the Indian allies of the British.

Byfield, Shadrach. Recollections of the War of 1812: Three Eyewitness Accounts. Toronto: Baxter, 1964.

"A Common Soldiers Account" by Shadrach Byfield; "An Onlookers View" by P. Finan, and "The Other Side of the Hill" by Elias Darnell.

Caruso, John Anthony. The Great Lakes Frontier: An Epic of the Old Northwest. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1961.

Includes chapters on the Indian war and Tecumseh.

Church, Thomas. The History of Philip's War…also, of the French and Indian Wars at the Eastward in 1689, 1690, 1692, 1696, and 1704. Exeter, NH: J & B Williams, 1829.

Includes Tecumseh.

Claiborne, Skinner. " ‘They Would Not Suffer the French to Live Among Them': The Fox Wars, the Emergency of 1747, and the Origins of the Seven Years War 1671-1752." In Entering the 90's: The North American Experience (Proceedings of the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 27-28, 1989) edited by Thomas E. Schirer. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University Press, 1991. 27-39.

An attempt to integrate several chapters of early Great Lakes history into a larger Trans-Atlantic context. It is the story of two small Indian nations, the Fox and Wyandotte, and how they helped bring about the fall of New France and set the timetable for the Age of Revolution.

Clark, George Rogers. Col. George Rogers Clark's Sketch of His Campaign in the Illinois in 1778-1779. Cincinnati:OH: Robert Clarke, 1869.

Letter from Clark to George Mason about his secret expedition to reduce the British posts in the Old Northwest.

Clark, George Rogers. The Conquest of the Illinois. Chicago, IL: R.R. Donnelly, 1920. Edited by Milo Milton Quaife.

To Clark's foresight and success is due the fact that the great country lying west of Pittsburgh, north of the Ohio and stretching to the Mississippi, was saved for the Colonies.

Clark, George Rogers. The George Rogers Clark Papers edited by James Alton James. Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library. Volume 8: 1771-1781. Volume 19: 1781-1784.

Source material for this period with much about the Indians.

Clements, William L. Journal of Major Robert Rogers. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 1918.

Rogers wrote a great deal about the Indians.

Coffin, William F. 1812; The War, and Its Moral: A Canadian Chronicle. Montreal: John Lovell, 1864.

Includes Tecumseh.

Coles, Harry L. The War of 1812. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Includes Tecumseh.

Cooke, David C. Fighting Indians of America. NY: Dodd, Mead, 1954.

Includes Pontiac, Little Turtle, Tecumseh and Black Hawk.

Cort, Cyrus. Col. Henry Bouquet and His Campaigns of 1763 and 1764. Lancaster, PA: Steinman & Hensel, 1883.

Includes Pontiac.

Croghan, George. George Croghan's Journal of His Trip to Detroit in 1767, with his Correpondence Relating Thereto. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1939.

In Detroit Croghan met with the Indians of the vicinity, learned that the Chippewa had called a congress and warned the Lakes tribes against war.

Croghan, George. "A Selection of George Croghan's Letters and Journals Relating to Tours into the Western Country November 16, 1750 – November 1765." In Early Western Journals 1748-1765 edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1904. 47-184.

Next to Sir William Johnson, George Croghan was the most prominent figure among British Indian agents during the period of the later French wars, and the conspiracy of Pontiac.

Cruickshank, E. Editor. Documentary History of the Campaign on the Niagara Frontier in 1814. Welland: Tribune Office, 1908. 9 volumes

War of 1812 source material from the Canadian Archives.

Cruickshand E.A. Editor. Documents Relating to the Invasion of Canada and the Surrender of Detroit 1812. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1913.

Includes an Indian speech given June 8, 1812.

Cruickshank, Ernest A. Harrison and Proctor: The River Raisin. Ottawa: 1910.

A paper read in 1910.

Darnall, Elias. A Journal, Containing the Accurate and Interesting Account of the Hardships, Sufferings, Battles, Defeat and Captivity of those Heroic Kentucky Volunteers and Regulars Commanded by General Winchester in the Years 1812-13.

Also Two Narratives by Men who were Wounded in the Battles of the River Raisin, and Taken Captive by the Indians. Philadelphia, PA: Gregg and Elliot, 1834.

War of 1812.

Dawson, Moses. A Historical Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of Major-General William H. Harrison, and a Vindication of His Character and Conduct as a Statesman, a Citizen, and a Soldier. Cincinnati, OH: M. Dawson, 1824.

With details of his negotiations and wars with the Indians, until the final overthrow of the celebrated chief Tecumseh and his brother the Prophet. A contemporary source on Harrison and an excellent account of the War of 1812 in the west.

DeHass, Wills. History of the Early Settlement and Indian Wars of Western Virginia. Wheeling, WV: H. Hoolitzell, 1851.

Includes French and Indian war and Pontiac.

De Peyster, Arent Schuyler. Miscellanies, by an Officer. NY: A.E. Chasman, 1888.

De Peyster served as Captain in the North West Territory, British Possessions, Canada. This book contains his ‘Speech to the Western Indians' given in 1776 and the speeches of Jingus Tawanong and Quieouigoushkam. It contains documents relating to the British efforts to bring the Lake Indians to the British cause.

Diary of the Siege of Detroit in the War with Pontiac. Also a Narrative of the Principal Events of the Siege, by Major Robert Rogers; A Plan for Conducting Indian Affairs by Colonel Bradstreet; an other authentick documents never before printed. Edited by Franklin B. Hough. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1860.

Eyewitness accounts of the siege.

Dillon, John Brown. History of the Early Settlement of the Northwestern Territory From Its Earliest Exploration by Europeans, to the Close of the Territorial Government in 1816.

Pontiac's War and Indian treaties are included.

Document Transcription of the War of 1812 in the Northwest. Columbus, OH: Ohio Historical Society, 1951.

Volume 1: William Henry Harrison and the War of 1812.
Volume 2: Return Jonathan Meigs Jr and the War of 1812.
Volume3: Thomas Worthington and the War of 1812.
Volume 4: Anecdotes of the Lake Erie Area, War of 1812.
Volume 5: National Intelligencer Reports of the War of 1812.
Volume 6: Letters to the Secretary of War, 1812. 4 parts.
Volume 7: Letters to the Secretary of War, 1813. 3 parts.
Volume 8: Letters from the Secretary of War, 1812-1813.
Volume 9: Fort Fayette Freight Book 1812-1813.

