Missionaries and Missions

The work of various religious organizations to Christianize and 'civilize' the Native Americans began with the earliest visitors to the Great Lakes. Both Catholics and Protestants established and maintained missions to the Indians. Reports documenting the successes and failures of these missions were regularly forwarded to the superiors or oversight boards. These records, and other material documenting the work of the missions, often speak to the life of the Native Americans with whom the missionaries came into contact.


Alderson, Jo Bartels and J. Michael Alderson. The Man Mazzuchelli: Pioneer Priest. Madison, WI: Wisconsin House Ltd., 1974.

Mazzuchelli was a missionary in the Mid West in the 1820's.

American Baptist Home Mission Society. Baptist Home Missions in North America; Including a Full Report of the Proceedings and Addresses of the Jubilee Meeting, and a Historical Sketch of the American Baptist Home Mission Society 1832-1882. NY: Baptist Home Missions Rooms, 1883.

Includes brief information on the Michigan missions.

American Home Missionary Society. Report of the American Home Missionary Society. NY: The Society, 1827-1860. 6 volumes.

Reports include Michigan missions.

Anglicanus, Julius. Missionary Bishops: A Plea for Indians and Immigrants, Particularly in the Alcoma District. Being a Letter Addressed to the Right Reverend the Metropolitan of Canada, and the Bishops of Quebec, Toronto, Huron and Ontario. Toronto: Willing and Williamson, 1872.

Letter written "in hope that through their example and influence a more earnest missionary spirit may be enkindled in each Diocese, and the mission work of the Church more rapidly expanded."

Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, A Periodical Collection of Letters from the Bishops and Missionaries Employed in the Missions of the Old and New World: 1839-1867. London: 1839 - . 14 volumes.

Reports of Catholic missions throughout the world.

Annual Report of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. NY: Azur Hoyt, 1820.

Reports on the Grand River Mission, Upper Canada 1925; Pottawatomi Mission, and Huron Mission.

Bachman, Patricia Bensen. Carey Mission: Home of the Brave. Flint, MI: Graphic Press, 1972.

Written for the 150th anniversary of the founding of Carey Mission, near present day Niles, Michigan.

Baierlein, E. R. The German Lutheran Bethany Indian Mission. Compiled and edited by Harold W. Moll, 1989. 3 volumes

Volume 1: Letters and articles by Edward Johannes Raymund Baierlein, German missionary to the Michigan Indians 1848-1853 and related materials 1843-1855.

Volume 2: The letters of Ernest Gustav Herman Miessler, German missionary to the Michigan Indians 1851-1868 and related materials 1847-1871.

Volume 3: In the Wilderness with the Red Men by E.R. Baierlein ca 1893.

 Im Urwalde; bei den Roten Indianeen. Leipzig: J. Naumann, 1888.

Story of the Bethany Indian Mission near St. Louis, Michigan. In German.

Bangs, Nathan. An Authentic History of the Missions under the Care of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. NY: J. Emory and B. Waugh, 1832.

Includes "The Potawatomy Mission," and "Aboriginal Missions in Upper Canada."

Baraga, Frederic. The Diary of Bishop Frederic Baraga: First Bishop of Marquette, Michigan. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1990.

Baraga was a Catholic missionary in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

Baroux, Louis. Correspondence of Rev. Louis Baroux, Missionary Apostolic of Michigan to Rev. M. J. DeNeve, Superior of the American College at Louvain. Translated by E.D. Kelly. Detroit, MI: Ann Arbor Press, 1913.

Christianity and civilization among the Potawatomies of Indiana and Michigan at a mission at Silver Creek, Michigan. The letter was written in 1862.

Beaver, James. Recreations of a Long Vacation; or A Visit to Indian Missions in Upper Canada. London: James Burns, 1846.

Beaver visited the mission at Sault Ste. Marie.

Bedford-Jones, Henry. L'Arbre Croche Mission: A Memorable Relation Briefly Setting Forth the Historical Facts and Eschewing all Fable and Legend, as Erected by Untutored Minds Touching Upon the Justly Famed Mission of the Crooked Tree. Santa Barbara, CA: The Author, 1917. Reprint: Harbor Springs, MI: 1973.

A history of the mission.

Beckhofer, Robert F. Salvation and the Savage; An Analysis of Protestant Missions and American Indian Response, 1787-1862. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1965.

The pre-Civil War attempt of Protestant missionaries to Christianize the American Indian.

Bowden, Henry Warner. American Indians and Christian Missions: Studies in Cultural Conflict. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Bowden gives both a broad overview of four centuries of cultural history and detailed instances of relations between Indians, Europeans, and Americans.

Boyton, James. Fishers of Men: The Jesuit Mission at Mackinac 1670-1765. Mackinac Island, MI: St. Anne's Church, 1996.

In 1670 Father Jacques Marquette brought his refugee band of Huron Indians to the secluded safety of Mackinac Island. For the next 95 years Jesuit missionaries exhibited an unrelenting zeal to take the word of God to the Native and European people of the Straits of Mackinac region.

Brown, Edward Osgood. Two Missionary Priests at Mackinac and The Parish Register of the Mission of Michilimackinac. Chicago, IL: Barnard and Ganthorp, 1889.

Two lectures delivered by Brown.

Brunger, Ronald A. The History of the Taymouth Methodist Indian Mission. Typed, 1974.

Written by the pastor of the Burt Church which is the successor of the Taymouth Mission.

Brunson, Alfred. A Western Pioneer: or, Incidents of the Life and Times of Rev. Alfred Brunson, Embracing a Period of Seventy Years. Cincinnati, OH: Hitchcock and Walden, 1879. 2 volumes.

Brunson worked in Michigan among other places. He includes much information about Native Americans and treaty conferences.

Callan, Louise. The Society of the Sacred Heart in North America. London: Longmans, Green, 1937.

Includes a chapter on the mission among the Potawatomi Indians 1841-1879.

Campbell, T. J. Pioneer Priests of North America 1642-1710. NY: Fordam University Press, 1908. 3 volumes.

The priests dealt with and recorded their impressions of the Native Americans.

Chopin, Walter. The Missionary Gazetteer, Comprising a View of the Inhabitants, and a Geographical Description of the Countries and Places, Where Protestant Missionaries have Labored. Woodstock: David Watson, 1825.

Contains information about Michigan missions.

Clark, James I. Father Claude Allouez Missionary. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1957.

Most of the information included here is from the Jesuit Relations about Allouez and his mission on Chequamegon Bay on the southern shore of Lake Superior.

Clark, Joseph B. Leavening the Nation; The Story of American Home Missions. NY: Baker and Taylor, 1903.

Includes a chapter about missions in Michigan.

