Beaver Island and Michigan - Subject Cards A-D
Air Service to Beaver Island
- Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted, p. 257
["Our children are becoming Dutch!" -Pilgrims]
Construction of a landing field at a Federal cost of approximately $10,000 has been approved. Work will start as soon as frost leaves the ground, under supervision of the State Department of Aeronautics.
600 of the permanent population live in the village of St. James
- 85% increase in capital
- B. J. Lambert, Shepherd of the Wilderness, p. 171
In Cincinnati in 1853 (seeing to the publication of his Indian dictionary):
In further distress Baraga was dismayed by the attitude many city-dwellers had to priests & the Catholic Church. In vile & abusive language members of the clergy were slandered & criticized. Street-preachers berated the efforts of the missionaries. Pagans, bigots, & unbelievers dominated the American scene.
"Why don't these critics try to help their fellow man?" he asked from the pulpit. "Is it necessary for the world to hate?"
[- no citation given for this entry; ibid. Lambert, above?]
(1860 - he was 63 at the time) "I shall be obliged to make a journey on foot, with snowshoes, from Sault Ste. Marie to Mackinac & St. Ignace in the first days of Feb. 1860"...
"These winter journeys I find somewhat difficult...walking during the day goes tolerably well, but when obliged to camp out in the open air at night in the woods, it is extremely uncomfortable in this northerly climate. Tiresome walking on snowshoes over hills and through valleys causes perspiration, not withstanding the cold. In the evenings I soon feel cold & begin to tremble as if I had the fever. If I could arrive at some house every evening on these winter journeys, traveling would not be so hard, but in this desolate country a man has often to walk several days before seeing a single house."
- Rev. Antoine Ivan Rezek, His. of the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie &
Marquette, Vol. 1 (1906), Houghton, Mich., p. 151
"Now this large & beautiful island is inhabited almost entirely by Catholics, mostly Irish & some Germans & French. They earnestly long to have a church & priest. On the 22nd May, the fourth Sunday after Easter, I said Holy Mass in a large school house [this must have been a Mormon building -HC] & preached in English for the first time on this island, & after Mass confirmed 24 persons. They were all adults, with the exception of one boy; some of them were old men & women who had never before had an opportunity to see a bishop in their neighborhood. After divine services, I held a meeting with the men to deliberate where and how a church might be built on this island.
Then I sailed over to the smaller Beaver Island, called Garden Island, which is inhabited by Indians, who are visited from time to time by Rev. Father Zorn. All these Indians are now Catholic & hold fast to the faith, notwithstanding the bad examples around them when the Mormons were living in the neighborhood."
Goes on to say a new church, built of cedar, will be built on Garden to replace the bark one now in use.
- Father Baraga, in Rezek, His. of the Diocese, p. 152
- Bishop Baraga, from his correspondence with the Leopoldine
Battle of Pine River
July 12, 1853
Lewis Briggs - slight arm wound; on Fitz list
- Orlando Briggs - a cooper, not wounded; on Fitz list
- Egbert Carpenter - not wounded; on Fitz list
- David Finch - not wounded; on Fitz list
- L. D. Hickey - not wounded; 1850 census; on Fitz list; on McNutt list
Lorenzo Dow - with Strang at his death; last survivor of the 12 apostles
- Andrew J. Hale - nearly bled to death; on Fitz list
- Franklin Johnson - not wounded; census - merchant
- F. W. Longfield - not wounded; on Fitz list; left on Michigan with McCullough (His.Gr. Trav.)
- Joshua Miller - on Fitz list
- Jonathan Pierce - slightly wounded; on Fitz list; census - farmer
- Isaac Pierce - slightly wounded; on Fitz list; census - farmer
- Andrew J. Porter - wounded; on Fitz list; on McNutt list
- Christopher Scott - not wounded; on Fitz list
- Lorenzo Tubbs - not wounded; on Fitz list; on McNutt map[?]
- Alexander Wentworth - slightly wounded; on Fitz list
1. Jehiel Savage - age [in 18]50, 43; born Can.; minister; born in Mich. in 1844. His
wife was Catherine & son George. One of the original exploratory party, & he had
signed the testimony of the Plates of Laban.
2. Dave Moon - [in 18]50 census [with] wife & 2-year-old child; on Fitz list; land "David
Moans." In 1950 he was living with the Gentiles at Cable's Bay (Moan). In 1851
filed for land, Sec. 17-38-10 NW 1/4.