Drake, Benjamin. Life of Tecumseh, and of His Brother the Prophet with a Historical Sketch of the Shawanoe Indians. Cincinnati, OH: E. Morgan, 1841.

"In whatever aspect the genius and character of Tecumseh may be viewed, they present evidence of his having been a remarkable man."

Dudley, Thomas P. Battle and Massacre at Frenchtown, Michigan, January, 1813. Western Reserve and Northern Ohio Historical Society. n.d.

As recalled by a survivor.

Early History of Western Pennsylvania, and of the West, and of Western Expeditions and Campaigns from MDCCLIV to MDCCCXXXIII by a Gentleman of the Bar. Pittsburg, PA: A.P. Ingram, 1850.

Pontiac, Revolutionary Wars and the Indians, General Wayne, War of 1812, and the Black Hawk War are all included.

Eckert, Allan W. The Conquerors: A Narrative. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1970.

Story of Pontiac's Uprising and the men involved in it: the conquering English who undertook the dangers of the Indian trade for profit and the adventure of opening a new land; and the Indians who refused to accept the yoke of the conquered and were driven to violence to protect their homes and their way of life from the encroachment of an alien civilization.

Eckert, Allan W. The Frontiersman: A Narrative. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1967.

The story of Simon Kenton and Tecumseh.

Eckert, Allan. A Sorrow in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. NY: Bantam, 1992.

Eckert tells the story of Tecumseh with the meticulous accuracy of a scholar and the dramatic flair of a novelist.

Eckert, Allan W. Wilderness Empire: A Narrative. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1969.

Story of English, Indian, and French individuals whose lives intertwine in the greatest territorial struggle in American history – the French and Indian War.

Edgar, Pelham. The Struggle for a Continent: Edited from the Writings of Francis Parkman. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1902.

The book concludes with the defeat of Pontiac in 1764.

Edmunds, R. David. The Shawnee Prophet. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.

Tenskwatawa, the Prophet and Tecumseh's brother, provided a set of religious beliefs and ceremonies that revived the tribe's fading power and cohesion.

Edmunds, R. David. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1984.

A thoughtful biography of an extraordinary man, whose gifts as a leader and an organizer were recognized by friend and foe alike.

Elllis, Edward S. The Indian Wars of the United States from the First Settlement at Jamestown, in 1607 to the Close of the Great Uprising in 1890-91. Grand Rapids, MI: P.C. Farrell, 1892.

Includes Pontiac, Tecumseh and the Black Hawk War.

English, William Hayden. Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River Ohio 1778-1783 and Life of Gen. George Rogers Clark. Indianapolis, IN: Bowen-Merrill, 1896. 2 volumes.

History of Clark with numerous historical letters and papers reproduced in facsimile.

Fay, H.A. Collection of the Official Accounts, in Detail, of all the Battles Fought by Sea and Land, Between the Army and Navy of the United States and the Navy and Army of Great Britain, During the Years 1812, 13, 14 & 15. NY: E. Conrad, 1817.

The first section includes "Actions Fought at Detroit, Fort Meigs, and Within ` their Vicinity."

Flint, Timothy. Indian Wars of the West: Containing Biographical Sketches of Those Pioneers Who Headed the Western Settlers in Repelling the Attacks of the Savages, Together with a View of the Character, Manners, Monuments and Antiquities of the Western Indians. Cincinnati,OH: E.F. Flint, 1833.

Flint is writing about the Indian war and the Indians of Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, and Louisana.

Fredriksen, John C. Compiler. War of 1812 Eyewitness Accounts. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1997.

This is a reference tool to direct users to the eyewitness accounts, not the accounts themselves.

The French, The Indians, and George Rogers Clark in the Illinois Country. Proceedings of an Indiana American Revolution Bicentennial Symposium. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1973.

Includes a chapter, "Target Detroit" by George M. Waller.

Frost, John. Border Wars of the West: Comprising the Frontier War of Pennsylvaia, Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, and Wisconsin; and Embracing Individual Adventures Among the Indians, and Exploits of Boone, Kenton, Clark, Logan, Brady, Poe, Morgan, the Whetzels and Other Border Heroes of the West. Sandusky City, OH: C.L. Derby, 1854.

Includes Pontiac and Tecumseh.

Gilpin, Alec R. General William Hull and the War on Detroit in 1812. Dissertation. University of Michigan, 1949.

History of the Detroit campaign with background.

Gilpin, Alec R. The War of 1812 in the Old Northwest. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1958.

The War of 1812 did much to end the Indian skirmishes that had plagued the Americans since the days of the Revolution and made it possible to extend settlement with remarkably little more bloodshed.

Hale, Nathaniel C. Pontiac's War: The Great Indian Uprising Against the English in 1763. Wynnewood, PA: Hale House, 1973.

This book is an enlarged edition of an address which was delivered before the Annual Meeting of the Society of Colonial Wars in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, March 8, 1973.

Hamil, Fred C. Michigan in the War of 1812. Lansing, MI: Michigan Historical Commission, 1960.

The War of 1812 was the only war since Pontiac's Uprising where Michigan was an actual battleground. The War is of crucial importance in the state's history because it determined that Michigan would be American territory.

Hamilton, Edward P. The French and Indian Wars: The Story of Battles and Forts in the Wilderness. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1962.

Story of wilderness, forts and weapons reconstructed with scholarly respect.

Harburn, Todd, E. "British Folly on the St. Joseph": Ensign Francis Schlosser of the 60th Regiment and the Massacre at Fort St. Joseph During Pontiac's Uprising May 25, 1763. Okemos, MI: Michilimackinac Society Press, 2002.

Harburn presents research showing what is known about Fort St. Joseph's war.

Harburn, Todd E. In Defense of the Red Ensign at Michilimackinac 1763: The British Garrison During Pontiac's Uprising at Michilimackinac and Capt. George Etherington's Company 60th or Royal American Regiment. Okemos, MI: Michilimackinac Society Press, 1997.

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the strengths and composition of the British garrison during that time and to present new information about the garrison.

Havighurst, Walter. Three Flags at the Straits: The Forts of Mackinac. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966.

Traces the story of Mackinac forts through their domination by the French, the English and the Americans.

Headley, J.T. The Second War With England. NY: Charles Scribners, 1853. 2 volumes.

The War of 1812 which includes information about Tecumseh.