Cole, Maurice F. Voices from the Wilderness. Ann Arbor, MI: Edward Brothers, 1961.

Letters from missionaries in Michigan reporting on their work.

Copway, George. The Life, History, and Travels of Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh (George Copway) A Young Indian Chief of the Ojebwa Nation…and a Missionary to his People for Twelve Years,…With a Sketch of the Present State of the Ojebwa Nation. Albany, NY: Weed and Parsons, 1847.

Copway's autobiography.

Copway, George. The Life, Letters and Speeches of Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh, or G. Copway. NY: S.W. Benedict, 1850.

Autobiography of Copway, a Chippewa Methodist missionary.

Craker, Ruth. First Protestant Mission in the Grand Traverse Region. n.p.: 1931. and reprint Mt. Pleasant, MI: Rivercrest House, 1979.

A collection of historical fact and Indian legend about Rev. Peter Dougherty's mission.

Crespel, Emmauel. Der Ehrwurdigan Pater Emanuel Crespels Merkwurdige Reisen Nach Canada, daselbat gehabte Begenbenheitin, und Earlittener Schifbruch bey Seiner Heimreise Nach. Frankfort: G.P. Monath, 1751.

Dallas, James M. Missions at Old Mackinac, Ancient and Modern, Including the Story of the Fort and Massacre A.D. 1763. Detroit, MI: Presbyterian Print, 1902.

History of the several missions at Mackinac.

DeJean, Pierre. Along the Huron River: The Letters of Father Pierre DeJean 1825-1826, Missionary Priest of Macomb County. Mount Clemens, MI: Macomb County Historical Society, 1986.

Not very much about the Indians.

Donnell, Joseph P. Jacques Marquette, S.J. 1637-1675. Chicago, IL: Loyola University, 1968.

From this biography emerges a Jacques Marquette who dearly loved and profoundly understood the Indians as few missionaries had.

Dougherty, Peter. Diaries. Journal of the Presbyterian Church, 1952. copy.

The diaries, 1838-1842, relate numerous incidents connected with his preaching and teaching work among the Chippewas in the Grand Traverse Bay region.

Doyle, Sherman H. Presbyterian Home Missions: An Account of the Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sabbath School Work, 1902.

An overview of the work of the missions.

Ducreux, Francois. The History of Canada or New France. Translated with an Introduction by Percy J. Robinson. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1951. 2 volumes.

From 1625 to 1658 Decreux was a Jesuit missionary.

Ederer, Roselynn. On the Banks of the Beautiful Saugenah. Saginaw, MI: Thomastown, 1999.

Includes a chapter, "The Four German Missionary Colonies."

Eliza, the Indian Sorceress. American Tract Society, no. 293.

Set in Mackinaw, a Chippewa woman who was an interpreter of dreams, became a Christian convert and died in the faith.

Ferry, William M. Notice of Chippeway Converts. Missionary Paper, no.13, 1826.

Ferry was a missionary at Mackinaw. This is the story of two women converts.

Finley, James B. Life Among the Indians: or, Personal Reminiscences and Historical Incidents Illustrative of Indian Life and Character. Cincinnati, OH: Methodist Book Concern, 1860.

Finley was a missionary in Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. He says, "No living man, probably, has seen and known more of the Indians in the north-west than myself. During almost seventy years I have been among them."

Florer, H.W. Early Michigan Settlements: The German Indian Missions in Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: W.W. Florer, 1953.

The mission at St. Louis and the mission at Sebewaing.

Frost, F. Sketches of Indian Life. Toronto: William Briggs, 1904.

Frost was for thirty years a missionary to the Ojibway Indians of Garden River and the Manitoulin Islands and the north shore of Lake Huron and Lake Superior.

Furlan, William P. In Charity Unfeigned: The Life of Father Xavier Pierz. St. Cloud, MN: Diocese of St. Cloud, 1952.

Every aspect of his career is explored: his religious and intellectual training of the Indians at Arbre Croche; his revival of the moribund mission at Sault Ste. Marie; his establishment of a new mission at Grand Portage; his indefatigable labors for the welfare of the Ottawas; and his notable success in converting the Chippewa.

Gammell, William. A History of American Baptist Missions in Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America, Under the Care of the American Baptist Missionary Union…with maps and an appendix. Boston, MA: Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, 1849.

Includes the Michigan missions.

Goodykoontz, Colin G. Home Missions on the American Frontier, with Particular Reference to the American Home Missionary Society. Caldwell, ID: Caxton, 1939.

Background on the movement with information on the Michigan missions.

Graebner, Theodore C. Church Bells in the Forest, A Story of Lutheran Pioneer Work on the Michigan Frontier, 1840-1850. St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 1944.

Includes the Indian missions established by the German Lutherans.

Greene, Howard. The Reverend Richard Fish Cadle; A Missionary of the Protestant Epsicopal Church in the Territories of Michigan and Wisconsin in the Early Nineteenth Century. Waukesha, WI: Davis-Greene, 1936.

A biography of Reverend Cadle which includes his work in Michigan.

Gregorich, Joseph. The Apostle of the Chippewas: The Life Story of the Most Rev. Frederich Baraga, the First Bishop of Marquette. Chicago, IL: Bishop Baraga Association, 1932.

The aim of this book is to treat the life of Bishop Baraga in a briefer and more popular form and to refer only to those more outstanding activities of his which possess a greater degree of interest to the general reader.

Halkett, John. Historical Notes Respecting the Indians of North America: With Remarks on the Attempts Made to Convert and Civilize Them. London: Archibald Constable, 1825.

"The Indians have lost more by imitating our vices, than they have gained by availing themselves of those arts which might have added comforts and conveniences to life."

Hall, B.M. The Life of Rev. John Clark. NY: Carlton and Porter, 1856.

Clark was a Methodist missionary in the Lake Superior area.

Harp, Maureen Anna. Indian Missions, Immigrant Migrations, and Regional Catholic Culture: Slovene Missionaries in the Upper Great Lakes, 1830-1892. Dissertation. University of Chicago, 1996.

Harp includes missions in Michigan.

Hayne, Coe. Baptist Trail-Makers of Michigan. Philadelphia, PA: Judah Press, 1936.

Contains a chapter on missions to the Indians.

Hele, Karl S. "By the Rapids": The Anishinabeg-Missionary Encounter at Bawating (Sault Ste. Marie) 1821-1871. Dissertation. McGill University, 2002.

Between 1821 and 1871, evangelical missionaries representing the dominant Protestant and Catholic churches, ventured to Sault Ste. Marie. They came to proselytize and 'civilize' the Anishinabeg communities living in the borderlands of British North America and the United States. Within the Sault region, the Anishinabeg, as well as Baptist, Anglican, Methodist, Catholic, and Presbyterian ministers, interacted in a multiplicity of ways which led to the development of different understandings concerning both conversions and Christianity.