3. Hall - on Fitz list there is an Oscar W. & Agnes F.; Moses of the Mormons has Samuel
E. Hall, also on Fitz list; His. Gr. Trav. says he left the Church - probably Ludlow
July 14, 1853 - reported in July 14 issue of N. Islander, 1852 [?].
The Gentiles' story is that the Mormons came to take away two Mormon families that had fled the Island, & that they were defending themselves from deportation. The neighbors joined in to help (- Child of the Sea).The Mormon story is that they came to serve notice on two men to serve on a coming grand jury; that they were unarmed and were attacked only after Mr. Cable had looked in their boat to be sure that they had no weapons (Kingdom of St. J.).The men served summonses - William Savage & Ludlow P. Hill, apostate Mormons, & Moon, an unfriendly fisherman.
- Crown of Glory, p. 224
Men of the party:
Sheriff Joshua L. Miller
Isaac & Jonathan Pierce (gigantic roughnecks)
A. J. Porter
Andrew J. Hale
Lorenzo Dow Hickey
- Crown of Glory
In 1851 a law was passed prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors except by traders who would enter into bonds to make good damages caused by the sale of such liquors. In 1853 the Co. of Emmet erected, extending over the fisheries west of Old Mackinac & north of the Grand Traverse Light as far as the Wisconsin border. In the spring before the traders came on with their supplies, the officers gave notice through the newspapers published at the county seat, of their intention to prosecute every violation of the law within the county. When the notice appeared in Mackinac a public meeting was called at which the district attorney presided, attended by the four justices of the peace, at which resolutions were passed denouncing the people of Emmet Co. as felons & robbers, condemning the legislature for erecting the county, & threatening armed resistance to the public authorities, & pledging military aid to traders & fishermen in Emmet Co. who would resist the law. By their influence, 70 misguided men fishing and trading at Pine River were induced to fire on the Sheriff and his boatmen when he was engaged in summoning jurors. Six men were wounded. The guilty parties fled the county.
- James Jesse Strang, Ancient & Modern Mackinac
Strang's Version, continued - The outlaws at Pine River entered into league with a disaffected family by the name of Hill on B.I., who acted as spies for them. They stole large quantities of nets from the Mormons & Indians fishing
at Beaver, & set fire to an immense quantity of RR ties, ready for shipping. Before this crime could be traced to them, the sheriff of Emmet went to Pine River to summon 3 persons residing there to serve as jurors at the approaching
Circuit Court... Believing that the sheriff had come to arrest criminals, a large force assembled to meet him at the place of landing, prepared for battle. He was permitted to land, & immediately met with a demand, what had he
come for. He stated the nature of his business & showed his process. While this was going on they examined his boats & acertained that he was without guns. They then crowded up with such unmistakable signs of hostitilities
that he returned to the boats. Thirty of the outlaws were strung upon the beach, within 4 rods of the boats; from 30 to 50 on the bluff immediately back, rising abruptly some 25 feet. As the sheriff's party were getting into the boats
this crowd opened a murderous fire upon them... Six men wounded...more than 50 balls passed through the boats & rigging... The intention of the outlaws was to kill the whole party, & then report that they had been killed while
committing a crime, & thus setting public indignation against the Mormons. The sheriff escaping, they took alarm lest some signal act of revenge should follow, & all fled. The fishermen at Gull Island, & who were in league
with them, fled as soon as they got the news. Not a soul was left in either place... At Mackinac an attempt was made to put afloat the story that the Mormons had shot first & wounded a boy.
At the Circuit Court held at St. James shortly after, the guilty parties were indicted, but none have been arrested.
An. & Mod. Mack., p. 73-74 ; note, p. 75
In an extra edition of the Northern Islander for July 14, 1853, the posse was not without arms, but had taken 4 guns "such as are commonly used for fowling." These had been laid in the bottom of one of the boats & covered with coats, so as not to give any sign of hostile intentions. It would thus have been possible, as the Mormon opponents claimed, for one of the posse to have fired first.