Henry, Alexander. Alexander Henry's Travels and Adventures in the Years 1760-1776. Edited with historical introduction and notes by Milo Milton Quaife. Chicago, IL: Lakeside Press, 1921.

Henry was at Mackinac in the years of the Pontiac's Rebellion. His account paints a rich picture of life, both Indian and white, on the upper Great Lakes.

Herek, Raymond J. These Men Have Seen Hard Service: The First Michigan Sharpshooters in the Civil War. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1998.

One company of the sharpshooters was composed entirely of Native Americans, the only such outfit in the Army of the Potomac.

Historical Account of Bouquet's Expedition Against the Ohio Indians, in 1764. Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clarke, 1868.

With an introduction by Francis Parkman, and Parkman's translation of Dumas' Biographical Sketch of General Bouquet.

Historical Register of the United States. Washington City: T.H. Palmer, 1814. 4 volumes.

Volumes 1 and 2: From the Declaration of War in 1812 to January 1, 1814.
Volumes 3 and 4: 1814.

History of Colonel Henry Bouquet and the Western Frontiers of Pennsylvania 1747-1764. Collected and edited by Mary Carson Darlington. Privately printed, 1920.

Includes letters to and from General Bouquet which give a full and correct history of Bouquet's expedition from Philadelphia to Fort Pitt which he rescued from the Indians.

History of the American War, of Eighteen Hundred and Twelve. Philadelphia, PA: Wm McCarty, 1816.

Information is included about Detroit, Michilimackinac, Indian policy, and Indian expeditions.

History of the Late War in the Western Country. Lexington, KY: Worsey & Smith, 1816.

War of 1812. "Being a native of Kentucky, and having lost many of his friends in the Indian wars, during the first settling of this country, he has necessarily imbibed an abhorrence of those privileges and practices of the savages, and their British allies, by which the western settlements have suffered so much in both wars."

Hollman, Clide Anne. Pontiac, King of the Great Lakes. NY: Hastings House, 1968.

Pontiac's fight for the rights of his people was one of the significant events in the early history of our country.

Horsman, Reginald. "The Role of the Indian in the War." In After Tippecanoe: Some Aspects of the War of 1812 edited by Philip P. Mason. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1963. 60 – 71.

During the War of 1812 the Indians made their last great effort to retain at least a portion of the land between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.

James, William. A Full and Correct Account of the Military Occurrences of the Late War between Great Britain and the United States of America. London: The Author, 1818. 2 volumes.

Includes the Old Northwest and the Indians participation.

Journal of Pontiac's Conspiracy, 1763. Edited by M. Agnes Burton. Detroit, MI: Speaker-Hines, 1912.

"The Pontiac Manuscript, or journal, has for years been considered the most important document in existence containing an account of the conspiracy of the Ottawa chief. It is believed to have been written by Robert Navarre."

Keenan, Jerry. Encyclopedia of American Indian Wars 1492-1890. NY: W.W. Norton, 1999.

"Paints a complete, objective and detailed picture of the bloody conflicts that gave birth to a nation – and their terrible cost."

Klinck, Carl F. Tecumseh: Fact and Fiction in Early Records. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1961.

Presents the principal documents relating to Tecumseh taken from Canadian and American sources.

Knox, John. An Historical Journal of the Campaigns in North America for the Years 1757, 1758, 1759, and 1760. Edited with an introduction by Arthur G. Doughty. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1914. 3 volumes.

Especially important as a record of the military transactions connected with the siege and capture of Louisbourg and of Quebec.

Lawson, Publius V. Bravest of the Brave: Captain Charles de Langlade. Menasha, WI: George Banta, 1904.

Langlade (1729-1880) was born at Old Mackinac. He fought in ninety nine battles and was a leader of the Indians in the War.

Lewis, Ferris E. The French Intrigues in the Region of Illinois and the Great Lakes from the Year 1760 to 1768. Thesis. University of Detroit, 1930.

Lincoln, Charles Henry. Manuscript Records of the French and Indian War in the Library of the American Antiquarian Society. Worcester, MA: The Society, 1909. Reprint Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1992.

An annotated list of the manuscript holdings of the society and a reprint of the Orderly Book of Lieut. William Henshaw.

Lossing, Benson J. The Pictorial Field Book of the War of 1812. NY: Harpers Brothers, 1869.

Includes Tecumseh.

Lucier, Armand Francis. French and Indian War Notices Abstracted from Colonial Newspapers 1754-1785. Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1999.

Accounts from different newspapers published in Britain, the North American colonies, and Europe.

McAfee, Robert B. History of the Late War in the Western Country. Bowling Green, OH: Historical Publications, 1978. Reprint of 1816 edition.

Authentic and close-up narrative, especially of western operations in the War of 1812.

McCoy, Raymond A. The Massacre at Old Fort Mackinac (Michilimackinac): A Tragedy of the American Frontier. Bay City, MI: The Author, 1941.

With an early history of St. Ignace, Mackinaw City, and Mackinac Island.

McKnight, Charles. Our Western Border, One Hundred Years Ago. Philadelphia, PA: J.C. McCurdy, 1875.

Pontiac and other Native Americans are included.

MacLeod, Normand. Detroit to Fort Sackville, 1778-1779: The Journal of Normand MacLeod. Edited with an introduction by William A. Evans. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1978.

Detroiters, under the leadership of Captain Normand MacLeod, played a role in the War for Independence that is described in detail in this journal.

Marquis, Thomas Guthrie. The War Chief of the Ottawas: A Chronicle of the Pontiac War.​ Toronto: Glasgow, Brook, 1915.

A history of Pontiac's rebellion.

Mason, Augustus L. The Ambition of Pontiac. Fort Wayne, IN: Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen County, n.d.

Reprinted from Stories of Our Pioneers. "After the conquest of New France by the British, the ever-growing dissatisfaction of the Indian culminated in a plot to drive the English from the Old Northwest. Pontiac was the prime mover in the resulting savage war of 1763-64 against the western forts and frontier settlements."

Matleff, Maurice. Editor. American Military History. Washington, DC: U.S. Army, 1969.

Includes the War of 1812.

Matson, N. Memories of Shaubena with Incidents Relating to Indian Wars and the Early Settlement of the West. Chicago, IL: R. Grainger, 1882.

Shaubena was an Ottawa chief who participated in many historical events, met Tecumseh, and part of the Removal.