Hildreth, Samuel P. Contributions to the Early History of the North-West, Including Moravian Missions in Ohio. Cincinnati, OH: R.P. Thompson, 1864.

Includes the Moravians time near Detroit.

History of American Missions to the Heathen, From Their Commencement to the Present Time. Worcester, MA: Spooner and Howland, 1840.

Isaac McCoy of Carey Mission and Abel Bingham of Sault Ste. Marie are included. Also includes information about Potawatomie removal.

Hopkins, Gerald T. A Mission to the Indians, From the Indian Committee of Baltimore Yearly Meeting, to Fort Wayne, in 1804. Philadelphia, PA: T. Ellwood Zell, 1862.

Written in 1804 by Gerald T. Hopkins with an appendix compiled in 1862 by Martha E. Tyson.

Jacker, Edward. Life and Services of Bishop Frederick Baraga. Marquette, MI: Bishop Baraga Association, 1957.

A lecture delivered by Rev. Edward Jacker on January 31, 1868 in St. Peter's Cathedral, Marquette, Michigan.

Jamison, James K. By Cross and Anchor: The Story of Frederick Baraga on Lake Superior. Patterson, NJ: St. Anthony Guild Press, 1946.

Father Baraga felt the impact of those remarkable years when the mineral rush, elbowing out the fur trade, drove the Indians westward and resulted in the establishment of reservations.

The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France 1610-1791; The Original French, Latin, and Italian Texts, with English Translations and Notes; Illustrated with Portraits, Maps, and Fascimiles. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Cleveland, OH: Burrow Brothers, 1896-1901. 71 volumes.

The Jesuit missionaries annually sent their superiors reports of their work. These reports of travel, exploration and adventure are rare source material. The religion, mythology, manners, and morals, even the speech and detailed daily living of the Indians were reported. There is an excellent two volume index for the set which enables the researcher to use the set efficiently.

Jezernik, Maksimilijan. Frederick Baraga: A Portrait of the First Bishop of Marquette Based on the Archives of the Congregatio de Propoganda File. NY: Studia Slovenica, 1968.

Considers Baraga from the viewpoint of Rome.

Jones, David. A Journal of Two Visits Made to Some Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio, in the Years 1772 and 1773. Burlington, NJ: Isaac Collins, 1774.

Jones was an early missionary to the Indians of the Ohio River valley.

Jones, Peter. History of the Ojebway Indians; With Special Reference to Their Conversion to Christianity. With a Brief Memoir of the Writer. London: Bennett, 1861.

"There is probably no one who can speak with more authority on the past state of the North American Indians…and of the amelioration of their condition consequent on their conversion to Christianity."

Jones, Peter. The Journal of Rev. Peter Jones. [missing title page]

Jones was an Ojibwa missionary in the Great Lakes area.

Jones, Peter. Life and Journals of Keh-Ke-Wa-Guo-Na-Ba: (Rev. Peter Jones) Wesleyan Missionary. Toronto: A. Green, 1860.

Keiser, Albert. Lutheran Mission Work Among the American Indians. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg, 1922.

Includes Lutheran work in Michigan, Craemer, and the Bethany Indian Church.

Kip, William Ingraham. The Early Jesuit Mission in North America: Compiled and Edited from the Letters of French Jesuits with Notes. NY: Wiley and Putnam, 1846.

Includes Father Marest's journeys through Illinois and Michigan, 1712.

Lambert, Bernard J. Shepherd of the Wilderness: A Biography of Bishop Frederic Baraga. L'Anse, MI: Bernard J. Lambert, 1967.

A biography of Baraga.

Lanheim, Albert. The Catholic Mission at Cross Village: The First 200 Years. Cross Village, MI: 1995.

The scope is limited to the Catholic mission which was documented at Cross Village in 1691.

Laverdiere, Charles H. Le Journal des Jesuites Publie d'apres le Manucrit Original Conserve aux Archives du Seminaire de Quebec, par MM les Abbes Laverdiere et Casgrain. Quebec: Leger Brousseau, 1871.

Lettres Edifiants Ecrites par Quelques Missionaires de la Compagnie de Jesus. Bruxelles: G. Pauwels, 1771.

Loskiel, George Henry. History of the United Brethern among the Indians of North America. London: Brethern Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel, 1794.

General history of Indians and missions. The mission at Detroit is included.

Luckhard, Charles F. Faith in the Forest; A True Story of Pioneer Lutheran Missionaries, Laboring Among the Chippewa Indians in Michigan, 1833-1868. Sebewaing, MI: 1952.

Begins with the arrival of Pastor Friedrich Schmid in Michigan.

McCoy, Isaac. The Annual Register of Indian Affairs within the Indian (or Western) Territory. Shawnoe Baptist Mission, Indian Territory, 1836, 1837.

Includes reports of Ottawa and Potawatomie removed to the area.

McCoy, Isaac. History of Baptist Indian Missions: Embracing Remarks on the Former and Present Conditions of the Aboriginal Tribes; Their Settlement Within the Indian Territory, and Their Future Prospects. Washington, DC: William M. Morrison, 1840. Reprint: NY: Johnson Reprint, 1970. Reprint: Springfield, MO: Particular Baptist Press, 2003.

McCoy was a missionary at Carey Mission and Thomas Mission in Michigan. He became convinced Indians should be removed from contact with whites and formed a plan to remove them west of the Mississippi to form an Indian state.

McGee, John W. The Catholic Church in the Grand River Valley, 1833-1950. Grand Rapids, MI: 1950.

The early years include missions to the Native Americans.

McGreal, Sister Mary Nona. Samuel Mazzuchelli, O.P.; A Kaleidoscope of Scenes From His Life. Mazzuchelli Guild, n.d.

A biography in the cause of his beautification.

Martin, R. P. Hurons et Iroquois. Le P. Jean de Brebeuf, Sa Vie, Sex Travaux, Son Martyre, par le R.P. Martin, de la Compagnie de Jesus. 2nd ed. Paris: G. Tequi, 1882.

Mazzuchelli, Samuel. Memoirs Historical and Edifying of a Missionary Apostolic, Father Samuel Mazzuchelli, O.P., of the Order of Saint Dominic Among the Various Indian Tribes and Among the Catholics and Protestants in the United States of America. Chicago, IL: W. F. Hall, 1915.

Mazzuchelli worked in Michigan at Mackinac and Sault Ste. Marie.

Memorial Volume of the First Fifty Years of the American Board of Foreign Missions. Boston, MA: the Board, 1861.