E. S. Stone was captain of the bark aboard which the Mormons sought refuge. The following narrative was dictated by him for the manuscript collection of Col. George P. Mathes of Milwaukee... "In taking the Mormons aboard I found all of
them armed with rifles, & the first one, as he stepped aboard, turned & said, 'Now we will give it to them.' I caught & disarmed him & all the rest as they came over the rail... The fishermen claimed that Mormons were
the aggressors, which the Mormons denied, saying they had not fired a shot, & showing me their guns were all loaded. I found that out of the 15 that were in the Mackinaw boats, 8 were severely wounded, their boats were riddled
with bullets & spattered with blood.'" - Michigan Pioneer & Historical Collections, Vol. 32 (1902), p. 215
Strang, July 14, 1852 issue of the Northern Islander: As the party was ready to embark...a body of 30 filed down a narrow path (from the bluff) with their guns in their hands & formed a row on the beach by the boats. In the intervening time 3 men had been down to the boats, & as they returned one of them was heard to say, "They have no guns." Sheriff Miller left ___ they went unarmed.
With the sheriff was a boat's crew of 5 men. Stopping at Galilee, he learned that fresh threats had been made at Pine River to kill any man who attempted to serve any kind of a process there. Accordingly he took along from there another boat & crew, all unarmed, thinking, if the Mormon narrative may be credited, that the presence of so large a number of witnesses would prevent any act of violence. - Quaife, note on p. 155 As usual the Mormon account of the affair differs widely from the gentile narrative. The former is contained in an extra edition of the Northern Islander, issued July 14, 1853. The Gentile point of view is presented in the narrative of Ludlow P. Hill, a renegade Mormon, printed by Legler in A Moses of the Mormons, & in Eliz. Whitney Williams' Child of the Sea. I have followed the Mormon narrative in the main, as evidently far superior as to accuracy, to the others. The story of Capt. Stone, of the bark Morgan, who witnessed the conclusion of the fight, is printed by Legler. - Quaife, p. 155 [?]
Gentile account by Louis Gebo - Mormons Hull [aka Hill] & Savage escaped to Pine River when Strang sent them to Drummond Island to start a colony. They asked protection of the fishermen. One of the fishermen, named Moon, had had serious trouble with the Mormons. These three men were the ones subpoenaed by the Mormons for jury duty. They thought it only a stratagem to get them in their power. There were 2 boat-loads of Mormons, 9 in a boat, armed. The Mormons came to the house of a fisherman named Morrison, where the women were all at a quilting bee. The Mormons blustered, the women were frightened. The fishermen got there (they were working at the other end of town). The Mormons demanded the 3, the fishermen refused & told the Mormons to go. They did, going to their boats. Louis Gebo was a fisherman who had formerly lived a year or two on the Island. Thinking the danger over, he started to follow the Mormons to the beach to talk to some he knew. He had his gun. He heard the sound of a gun & felt a bullet strike his leg. He learned afterwards from friends among the Mormons that the shot was fired by Jonathan Pierce, one of Strang's "hard-fisted men," who exclaimed, "We are running away like a set of cowards; I'll let them know I'm not afraid." As Gebo limped back, the fishermen opened fire. They left in haste, 3 severely wounded. There is no evidence that they returned the fire. Manning a boat, the fishermen pursued them until they were picked up by the Morgan. Strang's account - The Mormons - 2 boats, 14 men, all unarmed. As they peaceably embarked they were attacked by 40 men from the bluff who pursued them in 3 boats for 15 miles, keeping up a fire upon them the whole time. Taken onboard the Morgan, Capt. Stone commanding. Six men wounded. Capt. Stone's account - Heard loud shouts & firearms on the mainland. Saw 2 small boats coming off the mainland, with one large fish boat in pursuit of the two, keeping up a brisk fire. The two boats were trying to get clear of their more powerful assailant who was gaining on them, keeping up a brisk fire but receiving none in return. Taking them onboard & refusing to give them up to their assailants, Capt. Stone "ascertained the following facts. The party was of 15 men, including the sheriff - all Mormons. Six were badly wounded, & the boats were riddled. Broken legs, arms, & thighs." The fishermen hastily left the place. It was abandoned until the spring of the next year, 1854, when Geo. Preston arrived with his family from B.I. & took possession of one of the houses. Soon Galen B. Cole came with his family from S. Fox Island. This was the beginning of the Mormon settlement here - both Preston & Cole being Mormons. In May 1855 John S. Dixon came - he found a Mormon settlement. In the fall he left with his family for Northport because of the Mormons, returning for good in the fall of 1856. [- these three accounts are on a single card marked, The Grand Traverse Region, but a more detailed citation is not given]
1 Assume this is a typo & should be 1850.
Catholic Church on Beaver Island
St. Ignatius - erected 1857, two miles north of Cable's Bay, commonly called "Shoemaker's." At that time 40-50 families lived at the south end of the Island. The mission lasted 10 years or so.