Michigan. Record of Service of Michigan Volunteers in the Civil War, 1861-1865. Kalamazoo, MI: Ihling Brothers, 190-. 46 volumes

A record, by company, of the soldiers and sailors from Michigan who were in the Civil War. There is an overall index by name.

Minutes of Debates in Council on the Banks of the Ottawa River, November, 1791. Said to be Held There by the Chiefs of Several Indian Nations, Who Defeated the Army of the United States on the 4th of that Month. Present, Various Nations. Baltimore, MD: Warner & Hanna, 1800.

Speeches given at that meeting.

Moore, H.N. Life and Services of Gen. Anthony Wayne, Founded on Documentary and Other Evidence. Philadelphia, PA: John B. Perry, 1845.

Wayne led the fight against the Indians of the Old Northwest.

Moore, William V. Indian Wars of the United States From Discovery to the Present Time. Phildadelpia, PA: George W. Gorton, 1843.

Includes Pontiac, French and Indian War, War of 1812, and the Black Hawk War.

Morris, Thomas. Miscellanies in Prose and Verse. London: Printed for James Ridgway, 1791.

Morris, Thomas. "Journal of Captain Thomas Morris, of His Majesty's XVII Regiment of Infantry, Detroit, September 25, 1764." In Early Western Journal 1748-1765 edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1904. 295-328.

Important journal for the proof it furnishes that Pontiac's influence was still paramount among the western Indians, and that native hostility to British sovereignty over the western tribes was deep-seated.

Nelson, Paul David. Anthony Wayne: Soldier of the Early Republic. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1985.

A biography of this military here of the Indian wars in the Northwest Territory.

Niles, William Ogden. The Tippecanoe Textbook, Compiled from Nile's Register and Other Authentic Records. Baltimore, MD: Duff Green, 1840.

Campaign literature for Harrison which includes material about the Battle of Tippecanoe.

Northup, Henry Davenport. Indian Horror, or Massacres by the Red Men. Philadelphia, PA: National Publishing Co., n.d.

Includes Tecumseh.

Norton, John. The Journal of Major John Norton, 1816. Edited with an introduction and notes by Carl F. Klinck and James J. Talman. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1970.

John Norton's career touched upon many of the most vexing problems arising in the difficult early history of Upper Canada, notably those concerning the place of the Indians in the province – their lands, their relations with the provincial administration, and their role in the War of 1812.

Nursey, Walter R. The Story of Isaac Brock: Hero, Defender and Savior of Upper Canada 1812. Toronto: William Briggs, 1909.

Capture of Detroit in the War of 1812.

Official Report, Made by the Commanding Officer, Mr. Dubuisson, to the Governor General of Canada, of the War Which Took Place at Detroit, in 1712, Between the French and Their Allies, and the Ottagamie and Mascoutins Indians. Detroit, MI: Harsha & Willcox, 1845.

Detroit during the first year's following Cadillac's regime.

Oskison, John M. Tecumseh and His Times: The Story of a Great Indian. NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1938.

Oskison tells of Tecumseh's struggle to organize a confederation of Indian tribes in the Old Northwest Territory and Canada powerful enough to dam back the flow the white settlers.

Palmer, Frederick. Clark of the Ohio: A Life of George Rogers Clark. NY: Dodd, Mead, 1929.

Clark was the leader of the American effort to claim the Old Northwest.

Parkman, Francis. History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac, and the War of the North American Tribes Against the English Colonies after the Conquest of Canada. Boston, MA: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851.

A classic on the topic.

Petterson, A.W. History of the Backwoods; or, The Region of the Ohio: Authentic, From the Earliest Accounts. Pittsburgh, PA: The Author, 1843.

Pontiac's War is included.

Peckham, Howard H. Life in Detroit Under Pontiac's Siege. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1964.

The 1964 Lewis Cass Lecture.

Peckham, Howard Henry. Pontiac and the Indian Uprising. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947.

"I have made an effort put in full all of Pontiac's known letters and speeches since they are so few in number and so difficult to find."

Peckham, Howard H. Pontiac's Siege of Detroit. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1951.

A 20 page pamphlet about the siege.

Peithmann, Irvin M. Broken Peace Pipes: A Four Hundred Year History of the American Indian. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1964.

This chronicle is written from the Indian point of view, and it follows history as it was made after the white man began the conquest of the Indians. It tells of tribes and chiefs who led their people in adversity; of their wars, struggles, and battles to stop the invading white man.

Perkins, James H. Annals of the West: Embracing a Concise Account of Principal Events Which Have Occurred in the Western States and Territories, From the Discovery of the Mississippi Valley to the Year 1845. Cincinnati, OH: James R. Albach, 1846.

Indian wars in 1790 –1795 are well covered in this book.

Peyser, Joseph L. Editor. Jacques Lagardeur de Saint Pierre: Officer, Gentleman, Entrepreneur. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1996.

An 18th century French colonial officer and his dealings. Includes the period of the period of the French and Indian War.

Pirtle, Alfred. The Battle of Tippecanoe. Read before the Filson Club November 1, 1897. Louisville, KY: John P. Morton, 1900.

The Battle of Tippecanoe was the end of the grand confederacy of Tecumseh.

Pouchet, Pierre. Memoirs on the Late War in North America Between France and England. Translated by Michael Cardy. Edited and annotated by Brian Leigh Dunnigan. Youngstown, NY: Old Niagara Association, 1994.

A French account of the French and Indian War. Offers first hand observations on the country and its Indian inhabitants.

Preston, John Hyde. Mad Anthony Wayne: A Gentleman Rebel. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing Co., 1930.

A biography of Wayne.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Broadax and Bayonet: The Role of the United States Army in the Development of the Northwest 1815-1860. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1953.

The United States army was the buffer between the red men and the relentlessly advancing pioneer.

Prucha, Francis Paul. The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier 1783-1846. London: Macmillan, 1969.

Includes the Old Northwest and the War of 1812.

Quaife, Milo Milton. Editor. The Siege of Detroit in 1763; The Journal of Pontiac's Conspiracy and John Rutherford's Narrative of a Captivity. Chicago, Il: Lakeside Press, 1958.

A reprint of these materials by Lakeside Press.

Read, D. B. Life and Times of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, K.B. Toronto: William Briggs, 1894.

War of 1812 material.

Richardson, Major. War of 1812. First Series. Containing a Full and Detailed Narrative of the Operations of the Right Division, of the Canadian Army. n.p.: 1842.