Includes missions in Michigan.

Miessler, Ernst Gustav H. Autobiography of E.G.H. Miessler, M.D., January 12, 1826 – March 1, 1916. Missionary among the Chippewa Indians, Gratiot and Isabella Counties, Michigan 1851-1869. typed.

Translated by his grandson.

The Missionary Jubilee: An Account of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the American Baptist Missionary Union. NY: Sheldon, 1865.

Includes the Carey Mission and Pottawatomi removal.

Missions to the Heathen: India and America. Volume 2. London: Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 1848.

Includes: Second Report of a Mission to the Ottawahs and Ojibwas of Lake Huron by Rev. F. O'Meara, 1847.

Nute, Grace Lee. Documents Relating to Northwest Missions 1815-1827. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1942.

Missionary letters and reports.

O'Brien, Frank A. Two Early Missionaries to the Indians. Lady Antoinette Van Hoffern and Father Frank Pierz. Lansing, MI: Michigan Historical Commission, 1916.

Lady Hoffern was mostly at Superior. Father Pierz was at Cross Village.

Pare, George. The Catholic Church in Detroit, 1701-1888. Detroit, MI: Gabriel Richard Press, 1951.

The early history of the church in Detroit includes Native Americans.

Parkman, Francis. The Jesuits in North America in the Seventeenth Century. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1890.

"Few passages of history are more striking than those which record the efforts of the earlier French Jesuits to convert the Indians."

Petition of the Catholic Church for the Agency of the Chippewas of Lake Superior. Washington, DC: H. Polkinhorn, 1873.

Various correspondence on this subject to the Secretary of the Interior.

Philip Everhard; or a History of the Baptist Indian Missions in North America, from the Formation of the American Baptist Board of Foreign Missions to the Present Time. Boston,MA: Massachusetts Sabbath School Union, 1831.

Includes Carey Mission and Gun Lake Mission.

Pitezel, John H. Life of Rev. Peter Marksman, an Ojibwa Missionary, Illustrating the Triumphs of the Gospel Among the Ojibwa Indians. Cincinnati: OH: Press of the Western Methodist Book Concern, 1901.

Marksman worked at Flint, L'Anse, Fond du Lac, Sault Ste. Marie, Saginaw, Grand River, Pentwater, and Bay Mills. He died in 1892.

Pitezel, John H. Lights and Shades of Missionary Life: Containing Travels, Sketches, Incidents, and Missionary Efforts, During Nine Years Spent in the Region of Lake Superior. Cincinnati, OH: Western Book Concern, 1859.

Pitezel was a missionary at Sault Ste. Marie.

Polack, William G. Bringing Christ to the Ojibways of Michigan. A Story of the Mission Work of E.R. Baierlein (1848-1853). NY: Ernst Kaufmann, 1930.

Bethany Mission near St. Louis in Gratiot County.

Presbyterian Church in the United States. Committee on Home Missions. Home Missions. Annual Report. Have: 1866, 1867.

Each report includes brief information about Michigan missions.

Presbyterian Church in the United States. Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. Historical Sketches of the Missions Under the Care of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. Philadelphia, PA: Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian Church, 1891.

There is a brief account of the Presbyterian mission work in Michigan.

Prindle, Cyrus. Memoir of Rev. Daniel Meeker Chandler; For Several Years Missionary Among the Indians, at Ke-Wa-We-Non, and Sault Ste. Marie, Lake Superior. Middlebury, CN: Ephrain Maxham, 1842.

Chandler was a missionary from 1834 to 1839. This is his journal edited after his death in 1839.

Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Policy in Crisis: Christian Reformers and the Indian, 1865-1900. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964.

Story of the development of the policy of the United States government toward the American Indians in the last third of the nineteenth century.

Rededication of the old Bethany Lutheran Indian Cemetery, 1848-1931, Near St. Louis, Michigan, Sunday, October 11, 1931 at 3 p.m. Sponsored by the Lutherans of the Missouri Synod in the Saginaw Valley. n.p.

Program of the rededication service and a brief history of the mission.

Report of the Directors of the Northern Missionary Society at Their Annual Meeting. Albany, NY: Websters and Skinners, 1821.

Report on the sending of John Hudson to Mackinaw to open an Indian school.

Report of the United Foreign Missionary Society. NY: J. and J. Harper, 1925, 1926.

Have 7th and 8th Annual Reports which report on the missions at Fort Gratiot and Mackinaw Missions.

Reppllier, Agnes. Pere Marquette: Priest, Pioneer and Adventurer. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, 1929.

Includes information about the Indians.

Reuter, Dorothy. Methodist Indian Ministries in Michigan, 1830-1990. D. Reuter, 1993.

Information about missions and missionaries who worked in Michigan.

Rezek, Antoine Ivan. History of the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette; Containing a Full and Accurate Account of the Development of the Catholic Church in Upper Michigan, With Portraits of Bishops, Priests and Illustrations of Churches Old and New. Houghton, MI: 1906-1907. 2 volumes.

Volume 1 contains biographical sketches of the four bishops and some contemporary missionaries. Volume 2 contains a history of individual parishes with an account of early Jesuit missions.

Ronda, James P. and James Axtell. Indian Missions: A Critical Bibliography. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1978.

Missions all over the United States.

Rosenstand, Holger. From the Land of the Great Lakes: Pioneer Days in Michigan. Translated by Willard R. Garrad. Des Moines, IA: Lutheran Church in America, 1981.

Rosenstand was the first Danish Lutheran pastor at Our Savior Lutheran Church in Manistee, 1873-1877. Includes a chapter on the Chippewa Indians.

Rossman, Laurence Alonzo. Christianizing the Chippewas. Grand Rapids, MI: 1949.

Story of the efforts to Christianize the Red Man of the north.

Rothensteiner, John. History of the Archdiocese of St. Louis in its Various Stages of Development from A.D. 1673 to A.D. 1928. St. Louis, MO: 1928. 2 volumes

There is much information on early missions. The Great Lakes area was part of this archdiocese.

Roustio, Edward R. Early Indian Missions as Reflected in the Unpublished Manuscripts of Isaac McCoy. Springfield, MO: Particular Baptist Press, 2000.

This is a thesis on Indian migration pulled from the letters and journals of Isaac McCoy.

Schauinger, J. Herman. Cathedrals in the Wilderness. Milwaukee, WI: Bruce, 1952.

Story of Benedict Joseph Flaget who administered a diocese that included Michigan from 1810-1850.

Schauinger, Joseph. Stephen T. Badin, Priest in the Wilderness. Milwaukee, WI: Bruce, 1956.

From 1828 to 1833 Badin was missionary to the Indians in Indiana and Michigan.