A deed to Bishop Baraga for church and burial ground:
Grantors were: James Martin & wife Catherine and John Sullivan & wife Astacia. The description is: "commencing at a point between Sec 1 & 12 on lake shore at T37N, R10W and running S 10 rods, thence W 25 rods, thence N 20 rods, thence E 26 rods, thence S, bearing W, to place of beginning." The land records give a date of Aug. 4, 1861 for the transfer of this land.
[See original manuscript for small diagram of this property, reflecting the dimensions described above.]
Holy Cross - erected on the hill in 1860; enlarged to twice its original size, 1899-1905; moved to St. James in 1957. The land on which the church stands was declared swampland in 1854 (Mormon times), & so belonged to the State of Mich.. On Mar. 25, 1863 Frederic Baraga patented it from the State of Michigan for the payment of $50.
transportation difficulties, asked to include B.I. etc.. by their rightful bishop, the bishop of Detroit.
1866 - Baraga died & Bishop Mrak succeeded him. Mrak found in his true jurisdiction 14
priests, including Dwyer. B.I. was retained by Bishop M. after Baraga's death.
Civil War Chronology
Father Baraga, 1864 -
"Since my last report many things have happened in these unhappy States. Our most destructive civil war rages more violently than ever. Our President does not want to hear of any proposals of peace & has lately ordered a conscription of half a million soldiers. The whole country suffers in consequence; everything is twice & three times as dear as formerly & the country is being deprived of its most active & useful citizens. Our missionaries suffer very much as a matter of course. Everywhere they complain that many members of their congregations are being taken away, others flee to Canada for fear that they will be compelled to serve in the war."
- From his correspondence with Leopoldine Foundation, in F. Rezek, His. Diocese etc.., p. 184
1 Rev. Antoine Ivan Rezek, History of the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette; Containing a Full and Accurate Account of the Development of the Catholic Church in Upper Michigan, with Portraits of Bishops, Priests and Illustrations of Churches Old and New, vols. 1 & 2. Houghton, MI: 1906-07.
1634 - Nicolet discovered Lake Michigan (hunting for passage to Indies)
1658 - 31 French fur traders passed through upper Lake Michigan to the Wisc. shore,
returning to Quebec in 1660 with 60 canoe-loads of fur.
1669-70 - Missions of St. Ignace & St. Francis Xavier of Green Bay were founded
1672 - Beaver Islands were shown, unnamed & grossly inaccurate, in a map in the Jesuit
Relations. It was founded, in great part, on the explorations of Marquette, Joliet, & Allouez in 1665-75.
1679 - the Griffin lost
1742 - Jesuit mission established at present Cross Village, & exerted a strong influence over
the Ottawa in the B.I. region.
1744 - Bellin's map in Charlevoix's Histoire et Description Generale de la Nouvelle France
shows "I du Castor," the first recorded name of a Michigan [Beaver?] Island.
1755 - Kitchen's map used the name "Caster's Island" & Mitchell's map "Beaver I.."
1761 - British occupied for Michilimackinac
1763 - after Indian massacre (Ojibway) of garrison at Mackinac, 3 captives taken to Beaver,
where the Ottawas took them away from the Ojibways.
1796 - Mackinac transferred to Americans
1808 - Mackinac Company (British) had trading post on Mackinac
1816 - Astor succeeded Mackinac Company
1821 - Walk-in-the-Water entered Lake Michigan on trip to Green Bay. Her successor was
1825 - opening of Erie Canal
1830 - fur trade at its peak
1831 - Baraga came to L'Arbre Croche (now Cross Village)
1832 - real start of steam navigation on Lake Michigan
1837 - regular steamboat service established on Lake Michigan
1841 - first propeller ship entered Great Lakes, quickly replaced less-economical
1847 - Mormons
1851 - Head light[house] begun
1872 - Traverse City had its first RR service
- Robert T. Hatt, Island Life
Harrison Miller, ?-1886
Owen Gallagher, 1887-?