"Much has been said and written in respect to the Red Men of the forest; but I do not recollect having ever met with a detail sufficiently accurate to convey a just idea of the character of these people. As they will occupy a tolerable portion of my attention, and frequently appear under circumstances which may incline the reader to incredulity, I will merely observe, that no one incident will be found in these pages, which may not be attested by every officer who served with the Right Division of the Canadian army." Richardson was a Canadian officer in the War of 1812 and was involved with the capture of Detroit. There is much information on the doings of Tecumseh and his Indians.

Richardson, John. Richardson's War of 1812. With notes by Alexander Clark Casselman. Toronto: Historical Publishing, 1902.

See above.

Richardson, John. Tecumseh and Richardson. The Story of a Trip to Walpole Island and Port Sarnia. Toronto: Ontario Book Co., 1924.

Richardson's account of the battle where Tecumseh was killed.

Rogers, Robert. Journals of Major Robert Rogers: Containing an Account of the Several Excursions He Made Under the Generals who Commanded Upon the Continent of North America, During the Late War. London: Printed for the Author, 1765.

French and Indian War material. Account begins on September 24, 1755 with an account of a scouting expedition on Lake George and ends on February 14, 1761 when Rogers arrived at New York after having received the surrender of the French at Detroit late in 1760.

Rogers, Robert. Reminscences of the French War; Containing Rogers' Expedition and The Life and Military Services of Maj. Gen. John Stark. Concord, NH: Luther Roby, 1831.

French and Indian War material.

Roosevelt, Theodore. Episodes From "The Winning of the West" 1769-1807. NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1900.

Includes much about the Indians.

Schwartz, Seymour I. The French and Indian War 1754-1763: The Imperial Struggle for North America. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

A description of battles and engagements of the war complemented by contemporary maps, drawings, engravings of troop movements, views of forts, and portraits of participants.

Seineke, Kathrine Wagner. The George Rogers Clark Adventure in the Illinois and Selected Documents of the American Revolution at the Frontier Posts. New Orleans, LA: Polyantheo, 1981.

A grass roots treatment of the western frontier during the struggle for independence from European powers.

The Simcoe Papers, 1789-1796. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1923. 5 volumes

The correspondence of Lieut. Governor John Graves Simcoe, with allied documents relating to his administration of the government of Upper Canada.

Skaggs, David Curtis. Editor. The Old Northwest in the American Revolution: An Anthology. Madison, WI: Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1977.

Twenty-one descriptions of the Old Northwest during the Revolutionary era.

Skaggs, David Curtis and Larry L. Nelson. Editors. The Sixty Years War for the Great Lakes 1754-1814. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2001.

Twenty essays concerning the struggle to control the Great Lakes. Much about the Indians.

Smith, Dwight L. Editor. From Greenville to Fallen Timbers: A Journal of the Wayne Campaign. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1952.

An account, by an unknown writer, of the military expedition of Anthony Wayne against the Indians of the Old Northwest.

Smith, M. Geographical View of the Province of Upper Canada. And Promiscuous Remarks on the Government. Trenton: Moore & Lake, 1813.

War of 1812. "Remarks relative to the situation of the inhabitants respecting the war, and a concise history of its progress, to the present date."

Spears, John R. A History of the Mississippi Valley from its Discovery to the End of Foreign Domination. NY: A. S. Clark, 1903.

Includes a chapter, "Pontiac's War as Seen in the Valley."

Steward, James. History of the Discovery of America, of the Landing of Our Forefathers at Plymouth…to which is annexed, the Defeat of Generals Braddock, Harmer & and St. Clair, by the Indians at the Westard. Brooklyn, NY: J. W. Carew, 1802.

Midwest battles are included.

Sugden, John. Tecumseh: A Life. NY: Henry Holt, 1998.

Tecumseh created a powerful pan-Indian alliance to replace intertribal conflict and indifference. He was a major figure in the War of 1812.

Sugden, John. Tecumseh's Last Stand. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

Enhances our knowledge about the great chief Tecumseh in the definitive account of the circumstances surrounding his death.

Sword, Wiley. President Washington's Indian War: The Struggle for the Old Northwest, 1790-1795. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

A comprehensive history of the United States-Indian War of 1790-1795.

Tebbel, John and Keith Jennison. The American Indian Wars. NY: Harper and Brothers, 1960.

Includes Pontiac, British and Indian War, Tecumseh, and Black Hawk.

Tebbel, John. The Compact History of the Indian Wars. NY: Hawthorne, 1966.

Includes Pontiac, Tecumseh, and Black Hawk.

Ten Years of Upper Canada in Peace and War, 1805-1815, Being the Ridout Letters. Toronto: Willliam Briggs, 1890.

War of 1812 letters.

Thompson, David. History of the Late War between Great Britain and the United States of America. Niagara: T. Sewell, 1832.

Account of the War of 1812 from the British viewpoint. Indians are included.

Thornbrough, Gayle. Editor. Letter Book of the Indian Agency at Fort Wayne 1809-1815. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, 1961.

Contains Indian speeches for the period of the War of 1812.

Thwaites, Reuben Gold and Louise Phelps Kellogg. Editors. Frontier Defense on the Upper Ohio, 1777-1778. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Historical Society, 1912. 2 volumes.

Original documents are reprinted.

Thwaites, Reuben Gold. How George Rogers Clark Won the Northwest and Other Essays in Western History. Chicago, IL: A.C. McClurg, 1903.

Much about the Native Americans is included here.

Travels in New France by J.C.B. Edited by Sylvester K. Stevens, Donald H. Kent and Emma Edith Woods. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical Commission, 1941.

The account of a French soldier in the French and Indian War.

Trent, William. Journal of Captain William Trent and Historical Notice of the Miami Confederacy of Indians. Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clark, 1871.

The extent of the Miami Confederacy was described by Little Turtle as: "My forefather kindled the first fire at Detroit; from thence he extended his lines to the head waters of the Scioto; from thence to its mouth; from thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash; and from thence to Chicago over Lake Michigan. These are the boundaries within which the prints of my ancestors' houses are everywhere to be seen."

Trumbull, Henry. History of the Indian Wars. Boston, MA: Phillips & Sampson, 1846.

Includes Tecumseh and Black Hawk.

Tucker, Glenn. Mad Anthony Wayne and the New Nation: The Story of Washington's Front-line General. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1973.

This volume is essentially about Wayne as a soldier and student of warfare.