Schermerhorn, John Freeman. Report to the Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians. Boston, MA: The Society, 1814.

Includes information about the Great Lakes area tribes.

Schoenfuhs, Walter Paul. The Chippewa Indians in Michigan and the Missions of the Methodist, Presbyterian and Lutheran Churches, 1840 – 1855. Thesis. Washington University, 1963.

The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the work of these three churches.

Schoenfuhs, Walter P. The Story of the "German Lutheran Chippewa Indian Mission" in the Saginaw Valley. Reprinted from Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly, October 1964.

A reprint of the article plus a photograph of Edwin Thomas, a Mt. Pleasant Chippewa Indian.

Schweinitz, Edmund. The Life and Times of David Zeisberger, the Western Pioneer and Apostle of the Indians. Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott, 1870.

Includes time Zeisberger spent at Detroit.

Schwind, Mona. Period Pieces: An Account of the Grand Rapids Dominicans 1853-1966. Grand Rapids, MI: Sisters of St. Dominic, 1991.

Includes their work among the Indians.

Shea, John G. History of the Catholic Missions Among the Indian Tribes of the United States, 1529-1854. NY: T.W. Strong, 1854.

Includes Huron and Ottawa missions.

Shurtleff, Mary Belle. Old Arbre Croche. n.p.: 1940.

Booklet prepared to preserve some of the historic background of the mission.

Smith, Donald. Sacred Feathers: The Reverend Peter Jones [Kahkewaquonaby] and the Mississauga Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.

A study of Peter Jones, a remarkable Ojibwa Indian leader and Methodist missionary who fought to secure equality for his people with the white settlers.

Smith, Timothy. Missionary Abominations Unmasked or a View of the Carey Mission, Containing an Unmasking of the Missionary Abominations Practiced Among the Indians of St. Joseph County. South Bend, IN: Beacon Office, 1833.

Smith was probably annoyed at McCoy's opposition to liquor being sold to the Indians by white traders. He makes many accusations against the missionaries.

Speer, Robert E. Presbyterian Foreign Missions; An Account of the Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1901.

Includes a brief account of work in Michigan.

The Story of Holy Childhood Church, Harbor Springs, Michigan and a History of Catholic America. Hackensack, NJ: Custombook, 1979.

The story of the apostolic work which has​ been done by Holy Childhood Parish of Harbor Springs from 1829 to 1979 among both the white and Indian settlements.

Talbot, Francis. Saint Among the Savages: The Life of Isaac Jagues. NY: Harper and Brothers, 1935.

He was a missionary to the Hurons.

Thornton, Neil. Along the Historic Riviere aux Sables. Tawas City, MI: Printers Devil, 1987.

Includes a chapter on Simon Greensky, an Indian converted to Christianity, who spent a lifetime ministering to his people in the Au Sable River District.

Thwaites, Reuben Gold. Father Marquette. NY: D. Appleton, 1902.

Missions and Indians are included in this biography of Marquette.

Tracts Relative to the Aborigines, Published by Direction of the Meeting for Sufferings from 1838 to 1842. London: Edward Marsh, 1843.

The Quaker Select Committee was "appointed to consider what measures ought to be adopted with regard to the native inhabitants of countries where British settlements are made, and to the neighboring tribes, in order to secure to them the due observance of justice and the protections of their rights; to promote the spread of civilization among them, and to lead them to the peaceful and voluntary reception of the Christian religion."

Trowbridge, M.E.D. History of Baptists in Michigan. Published under the Auspices of the Michigan Baptist State Convention, 1909.

Contains information on missionaries to the Indians.

Tuttle, Sarah. Conversations on the Mackinac and Green Bay Missions. Boston, MA: Sabbath School Society, 1833.

Information on these missions in the forms of letters and conversations.

Verwyst, P. Chrysostomus. Life and Labors of Rt. Rev. Frederick Baraga, First Bishop of Marquette, Michigan to which are added Short Sketches of the Lives and Labors of Other Indian Missionaries of the Northwest. Milwaukee, WI: M.H. Wiltzius, 1900.

There is a good deal of information about the Indians included in this biography.

Verwyst, P. Chrysostomus. Missionary Labors of Fathers Marquette, Menard, and Allouez, in the Lake Superior Region. Milwaukee, WI: Hoffmann Brothers, 1886.

Work of these missionaries among the Chippewa.

Wilson, Edward F. Missionary Work Among the Ojibway Indians. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1886.

Wilson was a missionary who came in 1868. These memoirs of his experiences contain valuable descriptions of travel, efforts at educating the Indians, and many accounts of Indian life and customs. While primarily concerned with the Ojibway in Canada, the account includes the names of a number of Indians from the Sault area.

Wyeth, Walter N. Poor Lo! Early Indian Missi​ons. Philadelphia, PA: W.N. Wyeth, 1896.

Includes missions to the Ottawas and Putawatomies.

Wynne, John J. The Jesuit Martyrs of North America. NY: Universal Knowledge Foundation, 1925.

Isaac Jagues, John de Brebeuf, Gabrial Lalemont, Noel Chaband, Anthony Daniel, Charles Garnier, Rene Goupil, John Lalande are the martyrs.

Zehnder, Herman F. "Teach My People the Truth!" The Story of Frankenmuth, Michigan.​ Frankenmuth, MI: Herman F. Zehnder, 1970.

Story of the Zion Lutheran Mission in the Frankenmuth area included.


Annual Camp Meeting of Isabella County.


Alscbauch, John. Journal 1866-1886.

Alscbaugh was a Lutheran missionary to the Kewanaw area of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. The journal is in German.

American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. Correspondence 1814-1900. 2 reels of microfilm.

Baptist Indian missions.

American Indian Correspondence: The Presbyterian Historical Society Collection of Missionaries’ Letters, 1833-1893. 35 reels of microfilm

Published index is available. Chippewa missionary correspondence from Isaac Baird, Peter Dougherty, Hugh Guthrie, H.N. Phillips, Francis Spees, J. G. Turner, A.W. Williamson, and S.G. Wright. “The letters include much discussion of aboriginal and post-contact Indian culture, so the collection invites studies of various tribes from anthropological perspectives. Though the ethnocentrism of the writers often detracts from their perceptions, much can be gleaned on Indian ways and personality. Acculturational approaches could prove especially useful, as the missionaries were often preoccupied with on going developments within the tribes and the varying Indian responses to white cultural intrusion.”

American Missionary Association. Manuscripts, 1843-1884. New Orleans, LA: Dillard University. 24 reels of microfilm

Michigan activities are on 5 reels of microfilm within the set.