Fred E. Stebbins, acting keeper, April 1915-August 1915
Paul Pearson, acting keeper, August 1915-November 1915
Henry Curran, keeper, November 1915
Ward Bennett, #1 surfman in charge, May 1916-July 1916
William E. Preston, acting keeper, September 1916-October 1916; keeper, November 1916-
Ward Bennett, acting keeper, November 1917-June 1918; keeper, 1918-? (at least until
John McLand, 1898-1902
? Sherman, 1903-1907
Joe St. Peter, 1910-1912 (an Indian?)
Coopers P. 62[See also "Fishing"]
Charles Smith & Curtis - see "B. I. Girls;" Smith lived in the house where Lawrence lives
now, & the shop was on the beach below.
Williams - he lived in the log cabin that stood below the Medical Center.
A. Potvins - He was a Mormon who stayed on. He appears often in the Dormer book, as does
John Gallup - see "B.I. Girls"
Hercules Lashontz - see "B.I. Girls;" this family were Mackinac Island French, not Indian
James McCann - his shop was burned by his enemies
C. R. Wright - settled at Cable's Dock around 1850; left in '52, was back by 1857. (Was this
the "Charley Wright" of "B.I. Girls"?)
Van Riper - he came from Detroit & started a large cooper shop at the Point. He was Mrs.
Williams' 1st husband.
Green - according to Johnny Green, there was a cooper here named Green before Johnny's
Budwine - lived in the log house I remember, on the Hotel grounds.
(See card under Fishing.)
P. 56, 76, 88, 97, 128
There were many dances. Sometimes in one evening there would be 3 or 4 on the Darkeytown Rd. & several on the Sloptown Rd.. Almost every family had a fiddler. One family, that of Big Dominic, had three in one family, & the mother "was a great one to dance a jig." The dances were square-dances & jigs & waltzes. Big Sal Dunlevy (Yankee Jim's wife), although she was a great big woman, was a notable dancer. Maria says she can still see Big Sal & Paddy Rua dancing the Highland Fling. It was their specialty, no one else could do it.
It was at the dances that the women did the "lilting." (Mel Big Owen also spoke of the women doing it at their work.) Both Maria & Mel spoke particularly of Rae Gilden's mother as the finest "lilter." She was Catherine O'Donnell, called "Ketcheline Og." She was a small, dark woman with a beautiful voice. Like many, she could neither read nor write. She was from Aranmore, but was not related to any other O'Donnells on the Island (this is from Maria; Lawrence agree that he never heard of her being related to anyone on the Island, & he isn't even sure her name was O'Donnell). She was one of those reputed to be "the heir of the O'Donnell castle in Donegal." When the fiddlers took a rest she would get up and begin her lilting. It was wordless, with a la-de-da effect, or else a string of extemporaneous words. Everyone speaks of her beautiful voice, clear & perfect. She could do this in any musical time, waltz, etc..., & would keep it up for an hour or an hour-&-a-half at a time. It was every bit as good to dance to as the music of the fiddlers. Nonie says Ketcheline Og was a cousin of Barney O'Donnell's. They hid him in her root house when the sheriff came to arrest him.
May 19, 1894 - "name or age unknown," male, white, died at St. James; killed; sailor; parents
This was the same day that James Moore, age 65, died, "cause unknown."
Disease & Illness
DoctorsSince 1900 -
Dr. Allen Wilkinson, 1900-1905
Dr. Thomas Graham, 1905-1907 or -1908 (Protar notes his death Jan. 16, 1911)
Dr. Schockley, 1907-
Dr. Springer, 1910
Dr. Geoffry, 1911
Dr. Branch, 1914
Dr. Palmer, 1923-1952
Dr. Harry Vale, 1953-1956
Dr. Luton, 1956-1961
Dr. Schushette, 1961-1962
Dr. Haynes, 1962-1967
Dr. Christie, 1967-
Mar. 1, 1953 - Dr. Harry Vale came to B.I.; he followed Palmer
No date - death notice of Dr. R. B. Armstrong, 73. Physician in Charlevoix 46 years; native
of Orneal, N.Y.. "About 25 years ago he won national recognition when an airplane was
sent here from Selfridge Field to carry him to B.I. in the winter to care for a boy who
suffered a fractured skull when he was struck by a falling tree. The youngster lived."
Oct. 1961-Apr. 1962 - Dr. Sidney Schochet
Aug. 9, 1962 - Dr. Howard Haynes came
1966-1961 [probably '56, see above] - Dr. Frank Luton
1953-1956 - Dr. Harry F. Vail