Tucker, Glenn. Paltroons and Patriots: A Popular Account of the War of 1812. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1954. 2 volumes

Includes Tecumseh.

Tucker, Glenn. Tecumseh: Vision of Glory. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1956.

In the years just preceding the War of 1812 one man, an Indian, dominated the American frontier – Tecumseh.

Utley, Robert M and Wilcomb E. Washbourn. The American Heritage History of the Indian Wars. NY: American Heritage, 1977.

Violent and tragic events are viewed from both sides. The antagonists are presented as three dimensional, complex human beings.

Vercheres de Boucherville, Rene Thomas. War on the Detroit. Chicago, IL: Lakeside Press, 1940.

Includes the Indian allies of the British and Tecumseh.

Wainwright, Nicholas B. George Croghan: Wilderness Diplomat. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1959.

During the French and Indian War Croghan's ability to understand and influence the Indians was unsurpassed.

Walker, Adam. A Journal of Two Campaigns of the Fourth Regiment of United States Infantry, in the Michigan and Indiana Territories, Under the Command of Col. John P. Boyd and Lt. Col. James Miller During the Years 1811 and 1812. Keene, NH: Sentinel Press, 1816.

War of 1812. Includes Tecumseh. Source of information on Tippecanoe and Detroit.

Webb, George W. Chronological List of Engagements Between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostile Indians Which Occurred During the Years 1790 to 1898, Inclusive. St. Joseph, MO: Wing, 1939.

Lists dates and brief information about each encounter.

Wise, Jennings C. The Red Man in the New World Drama: A Politico-Legal Study With a Pageantry of American Indian History. Washington, DC: W. F. Roberts, 1931.

Includes Pontiac and Tecumseh.

Wood, William. Editor. Select British Documents of the Canadian War of 1812.​ Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1920. 3 volumes

Source material on the War of 1812 with much on Tecumseh and other Native American involvement. ​


Combat Between the Ojibwas and the Sacs.

Pontiac's Fire Raft. Lithograph.


Allen, Robert S. "His Majesty's Indian Allies: Native Peoples, the British Crown and the War of 1812." Michigan Historical Review 14 (Fall 1988): 1-24.

British Indian policy from 1774 to 1815 was geared to ensure the preservation and defense of Canada.

Bieder, Robert E. "Sault Ste. Marie and the War of 1812: A World Turned Upside Down in the Old Northwest." Indiana Magazine of History XCV (March 1999): 1-13.

Before the war the social polarities at the Sault were between the haves and have-nots, after 1822 they were between Americans and old residents.​

Blegen, Theodore C. "Armistice and War on the Minnesota Frontier." Minnesota History 24 (March 1943): 11-25.

War between the Sioux and the Chippewas as told by a United States Chaplain at Fort Snellig in 1839.

Brace, Elmore. "Tecumseh's Confederacy." Indiana Magazine of History 12 (June 1916): 161-174; 13 (March 1917): 67-91.

Provides extensive background information on the Confederacy.

Byrd, Cecil K. "The Northwest Indians and the British Preceding the War of 1812." Indiana Magazine of History 38 (March 1942): 31-50.

A comparison of the accusations which were made against the British and the official British Indian policy.

Calloway, Colin G. "The End of an Era: British-Indian Relations in the Great Lakes Region After the War of 1812." Michigan Historical Review 12 (Fall 1986): 1-20.

The Treaty of Ghent, 1814, brought to an end the British-Indian alliance and the end of the threat to American expansionism.

Carpenter, Roger. "Making War More Lethal: Iroquois vs. Huron in the Great Lakes Region, 1609 to 1650." Michigan Historical Review 27 (Fall 2001): 33-51.

The manner in which Iroquian people regarded war underwent a radical change when guns were introduced. War changed from open, highly ritualized, largely nonlethal skirmishes between warriors seeking honor and captives to large-scale campaigns that had strategic, economic, and military objectives.

Compton, Harvey Wilson. "The Story of Pontiac's War, 1763-4." Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio Quarterly Bulletin 4 (January 1932): 14 pages.

Compton gives the reasons for the war and the result.

Dain, Floyd R. "The Treaty of Springwells." Detroit Historical Society Bulletin 26 (November 1969): 4-10.

This treaty concluded the Indian war which had begun at Tippecanoe in 1811.

"Detroit's Last Indian Massacre." Totem Pole 22 (December 16, 1948): 1-5.

The massacre took place in December 1814.

Dawd, Gregory Evans. "Little Turtle and the Origins of a Great Native American Debate." Northwest Ohio Quarterly 74 (Winter 2002): 5-21.

As a brilliant military leader, Little Turtle of the Miamis contributed to the pan-Indian movement.

Doyle, Cornelius J. "Indians and Indian Fighters." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 19 (October 1926/January 1927): 115-141.

Pays tribute to the American soldier of Indian warfare.

Draper, Lyman C. "Notice of Match-E-Ke-Wis, The Captor of Mackinac." Wisconsin Historical Collections 7 (1873-1876): 188-194.

The Ojibwa leader of the successful attack on Mackinac in 1763.

Eckert, Allan W. "The Pontiac Uprising." Michigan Sportsman 4 (September-October 1979): 29-35+.

Reprinted from Eckert's book, The Conquerors.

Edmunds, R. David. "Black Hawk." Timeline 5 (April/May 1988): 24-27.

Black Hawk epitomizes the Indians' traditional determination to fight for their homeland.

Edmunds, R. David. "The Illinois River Potawatomi in the War of 1812." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society LXII (Winter 1969): 341-362.

For the Indian tribes of the Old Northwest, the two decades preceding the War of 1812 were a period of frustration.

Edmunds, R. David. "The Thin Red Line: Tecumseh, the Prophet and Shawnee Resistance." Timeline 4 (December 1987/January 1988): 2-19.

Americans have always admired Tecumseh. He was a brave and honorable man who sacrificed his life for his people, dying a hero's death in the last great battle for the Old Northwest.

Edwards, Elizabeth. "The Bravery of Company K." Traverse, Northern Michigan's Magazine 22 (February 2003): 50-55.

During the Civil War, this skilled all-Indian company from Michigan stood out, becoming a living legend.

Fixico, Donald L. "The Alliance of the Three Fires in Trade and War, 1630 – 1812." Michigan Historical Review 20 (Fall 1994): 1-23.

For almost two hundred years, the political power and military strength of the Three Fires proved to be significant in shaping the history of the Great Lakes area.