Baraga, Frederick. Papers, 1809-1908. 2 boxes

This collection consists of copies assembled from originals by the Historical Commission of the Bishop Baraga Association whose goal is to promote the cause of Beautification of Bishop Baraga.

Bethany Lutheran Indian Mission. Collection. 1 folder

Photocopies of documents and articles about the mission and cemetery near St. Louis, Michigan.

Bethany Lutheran Indian Mission. Vertical File. Native Americans.

Bingham, Abel. Papers 1796-1909. 29 boxes

This collection includes correspondence relating to Bingham’s associations with the Baptist Missionary Society, his ministry at the Baptist Indian Mission at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and Mission Records. Also includes material from his family including his wife’s journal of their activities at the Mission. This collection is also available on microfilm.

Brown, Wayne. Abel Bingham’s Mission School at Sault Ste. Marie. CMU Term Paper. (Cannot be copied)

Catholic Church in the U.S.A. 1 reel of microfilm

Collection includes: 1) The tenure of the Catholic Church property in the U.S.A., 2) Ignaciji Mrak, 1810-1901, 3) Liber matrimoniorom missionis Arbre-Crochensis 1831-1879, 4) Liber baptizatorum missionis Arbre-Crochenis 1831-1855.

Craemer, F. August. Correspondence, 1847-1855. 1 folder

Photocopied typed translations of several letters which include visit to Bethany Indian Mission. Described in detail are the Ojibwa converts, baptisms, etc.

Doane, Mrs. John W. Bethany Mission. 1 folder

A paper read before the Monday Club of St. Louis, Michigan.

Graebner, J. Heinrich. Die frankischen colonien des Saginaw Thales, im Staat Michigan, 1890. Concordia Historical Institute. 1 reel of microfilm

Original manuscript in German of “The Franconian Colonies of the Saginaw Valley, in the State of Michigan.” Also E.G.H. Miessler’s “A Dictionary of the Chippiway Langauge, Chippiway-English, English-Chippiway.”

Hendrickson, Annetta. Life at the Old Mission, 1839-1849. CMU Term Paper, 1966. (Cannot be copied)

Old Mission in the Grand Traverse Bay area.

Hyma, Albert. Collection. 1 box

Includes copies of letters (mostly translations) by Bishop Frederick Baraga concerning the Indian Mission at Grand River, including a list of names of Indians, 1829-1835.

Isabella Indian Mission, Isabella County, Michigan. 1 folder

A history of the missionary activities of the Methodist Episcopal church among the Chippewa Indians in Isabella County, Michigan and vicinity, 1841-1890.

Isabella Methodist Indian Mission. Vertical File. Native Americans-Ojibway.

Killian, David. Jesuit and Savage in New France. CMU Term Paper, 1957. (Cannot be copied)

McCoy, Isaac. Isaac McCoy Papers, 1808-1874, in the Kansas State Historical Society. Topeka, KS: Kansas State Historical Society. 13 reels of microfilm

The papers are concerned almost entirely with Indian missions, Indian removal, and related matters. Missionary duties at the station on the Wabash, at Fort Wayne, and the missions on the St. Joseph and Grand Rivers are detailed.

Meeker, Jotham. Jotham Meeker Papers, 1825-1849. Topeka, KS: Kansas State Historical Society. 2 reels of microfilm

Meeker was a Baptist minister, missionary, and printer. He served as a teacher to the Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Chippewa Indians in Michigan Territory from 1825 to 1833. He devised a system of phonetic printing of Indian orthography.

Methodist Episcopal Church in Michigan. Record Book, 1844-1866.

This is the record book of Indian missionaries in the western part of Michigan with minutes of conferences and Indian names.

Miller, Audrey V. History of Greensky Hill Mission. CMU Term Paper. (Cannot be copied)

Moll, Harold W. A Canoe Trip to Midland Michigan in 1675. 1 folder

A paper analyzing the possibility of the early existence of a Catholic mission near present day Midland, Michigan based on the extant journal of Father Henry Houvel.

Pitezel, John. Papers, 1828-1889.

Pitezel was a Methodist minister. This collection includes his correspondence, journals, and writings. The journals cover September 1846 through September 1851 and detail his life and work in Adrian, Marshall, Sault St. Marie and at the Keweaneon Mission and note his visits to Indian chiefs, councils, and medicine men, as well as stories told to him by the Indians.

Porter, Jeremiah. Correspondence, 1821-1866. 1 folder

Letters from Sault Ste. Marie, 1831-1833, describing the inhabitants and Indian life and customs at the Sault.

Porter, Jeremiah. The Diaries of Jeremiah Porter, 1831-1833 and 1836-1848. Chicago Historical Society. 1 reel of microfilm

The diaries contain information on Porter’s trip to the Sault, his religious work there, life and incidents during the period, and comments on such individuals as Bingham and Schoolcraft.

Sacred Heart Franciscan Indian Mission Records. 43 reels of microfilm

Roll 5: Bay Shore, Michigan, St. Francis Solanus Parish, Beaver Island, Burt Lake, Cross Village.

Roll 6: Cross Village

Roll 7: Cross Village, Harbor Springs

Roll 8: Harbor Springs

Roll 9: Harbor Springs, Petoskey
Roll 10-11: Harbor Springs

Roll 19: Middle Village, Michigan

Roll 20: Peshabetown, Michigan

Roll 21-22: Petoskey
Roll 27: Baraga, Rev. Frederic, Indian language records

Roll 29: Derenthal, Rev. Odonic Chippewa vocabulary and grammar notes

Roll 31-32: Hagedorn, Rev. Eugene. Research notes – Catholic church in Michigan

Roll 37-39. Verwyst, Chrysotom. Indian language records.

Sievers, Ferdinand. Correspondence, 1854, 1855.

Two letters by Pastor Sievers from Frankenlust, Michigan describing his visits to the Indians at the Bethany Mission near St. Louis, Michigan.

Smith, George N. Papers, 1835-1879. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. 3 reels of microfilm

Smith was a Presbyterian minister, farmer and teacher in Michigan. Principally journals, 1840 to 1879, while he served the Indians of southwestern Michigan.


Saulte Ste. Marie Baptist Mission.


Anishinable Enamiad. Harbor Springs, MI.

A monthly journal published by the Franciscan Fathers and devoted to the interests of the missions among the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians. Have: March 1898 –November 1910, scattered holdings. Not indexed.

Home Missionary and American Pastor's Journal. NY: American Home Missionary Society.

Have 1836-1840. Not indexed.

Messenger of the Holy Childhood Church and School, Harbor Springs, Michigan.

Published by the school. English language supplement. Have: 1902-1912. Scattered holdings. Not indexed.