Gouveia, Grace Mary. " 'We Also Serve': American Indian Women's Role in World War II." Michigan Historical Review 20 (Fall 1994): 153-182.

Two minority groups – American Indian women and Black women – are compared to mainstream women in regard to their activities during World War II.

Harvey, S. Benjamin. "An Incident in Early Michigan History." Michigan History 34 (September 1950): 258-259.

Black Hawk's emissaries came to visit Michigan in 1831.

Hinsdale, Wilbert B. "Tecumseh's Illusions." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 18 (1932): 31-52.

Hinsdale brings to our attention some peculiar traits and modes of mental action in the Indian race.

"Hull's Surrender of Detroit, 1812." Magazine of American History (May 1892): 343-366.

Includes mention of the Indians and the role they played in the surrender.

"The Indian War." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 5 (April 1912): 66-79.

Letters from William Orr, a volunteer in the Black Hawk War.

"Indians of Ontonagon County in Company 'K', First Michigan Sharpshooters." Kalamazoo Valley Family News Letter 7 (Winter 1977/1978): 110.

Five men and their military records.

Jacobs, Wilbur R. "Presents to Indians as a Factor in the Conspiracy of Pontiac." Michigan History 33 (September 1949): 314-322.

The English failure to supply the Indians with goods gave Pontiac a chance to capitalize on native discontent.

James, James Alton. "Detroit the Key to the West during the American Revolution." Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society (1909): 154-164.

From the opening of the Revolutionary War, American leaders looked to the conquest of Detroit, the headquarters of the British posts as the key to the fur trade and control of the Indian tribes to the northeast of the Ohio River

Katz, Irving I. "Jewish Traders Captured During the 1763 Indian Uprising." Detroit Historical Society Bulletin 20 (February 1964): 4-8.

Pontiac's conspiracy from Jewish perspective.

Keeler, Lucy Elliot. "The Croghan Celebration." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publication 16 (1907): 1-105.

Anniversary of the defeat of Tecumseh.

Kopperman, Paul E. "The Captive's Return: Bouquet's Victory." Timeline 7 (April/May 1990): 2-15.

Adopting a tough, uncompromising attitude, Bouquet proved extremely effective in negotiating the release of prisoners and a peace settlement with the Ohio Indians in 1764.

Lambert, Joseph I. "The Black Hawk War: A Military Analysis." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 32 (December 1939): 442-473.

The Black Hawk War looked at as a military exercise.

"Langlade Papers." Wisconsin Historical Collections 8 (1877-1879): 209-223.

His papers as they remained in the family from 1737 to 1900.

Line, Sarah Jane. "The Indians on the Missisinewa." Indiana Magazine of History 9 (September 1913): 187-194.

The battle with Harrison in 1812.

Matson, N. "Sketch of Shan-be-na, A Pottawattomie Chief." Wisconsin Historical Collections 7 (1873-1876): 415-421.

Matson knew Shan-be-na and recorded his accounts of Tecumseh and the Black Hawk War.

Meek, Basil. "General Hamar's Expedition." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 20 (1911): 74-108.

Expedition against the Indian towns on the Miami and St. Joseph Rivers.

Millett, Alan R. "Caesar and the Conquest of the Northwest Territory: The Wayne Campaign, 1792-95." Timeline 14 (May/June 1997): 2-21.

President George Washington was determined to control the lands northwest of the Ohio River. He chose Anthony Wayne to accomplish the task.

Millett, Alan R. "Caesar and the Conquest of the Northwest Territory: The Harrison Campaign, 1811." Timeline 14 (July/August 1997): 2-19.

Harrison achieved retroactive glory from his march to Tippecanoe River in 1811. Two years later he stood victorious over northwestern tribes and had shattered their ties to the British in Canada.

Millett, Alan R. "Caesar and the Conquest of the Northwest Territory: The Second Harrison Campaign, 1813." Timeline 14 (October 1997): 2-21.

Almost twenty years after his first battle at Fallen Timbers, William Henry Harrison delivered a death blow to Native American resistance east of the Mississippi.

Moorehead, Warren K. "Logan, Tecumseh, The Shawano Indians." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications 36 (1927): 78-91.

An address delivered on Ohio History Day, 1926.

Morrison, Dennis Michael. "Mush-quah-tas: Michigan's Lost Indian Tribe." Above the Bridge 9 (Fall 1993): 1-11.

A story of a tribe exterminated by the Ottawa.

Nichols, David A. "The Other Civil War: Lincoln and the Indians." Minnesota History 44 (Spring 1974): 2-15.

Lincoln's vision for the West carried with it the implicit doom of the Indians.

Nichols, Roger L. "The Black Hawk War in Retrospect." Wisconsin Magazine of History 65 (Summer 1982): 238-246.

The Black Hawk War was more typical than unusual on the American frontier.

Notestein, Wallace. "The Western Indians in the Revolution." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 16 (1907): 269-291.

A clear, concise treatment of the Indian War in the West.

Orians, George H. "Pontiac in Literature." Northwest Ohio Quarterly 35 (Autumn 1963): 31-53.

An annotated bibliography.

"Papers Relating to the War of 1812." Western Reserve and Northern Ohio Historical Society Numbers 7, 12, 17, 18, 19, and 28.

Various original documents relating to the War of 1812 are reprinted.

Patrick, Jeff L. Editor. " 'We Lay There Doing Nothing': John Jackson's Recollection of the War of 1812." Indiana Magazine of History LXXXVIII (June 1992): 111-131.

Jackson's memoir provides a window into the daily life of an ordinary soldier in 1812 and 1813.

Peckham, Howard H. "Indian Captives Brought to Detroit." Detroit Historical Society Bulletin 12 (June 1956): 4-9.

Starting in 1755 several white captives were brought to Detroit.

Perrin, William Henry. "The Conspiracy of Pontiac." Magazine of Western History 11 (March 1890): 454-464; 12 (May 1890): 118-119.

Pontiac's attempt against the whites was the most gigantic scheme ever conceived by an American Indian. Second citation is a letter rebutting Perrin's facts.

Peyser, Joseph L. "The Fate of the Fox Survivors: A Dark Chapter in the History of the French in the Upper Country, 1726-1737." Wisconsin Magazine of History 73 (Winter 1989/1990): 83-110.

The measures undertaken by the Governor-General of New France succeeded between 1729 and 1731 in killing between 80 to 90 percent of the Fox warriors – as well as countless women, children, and elders.