"Algic Society." Missionary Herald 29 (August 1833): 288-290.

Formation of this society in Detroit to encourage missionary efforts for the Northwestern tribes.

"American Missions: Michigan and the Northwest Territory." American Catholic Historical Researches 11 (1894): 113-117.

Lists missions and locations.

"Bethany Cemetery, St. Louis, Michigan." Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly 1 (January 1929): 81-82.

Two photographs of the cemetery.

"Bethany Lutheran Indian Cemetery." Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly​ 4 (January 1932): 102-103.

A story about the restoration of the cemetery.

Bingham, Abel. "Letter from Sault Ste. Marie." American Baptist Magazine 11 (August 1831): 248.

Bingham reports on the mission effort at Sault Ste. Marie.

Bingham, Abel. "Ojibwas." American Baptist Magazine​ 20 (July 1840): 174-176; 20 (October 1840): 244-247.

Bingham's journal of trips to various tribes. Includes an account of Indian court.

Bingham, Abel. "Ojibwas." American Baptist Magazine​ 30 (April 1850): 114-116.

Extracts from Bingham's journals on his missionary work.

Bolt, Robert. "Reverend Leonard Slater in the Grand River Valley." Michigan History LI (Fall 1967): 241-251.

From 1826 to 1836 Slater was a Baptist missionary in western Michigan.

Boutwell, Rev. "Northwestern Indians." Missionary Herald 29 (August 1833)): 276-277.

Letters from Rev. Boutwell about the missions.

Boutwell, Rev. "Ojbeways." Missionary Herald 28 (April 1832): 121-122; 28 (September 1832): 292-294; 28 (December 1832): 403-404.

Extracts from a letter from Boutwell including his inclusion on the Schoolcraft exploring tour of 1832.

Boutwell, Rev. "Ojibwas." Missionary Herald 30 (April 1834): 132-136; 30 (May 1834): 177-180; 30 (June 1834): 259-262; 30 (August 1834): 304-306.

Abstracts from Boutwell's journal during his travels with Schoolcraft in 1832.

"Carey Station." American Baptist Magazine 5 (January 1825): 27.

Brief information about Carey Station mission on the St. Joseph River.

"Carey Station." American Baptist Magazine 13 (January 1833): 16-17.

News of this mission and its likely disbanding because of the Potawattomi removal.

Cheney, Mavis S. "Greensky Mission 1833." Torch Magazine (Winter 1986): 33-35.

Article about Peter Greensky, a Chippewa Indian, who came to Charlevoix county to establish a church.

Cumming, John. "A Puritan among the Chippewa." Michigan History LI (Fall 1967): 213-225.

An article about Abel and Hannah Bingham, Baptist missionaries at Sault Ste. Marie.

Cunningham, Wilbur M. "A Few Facts Regarding the History of Carey Mission." Michigan Archaeologist 2 (December 15, 1956): 11-16.

Carey Mission was the first Baptist mission in Michigan.

Ennes, Calvin. "Wah-Sash-Kaw-Mo-Qua: Saganing's Missionary." Michigan Heritage 8 (Autumn 1966): 29-36.

Information about Mary Sagatoo and her missionary work.

Ferry, Rev. W. M. "Account of an Indian Woman at Mackinaw." Missionary Herald 25 (May 1829): 154-158.

An account of this woman's conversion and her Christian life.

Ferry, Rev. W. M. "Mackinaw." Missionary Herald 22 (February 1926): 51-53;24 (October 1928): 313-314; 24 (December 1928): 381-384; 25 (July 1829): 212-215; 26 (December 1830): 387-388.

Reports on the work of the mission.

Francis, Shirley. "The Indian Methodist Church in Michigan." Indian Talk 1 (May 1974): 16-17.

Past and present of the Methodist church work and Native Americans.

"From a Missionary in Siawasse County: Michigan." The Missionary Chronicle 11 (October 1843): 314-316.

News from the missionary.

"From the Land of Bibles and Sabbaths: Peter Dougherty's Mission to Grand Traverse." Old Traverse Town 1 (December 1974): 1 +; 2 (February 1975): 1 +.

The members of the Old Mission Community worked as one to improve the economic, social, educational, and religious conditions of the Peninsula Indians.

"Gratiot County Indians and Bethany Mission." Gratiot Genealogical Group 6 (March 1998): 133-139.

Information about the Chippewa and the Bethany Mission in Gratiot County.

Hall, Rev. "Ojibwas." Missionary Herald 30 (January 1834): 24-27.

Extracts from his journal on a trip to Lac de Flambeau.

Harmon, Mr. "Country and Condition of the Chippeways." Missionary Herald 14 (October 1823): 320-322.

"It must be interesting to the religious public to learn, from authentic sources, all which can be learnt, regarding the history and present condition of the Indians."

Hughes, Thomas. "Extracts from the Rev. Thomas Hughes' Journals of his Tours to Detroit, and Among the Indians." New York Missionary Magazine (May 1803): 172-180.

Includes an account of George Bluejacket accompanying the missionaries.

"Indian in Michigan." Missionary Herald 21 (January 1825): 6-7.

List of Missions and their workers.

"The Indian Mission." Michigan Lutheran 5 (August 1929): 2-5; 6 (September 1929): 2-4; 6 (December 1929): 2-3; 6 (January 1930): 2-3; 6 (February 1930): 7-8; 6 (March 1930): 2-3.

A series of articles on the history of the Lutheran missions in Michigan.

"Indian Missions." American Baptist Magazine 13 (June 1833): 224-225.

News of the mission at Sault Ste. Marie.

"Indians in the Michigan Territory." Missionary Herald 22 (January 1826): 6-8; 23 (January 1827): 10.

Mackinac mission personnel.

Jones, Peter Rev. "Address to the London Missionary Society, 1831." Missionary Herald 28 (September 1832): 302-303.

Peter Jones was an Ojibway minister and this is a speech he made in London.

Kretzmann, P.E. "Documents and Resolutions Pertaining to the Lutheran Missions Among the Indians in Michigan, 1844-1869." Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly 2 (January 1930): 100-107; 3 (April 1930): 25-32.

Several documents relating to Lutheran missions at Frankenmuth, Bethany, Sibiwaing, and Shiboyank. List of Baptisms of Indians at Frankenmuth. There are also photographs of the Indian church at Bethany.

Lambert, Bernard. "Mission Priorities: Indians or Miners?" Michigan History LI (Winter 1967): 323-334.

Examples of mission work in the Upper Peninsula.

McCoy, Isaac. "Carey Station." American Baptist Magazine 5 (February 1825): 53-56; 5 (March 1825): 84-87; 5 (April 1825): 118-120; 5 (July 1825):214-215; 5 (August 1825): 247-248; 5 (September 1825): 280-283; 5 (November 1825): 344.

News of the mission.

"Mackinaw Mission." Missionary Herald 21 (September 1825): 288; 26 (January 1830): 13; 27 (February 1831): 61; 27 (April 1831): 134; 28 (January 1832): 10; 28 (August 1832): 260; 29 (January 1833): 25-26; 29 (December 1833): 467-469; 30 (January 1834): 7.

Descriptions of work of the mission and missionary personnel.

Meeker, J. "Ottawas." American Baptist Magazine 20 (November 1840): 262-264; 20 (June 1840): 128-129.

Extracts from Meeker's missionary journals including his trial by the Indian Council for opening a mission without their consent.

Miessler, E. G. H. "Pioneer Lutheran Missionary to the Chippewas: Autobiography of E. G. H. Miessler 1826-1916." Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly 52 (Winter 1979): 146-174.

Miessler was an early Lutheran missionary among the Chippewa Indians in the St. Louis and Mt. Pleasant Michigan areas.

"Mission near Lake Superior." Missionary Herald 27 (October 1831): 334.

Brief report of new missionaries to the area.

"Mission School Built at Omena in 1852." Kalamazoo Valley Family News Letter 8 (Autumn 1978): 28.

In 1839 the Reverend Peter Dougherty came to Old Mission Point to establish a Presbyterian Mission and to convert and educate the Indians who had received a land grant from the government and settled there.

"Mission to the Ojibways." American Baptist Magazine 30 (July 1850): 237; 31 (July 1851): 298; 35 (July 1854): 324-325.

Report on the missions at Sault Ste. Marie and Pendill's Mills.

"Mission to the Ojibways." Missionary Herald 31 (January 1835): 28; 38 (May 1842): 203-204; 38 (October 1842): 395-397; 39 (January 1843): 35-37; 39 (July 1843): 288-289; 39 (September 1843): 352-354; 39 (December 1843): 466-467; 40 (January 1844): 13; 40 (May 1844): 177; 40 (September 1844): 319-320; 40 (November 1844): 390-391, 394; 41 (January 1845): 12-13; 41 (May 1845): 168-169; 42 (January 1846): 15-16; 42 (February 1846): 52-55; 42 (June 1846): 213; 42 (August 1846): 281-283; 43 (January 1847): 15; 43 (May 1847): 161-162; 43 (June 1847): 214; 43 (October 1847): 358.

Reports on missionary work.

"Ojibeways." Missionary Herald ​ 28 (September 1832): 292-294; 29 (February 1833): 62-63; 29 (September 1833): 314-317; 29 (October 1833): 371-374; 29 (November 1833): 410-414; 31 (March 1835): 115-120; 32(January 1836): 26-27; 32 (June 1836): 236-237; 34 (June 1838): 237; 37 (February 1841): 92; 37 (June 1841): 273-274; 37 (July 1841): 319-320; 37 (December 1841): 501-502.

Descriptions of the Ojibewa Indians and the work of the missions.

"Ojibways." American Baptist Magazine 20 (June 1840): 125.

Report of the Sault Ste. Marie mission.

"Ottawas." American Baptist Magazine 30 (November 1850): 366.

News from Mr. Meeker about his translation efforts.

"Ottawas." Missionary Herald ​ 28 (August 1832): 267.

Paragraph about Mr. Slater and his work with the Ottawa on the Grand River.

"Ottawas in Michigan." American Baptist Magazine 20 (June 1840): 125-126; 20 (December 1840): 288-290; 30 (July 1850): 237.

Brief reports on the missions.

"Peter Dougherty's Mission." Totem Pole 19 (July 7, 1947): 1-4.

Dougherty established the Presbyterian mission in the Grand Traverse region.

"Petition of the Ottawa Indians to Congress Praying That a Teacher or Minister of the Gospel of the Order of Jesuits be Sent Them." American Catholic Historical Researches 11 (1894): 92-93.

Petition from the Ottawas at Arbre Croche in 1823.

Pitezel, John H. "Indians, Missionaries and Canoe-sailing on Lake Superior in the eighteen-forties." Michigan Archaeologist 4 (July 1958): 39-47.

Pietezel's account of his travels.

Porter, Jeremiah. "A Missionary in Early Sault Ste. Marie." Michigan History 38 (1954): 321-370.

Porter's journal at Sault Ste. Marie in 1831-1832.

Rosalita, Sister Mary. "The Spring Hill Indian School Correspondence." Michigan History 13 (Winter 1830): 94-149.

Father Richard's correspondence with the federal government about the school for Indians in early Detroit.

"Sault Ste. Marie." American Baptist Magazine 12 (June 1832): 180-181; 12 (July 1832): 221-222; 13 (November 1833): 440.

News from the mission.

"Saulte Ste. Marie Mission." Missionary Herald 28 (August 1832): 267.

Brief account of the work of the mission there.

"Salem Mission Dedicated." Indian Talk 3 (December 1975): 16-17.

United Methodist Church mission.

Schoenfuhs, Walter P. "Eduard Raimud Baierlien: Lutheran Missionary to the Indians in America and Asia." Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly 27 (October 1954): 133-141; 27 (January 1955): 145-162; 28 (Spring 1955): 1-26.

Information about Bairlien who was a missionary to the Michigan Chippewa.

Soule, J. Bishop. "Wyandot Mission." Methodist Magazine 8 (January 1825) 32-38.

Includes speeches by Indian leaders about the mission.

Stewart, Nancy L. "History of the Taymouth Methodist Indian Mission." Memory Lane Gazette 51 (June 1992): 1-2.

The mission was established in 1846 when a frame school was erected to teach the Indian children.

Suelflow, Roy A. "Lutheran Missions in the Saginaw Valley." Michigan History LI (Fall 1967): 226-240.

A history of the Lutheran efforts among the Native Americans of the Saginaw Valley.

Vogel, Virgil J. "The Missionary as Acculturation Agent: Peter Dougherty and the Indians of Grand Traverse." Michigan History LI​(Fall 1967): 185-201.

Dougherty worked in the Grand Traverse region from 1838-1871.

Walker, Joseph E. Editor. "Plowshares and Pruning Hooks for the Miami and Potawatomie: The Journal of Gerard T. Hopkins, 1804." Ohio History 88 (Autumn 1979): 361- 407.

The Quakers sent Hopkins, a farmer, to teach the natives how to use the tools of civilization.

Widder, Keith R. "Founding La Pointe Mission, 1825-1833." Wisconsin Magazine of History​ 64 (Spring 1981): 181-201.

The labor of Hall and Boutwell signaled the beginning of a new chapter in the American