Porlier, L. J. "Capture of Mackinac." Wisconsin Historical Collections 8 (1877-1879): 227-231.

Report of the Council held in October 1848 at Wisconsin.

Randall, E. O. "Pontiac's Conspiracy." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications 12 (1903): 410-437.

A history of Pontiac and his alliance.

Randall, E. O. "Tecumseh, the Shawnee Chief." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications 15 (1906): 418-497.

Measured by his environment and opportunity there is no more remarkable and striking genius than Tecumseh.

Riddell, William Renwick. "Indian War Council Held in Detroit in 1700." Michigan History 15 (Summer 1931): 454-458.

Material from the Archives of the Province of Quebec.

Riddell, William Renwick. "A Pretty Quarrel Over Rum at Old Michillimackinac." Michigan History 13 (Spring 1929): 278-300.

The English and French rum trade at Michillimackinac.

Rugely, Terry. "Savage and Statesman: Changing Historical Perspectives of Tecumseh." Indiana Magazine of History LXXXV (December 1989): 289-311.

The direction of biographical study on Tecumseh reflects the main contours of Indian history.

Rupley, Richard M. "The Battle of Tchiba Miniss (Island of the Dead)." Above the Bridge 4 (July/August 1988): 33-35.

A story originally published in 1888 about the last battle between the Ojibwa and the Iroquois.

Schultheis, Rose. "Harrison's Councils with Tecumseh." Indiana Magazine of History 27 (March 1931): 40-49.

The councils were held before 1812.

Sheehan, Bernard W. " 'The Famous Hair Buyer General': Henry Hamilton, George Rogers Clark, and the American Indian." Indiana Magazine of History LXXIV (March 1983): 1-28.

An overview of the differing policies of the British and the Americans towards the Indians.

Smelser, Marshall. "Tecumseh, Harrison, and the War of 1812." Indiana Magazine of History LXV (March 1969): 25-44.

Story of the drama of the struggle of two of our most eminent predecessors, William Henry Harrison and Tecumseh.

Sugden, John. "Tecumseh's Travels Revisited." Indiana Magazine of History XCVI (June 2000): 150-168.

Tecumseh's plan of traveling to rally intertribal support for the defense of the Old Northwest was part of a long Indian tradition.

Tasse, Joseph. "Memoir of Charles de Langlade." Wisconsin Historical Collections 7 (1873-1876): 123-187.

Langlade was one of the most courageous defenders of the French cause in Canada.

Thwaites, Reuben G. "The Black Hawk War." Magazine of Western History 5 (November 1886): 32-45; 5 (December 1886): 181-196.

A history of the war.

The War. NY: S. Woodworth. 2 volumes

"Being a faithful record of the transactions of the war between the United States of America and their territories, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the dependencies there of declared on the eighteenth day of June, 1812."

Warner, Michael S. "General Josiah Harmar's Campaign Reconsidered: How the Americans Lost the Battle of Kekionga." Indiana Magazine of History LXXXVII (March 1987): 43-64.

General Harmar's campaign against the 'Indian Banditti' along the Maumee River in 1790 marks a watershed in the settlement of the Old Northwest.

Watts, Florence G. "Lieutenant Charles Larrabee's Account of the Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811." Indiana Magazine of History LVII (September 1961): 225-247.

Five letters which recount military preparations and the movement of troops during the Tippecanoe campaign.

Welters, Mrs. Alta P. "Shabonce." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 27 (1924): 380-397.

Shabonce was a Pottawatomi who thwarted Black Hawk in Illinois.

Whicker, J. Wesley. "Shabonee's Account of Tippecanoe." Indiana Magazine of History 17 ( April 1921): 353-363.

A description of the Battle of Tippecanoe by Shobonee, a Potawatomi chief.

Whicker, J. Wesley. "Tecumseh and Pushmataha." Indiana Magazine of History 18 (December 1922): 315-331.

Background of these two great Indians.

Williams, Mentor I. "John Kinzie's Narrative of the Fort Dearborn Massacre." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society XLVI (Winter 1953): 343-362.

Reports of the massacre demonstrate the unreliability of eyewitness testimony.

Wood, Norman B. "Indian Wars and Warriors of Michigan." Michigan History 3 (October 1919): 547-563.

Pontiac and Tecumseh.​


Campbell, James V. Papers, 1823-1881.

Includes: A Relation of Facts Concerned with the Pontiac War.

Cockerton, Robert. Correspondence. 1 folder

A small volume of transcribed War of 1812 correspondence, relating to Michigan, sent to the Secretary of the Navy.

Flack, Edith L. The Escape from the River Raisin Massacre, 1812. 1 folder

Six typed pages about the escape of Reuben Lewis from the River Raisin Massacre in Monroe, Michigan, 1812.

Huston, Almangan. Black Hawk War Collection, 1831-1832. 1 folder

Includes correspondence April 11, 1831-July 29, 1832 and undated from Gen. Joseph W. Brown and Gen. John R. Williams to Col. Almangan Huston, Commander of the 7th Militia, concerning orders and regulations for his regiment to be raised in Niles, Michigan for service in the Black Hawk War. Originals are in the St. Joseph County Historical Museum.

Maxwell, Thompson. Recollections of Pontiac's War, 1821, 1872. 1 folder

Original 'Recollections' written by Charles C. Trowbridge from an interview with Major Maxwell in 1821. Note by Trowbridge in 1872 that the manuscript has been filed away for 50 years. Maxwell was in Captain Stark's company at the garrison at Detroit during Pontiac's siege.

Records of the Adjutant General's Office. Microfilm

During the first half of the nineteenth century the office of the Adjutant General was the department of records, orders and correspondence of the militia. These records are in three groups. 1) Letters Sent, 1800-1890, 2) Letters Received 1805-1821, and 3) Letters Received 1822-1860.

Returns from United States Military Posts. 28 reels of microfilm

In these documents can be found information relating to the movement of troops to and from the post; wars and skirmishes with the Indians. The reels are identified as to place and time.

Wilkinson, James. General James Wilkinson's Order Book December 31, 1796-March 8, 1800. 3 rolls of microfilm

Wilkinson was appointed Commanding General of the United States Army in 1796. He dealt with the Indians of the Northwest to facilitate settlement on lands north of the Ohio River. He treated with the Indians to obtain land grants and permission to establish roads and trading posts within their territories.